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covery of an acte de naissance at Haarlem, of the connoisseur as excelling in this art which finds, and his colour, if not so finished in its a rente après décès at Amsterdam, has procured has of late been so admired by a larger public. total harmony, is far less arbitrary. a substantial post and a fragile reputation. But in England, just as the big public became word, Turner never painted a scene without Happily Mrs. Pattison's claims to discuss interested in etching the taste for the etch- striving to improve it; Mr. Hunt never painted the art and life of Claude are founded upon ings of Claude began to decline. This, how.

one without feeling his powers unequal to reflect

half the beauty which he saw. He has always something I can esteem more highly than the ever, can only have been a part of that worked with the conscience of a realist and document inédit. They are founded on a wide general movement in this country against with the passion of a lover. knowledge of art, on a minute knowledge of his painted work, for which Mr. Ruskin will That there is something of effort, even of the art of France and of the Renaissance. probably be proud to own himself in a measure strain, in much of his work is inevitable from They are the claims of one who knows the responsible. In France, and elsewhere, Claude the enormous pains bestowed upon it and the beauty of finely wrought things and under- holds his ancient place, though I confess my high pressure (mental and intellectual) at stands their characteristics. In a word, own opinion that he holds it to some extent in defects of noble qualities so rare


as to be Mrs. Pattison feels and writes as well as virtue of the yet widespread ignorance of the

almost unique. “The greatest effect with the burrows. Moreover, she knows a very great art of Turner. Anyhow, there can be no least trouble” is the motto of most painters of deal more about Claude than I do, and it occasion for separating his etchings from his to-day; and indifference to beauty and refinewould therefore only be with extreme reluct- painted pictures in the estimate of his work, ment, both of subject and sentiment, is so ance that I should persuade myself of defects for certainly he was as nimble with the much in vogue that Mr. Alfred Hunt is somein her work.

As a fact, it would appear needle as with the brush; the spirit and the what of an anachronism. Only a few names that her book is done with singular complete-qnality of the one work may be found in the can be mentioned, and those mostly among ness ; it takes its place upon one's shelves at other; and upon his plates Claude bestowed water-colourists, whose aims in art are at all once as a permanent possession ; its fresh facts the same secrets of graceful and ordered com- there besides Mr. North who could paint with are many and of value ; its criticism is position which lurk in his canvases. Mrs. such minuteness, and yet with so much breadth weighty, judicious, and cordial. Admirable, Pattison—not to speak of minor forms of and atmosphere, the tender masses of verdant for instance, and quite removed from the illustration-gives two Amand Durand repro- undergrowth which we see in Mr. Trist's limitations of the narrower contemporary ductions of the etchings of Claude. The “When Summer Days are Fine" (18) ? how judgment, is her comparison of Claude with prints selected are the two most famous ones many besides Mr. Albert Goodwin' have the Poussin-her indication of what the one lacks -the “ Bouvier" and that “ Soleil couchant” patience and the skill to work out for us the and the other has. “Le Poussin avec sa which Dumesnil distinguishes with the number infinite gradations of light and colour on haute science et son profond sérieux,” says 15. On the whole, the choice will be popular. culty of such work is alone enough to make it

at Sunset” (136)? The diffishe," domine tout le champ du paysage his. But the “ Troupeaux en Marche par un

rare; and its rarity is of a kind which deserves torique." Claude, on the other hand, to Temps d'Orage,” if given by the same process, to be held in high esteem, for it requires for its adopt the expression of Charles Blanc-who would have made, perhaps, a more fitting production no mere manual dexterity or trained is most correct when it is not the moderns complement to the ineffable calm of “Le eyesight, but a mind as sensitive and finely that he is appreciating—Claude is more Bouvier,” to a serenity which Turner has strung as that of a lyric poet. " arcadien." And, further, Mrs. Pattison's reached perhaps only in the “Severn and

The collection is very interesting, as it shows comments upon the spirit in which Turner Wye.And I am sorry that Mrs. Pattison,

us the development of the artist from his Oxford imitated Claude and sought to be placed by in this careful chapter to which I have chiefly first that his imagination was attracted by the

days to the present time. We find from the the side of him show a sympathetic insight devoted myself—where others equally careful stern grandeur of barren mountains, as well as into the reasonable ambition of our greatest and estimable abound—has not said a good by the splendour of the sunset and the fairyEnglish master. “ Il témoignait ainsi,” says word for the supreme grace of an etching like beauty of stream and dell. The same severe my authoress,

which is surely known to her in that "state" spirit which is seen in the “Styehead Pass” of de son admiration profonde pour celui qui in which alone the supreme grace is found. 1853 animated a fine drawing of the Cuchullin l'avait devancé et dont il était à même, autant I mean the “first state” of the “Shepherd Hills in Skye sent to the Water-Colour

Society que personne, d'apprécier les conquêtes. Il and Shepherdess

a year or two ago. The “

“Styehead Pass walait dire a ceux qui savaient lire dans une whether

that is precisely the name by which gray almost to monotony in colour, but its kaze noble, 'Anch' io sono pittore !?

it is known in French-it is the state in design is magnificent, presenting the grand But it will not be imagined, because I praise which one of the most exquisite, light, and On the other hand, we find in Mr. Budgett's

sweep of the solitary pass with great power. these things, that Mrs. Pattison in an ex- slender of all the trees of Claude rises into “When the Leaves begin to turn " (101), baustive and well-studied volume can confine the top of the copper. After a very few painted four years later, a study of ferns and herself to an ingenious generalisation or a impressions had been taken, it was cut down, stones pre-Raphaelite in minuteness of execution magnanimous surmise. Heaven knows why; but it fell into com

and in unswerving accuracy of form and colour; I find Mrs. Pattison particularly interest- parative ugliness and worthlessness at a stage this and an exquisite "Harlech " (400) of the ing when she discusses the etchings. These even earlier than was usual with the etchings

same date, belonging to Mr. W. Newall, jun., amber in all, according to the list of Robert of Claude. Often a "second state" is still

are the prototypes of such later masterpieces Dumesnil, forty-two plates, of which some excellent; in the case of the "Bouvier” it Sheaves ” (129) of 1873, lent by Mr. Humphrey

as the “ Mountain joyous with Leaves and are insignificant. Rembrandt did about seven is all that is attainable ; but the really late Roberts, and Mr. Trist's “ Loch Maree” (118) plates to every one of Claude's; yet the states of Claude are nothing but gross mis- of 1871. Such works as the two last-named sumber that Claude executed is, nevertheless, representations and distortions of his art. and the Whitbys (133 and 136), Mr. Kenrick's h excess of that which has sufficed to make

FREDERICK WEDMORE. “Leafy June (124), and the lovely waterte reputation of a first-rate etcher. Vandyke

colour“ Ullswater (27), belonging to Mr. ü only about half as many; and though

R. S. Newall, give Mr. Hunt his greatest Meryon' did many more, of one kind and

claim to distinction among landscape artists

THE WORKS OF ALFRED HUNT. stother, his fame rests practically on his

past and present. They are all scenes in which txecution of about five-and-twenty. The THE President of the Royal Society of Water- the aspect of the earth is transfigured and

Other test are relegated to his “Minor Work.” The is to paint the rarest and subtlest effects of artists have seen and painted the same, or similar,

Colours is one of those few artists whose aim spiritualised by the light of the sun. etchings of Claude are very various in quality, light and mist. In this and in the lightness of effects, but none has seen or painted them sol they belong to at least two periods of his the key in which he generally delights to paint, quite in the same way. Mr. Hunt seems throughke--periods which were separated by several and sometimes, though more rarely, in the out to have been urged by a double care-to Jers. For years he abandoned 'etching. impressiveness of his design, he may rightly be be faithful at once to the sight of his eyes and In Pattison, whose study of the matter is deemed a landscape artist of the Turner the image of his mind. No painter listens more minute where it might only have been in school. But only, I think, in these respects. impartially to the rival claims of reality and


Cosmo MONKHOUSE. bligent, follows the course of his labour with He is in no sense an imitator of the great tha. etching needle, and rightly connects cer- if less varied and potent, is his own; with less

poet-artist. He also is a poet, but his music, *of the subjects of the etchings with invention, he is more faithful; if he invests a

MR. DUNTHORNE'S GALLERY. main drawings and studies by the master.

scene with less imaginative majesty, he seeks MR. DUNTHORNE has on view at his rooms in Czade has for a long time been accepted by more earnestly to express the beauty which he Vigo Street a few very choice things. Mr.



North, an eminent living member of the old able, if not quite good-tempered, review of deciphering Leonardo's MSS. may be counted Water-Colour Society, is represented by some my work-a purely literary production--ap; on the fingers of one hand, including, of course, agreeable and truly artistic drawings; but more peared anonymously in that great political M. Ravaisson himself and Prof. Govi, of Milan memorable, of course, is the one exhibited paper, I left it to answer itself. However, in Now, since my Times critic intends to start : work of Frederick Walker, and less frequently opening M. Ravaisson's recent publication on publication of photographs of the Leonardo visible are the drawings of Pinwell

. Frederick Leonardo, I find it openly stated, on the first MSS. in England, I would venture to advise :: Walker's single piece is that famous example page, that a well-known and deservedly re- him, in the interest of those who care for their of his art, “The Harbour of Refuge. That is, spected English artist had written the articles contents, to have the texts also transcribed by it is the finished water-colour. The subject in the Times referred to. There is, therefore, competent men. Speaking from my own was variously treated by the artist, but in the no longer any reason for reticence regarding a experience, I must say that the difficulty of drawing at Mr. Dunthorne's his delightful review which my friends and others consider reading is greatly increased by the somewhat fancy reached its most finished expression. to be an unfair one, especially as it is now indistinct appearance of the letters on photoBy G. Pinwell, an artist who, it will be re- ascribed by name to one whose genuine graphs. With regard to the Leonardo MS. at membered, was cut off young, like Walker, interest in Leonardo there was no reason to the British Museum, which would probably be there are two drawings as to which it has been doubt, but who can no longer shelter himself one of the first to be photographed, I would said already, in another place, that, along with behind the editorial “ Allow me, then, point out that it opens with the following “The Elixir of Love,” which is not present, to show a few of the instances in which my passage : they would have constituted a sufficient repre-critic has allowed his wish to write an interest- “This is to be a collection without order, taken sentation of Pinwell's art. It may well be ing article to get the better of his sense of from many papers, which I have copied here

, that “The Elixir of Love" was a more enter- justice.

hoping to arrange them later, each in its place

, taining, but it could hardly have been a more By quoting a quaint passage from Leonardo, according to the subjects of which they may exquisite, drawing than those which are now which had to be translated in all its literal treat,” &c. exhibited. They select as their subjects the two obsoleteness, as my own." General Introduction In my publication I have adopted an arrangecompanion incidents in Mr. Browning's “Pied to the Book of Painting” (Prolegomena), he at ment of the subjects in their logical sequence

. Piper of Hamelin ”—& poem which may be once creates the impression in the mind of the In the opinion of my critic, however, the described as the infant's easy introduction to superficial reader that my work is indigest- treatise on painting, as arranged by me, is the most subtle of poets. The two scenes ible, and, by further putting his Italian confused by extraneous matter, useless to the depicted by Pinwell are scenes of depar- dictionary under contribution, he is enabled painter, and puzzling to the general reader." ture. In the one, it is the rats which gather to find the desired mote in another's eye. Otri, As I myself point out (vol. i., p. 242) that the nimbly at the Pied Piper's feet and prepare to he says, according to Baretti's Dictionary, texts which treat of the painter's materials bei follow the weird wanderer who has them under should be translated as bladders," not “air- been added to the Libro della Pittura to serve his charm. In the other, it is the children who, sacks.” If he will refer to the higher authority as a supplement and an appendix, there is because the people of Hamelin have not kept of the Vocabolario della Crusca, or Farfani, he will neither ingenuity nor common fairness on their promise to the Piper in the matter of find that I am right. But what would my critic the part of my critic in reproaching me for recompense, must now needs follow the music have said if I had actually gone further, and having made one of the chapters" to consist and the persistently trudging footsteps as they translated it "the inflated goat-skin,” which simply of a list of twenty colours and chemical make for the remote hills. We do not admire otro really is, and for which®“ air-sack is at ingredients.

A painter would see that this everything in Pinwell's technique. It is surely least as correct a rendering as “bladder”? was probably merely a note of articles to be truc that his use of body colour was excessive; What, however, can an impartial reader think ordered from a colour shop.” but his draughtsmanship was at all events of a critic who avails himself of a possibly In reply to the further reproach of having significant and dainty, and when he died, only doubtful translation of one word to condemn made an injudicious_selection of texts, I may a young man, the sources of his invention were the whole work in which it occurs by coolly simply reply that I have made no selection not dried up; on the contrary, he was flowing asserting

at all, but that I have conscientiously reproand fertile. He had a genuine insight into “After this specimen, the reader will not require to painting, sculpture, architecture, geography,

duced from the autographs everything relating various character, and an appreciation of much in form that was either expressive or lovely.

must at once say that Leonardo's style is of an philosophy, &c., duly leaving it to the reader, entirely different calibre from this translation ” ?

whether a specialist or no, to skip the chapters in which he may feel no particular interest


It would be well if my critic were to put his An artist's advice in a publication of Leonardo's

own translation of Leonardo side by side with writings on the fine arts is, perhaps, indisAYSGARTH DEFENCE ASSOCIATION. mine and with the original.

pensable; and my readers have no doubt 1 Oppidans Road, N.W.: Feb. 2, 1884. As regards my transcripts of Leonardo's noticed in my Preface that in the preparation An association is being formed for the defence MSS., it stands to reason that my critic must of the work I had the advantage of the indeof Aysgarth from the dangers with which it is wish to depreciate their accuracy, while avail fatigable assistance of a highly distinguished threatened, of which the ACADEMY gave a brief ing himself of the assistance they afford in R.A.

.-a circumstance which somewhat consoles account a fortnight ago. The president is Lord the direction of a knowledge of the contents of me for not having sought the advice of a Wharncliffe; the hon. secretary Mr. J. H the various note-books,” as long as he cannot specialist in a limited field. Metcalfe, Leyburn, Wensleydale. Among those carry out his gigantic plan of producing photo- I am truly glad that I have not “shocked the who have already joined it are Mr. Ruskin, graphs after the original MSS. in England, artistic sentiment

of my critic by "advancin Messrs. Alma Tadema, E. J. Poynter, Alfred numbering about two thousand pages.

the charge against Leonardo that he turne Hunt; Profs. Henry Morley, Gardiner, W. G. Not a few of the 1,566 texts published in my Mussulman” (though I am far from denyin Adams, De la Motte, Warr; Messrs. Richard work may already be verified by reference it) during his stay in Egypt and Syria, not, bi Garnett, Walter Besant, Gosse, Cornelius Wal- to the photographs reproducing some 160 it remembered, as a painter, but as an engineer ford, C. E. Maurice, &c. All others who sympa- sheets of original Ms. at Paris in the two I certainly" maintain that Leonardo took se thise with this defence are invited to send their portly volumes edited at the expense of the vice under the Sultan of Egypt” in that cap names either to Mr. Metcalfe or to me. Copies French Government by M. Ravaisson. The city, in which he was succeeded by a Germai of petitions to the Houses of Parliament may Literary Works appeared, it will be remembered, “The matter was well threshed out in Frend be had on application to Mr. Metcalfe, to whom some months before the French savant brought journals,” but with a result exactly the cor also subscriptions may be sent. We feel out his second volume. He gives in it, as an trary of that implied by my critic, as may! sure that the beauty of Aysgarth cannot lack Appendix, several lists of errata, filling nine shown by a quotation from the Gazette des Beaus defenders.

JOHN W. HALES, closely printed folio pages, mostly printer's Arts, which certainly does not justify my critic errors or slips of the pen, of not much conse- denunciation of me as

a writer quence even in scientific publications; they are search of discoveries, may arrive at the wilde THE PROPOSED REPRODUCTION OF THE MSS. OF perhaps unavoidable. But among his corrections conclusions.' M. Ravaisson has thus summ

of serious blunders there are not a few-I may up his discussion of the subject (Gazette d

London : Jan. 28, 1881. say so without presumption-which he has cor- Beaux-Arts, 1881, p. 322) :It has of late repeatedly been suggested that rected from a reference to my Literary Works, Leonardo da Vinci's MSS. in England should be a fact which, indeed, he gratefully acknow- textes autographes de Léonard de Vinci produi

"Pour conclure, tout bien pesé et considéré, reproduced in facsimile by photography. The ledges in several instances. Apparently, M. promoter of this scheme, which is advocated Ravaisson's views about the reliability of my textes du grand Italien dont l'authenticité est ce in several issues of the Times, may not un- transcripts and translations somewhat taine, paraissent prouver, comme il le dit, 9 naturally have considered it desirable to depre- different from those of my Times critic. To the Léonard aurait réellement visité l’Orient' pel ciate my recent publication of The Literary Works credit of the learned Frenchman, I must also dant sa jeunesse." of Leonardo da Vinci in order to pave the way say that scholars of the present day who have Prof. Thaussing, Ribbach, and others ha for his own. Accordingly, as his lengthy and trained themselves in the difficult task of since, in their writings on Leonardo, accepta

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as facts what are here styled “the wildest character. I might have added that the names February 22, the first of a course of six lectures conclusions."

of Thracian divinities–Bendis, Atartis, Gebe- to ladies, at the British Museum, on “ Egyptian In making the above remarks in pure self- leizis, and the rest --show absolutely no points Art," illustrated with diagrams, and afterwards defence against what will now, probably, be of resemblance to those of the early Teutonic by a visit to the Egyptian galleries. The object thought to have been a scarcely justifiable tribes. Had I not wished to confine my com- of the course is to give an outline of Egyptiar: attack on my book, I do not in the least intend parisons to the purest Thracian area on Euro- art as introductory to the art of the classica i to depreciate the importance of an undertaking pean soil it would have been easy to dwell on nation. The fee for the course is one guinea. which, if successful, would be most welcome to the evidence afforded by the monuments of the Further information may be obtained from me, because it would furnish a complete answer Asiatic members of the race, and notably the Miss Jenner, 63 Brook Street, or from Mr. to the criticism itself, by being a test of the Phrygian, our knowledge of which has been so R. S. Poole. transcripts published in I'he Literary Works. I largely increased by the researches of Mr.

MR. JOHN BATTY has presented casts of can assure my critic of my best wishes for the w. M. Ramsay. The Greek affinities presented two Anglo-Saxon carved stones in Rothwell fulfilment of the expectations he appears to by the relics of the old Phrygian language parish church, Yorkshire, to the Leeds Philoplace in some systematic search for Leonardo's (the modern representative of which appears to sophical Museum. These stones were minutely many volumes of notes still undiscovered.” be the Armenian) are generally recognised. Mr. described some time ago in the Journal of the I may, however, tell him that there is no Blind has yet to interpret these inscriptions by Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical reason to suppose that Leonardo's MSS. had the light of Ulfilas.

Association (part xxvii.), and were the object been used to light kitchen fires.". I had “Comparative philology," to quote Mr. of a very interesting letter by Prof. Stephens, made it a point to ransack the public and Sayce's words, “has now proved that the old of Copenhagen, copied into the Antiquary early private libraries of this and other countries (Thracian) language of Phrygia occupies a in 1882. in search of MSS. of Leonardo, and I must middle place between the Greek on one side reinain satisfied with the results which many and the Slavo-Lettic on the other.” Mr. Karl

M. LOUIS LELOIR has lately died in Paris. Jears of such labour have yielded. In any Blind must therefore be content to claim rela- He was but a middle-aged man, for he had instance, if they have escaped the fate of the tionship with Thracians and Trojans through scarcely reached fifty. The more prominent of Alexandrian Library, through the instrumen- his nearer (I fear I cannot add dearer) Slavonic two brothers, both of them devoted to the art tality of old ladies or others, I hope that their kinsmen.


of water-culour, Louis Leloir was almost at the

head of the modern French school of waterpresent owners will now come forward to comnanicate them to my critic, so that my feeble

colour painting. He was a nimble and spirited rashlight may be extinguished in the Þlaze of

draughtsman, an audacious colourist, and, to the full light which such results, arrived at in

NOTES ON ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. boot, a keen and sympathetic observer of a so “scientific” a manner, may throw on Leo- THE election of Mr. Colin Hunter to the was never a characteristic of his labours. His

wholly mundane existence. Artistic reticeno nardo da Vinci. JEAN PAUL RICHTER.

honours of the Associateship was one of the art was very skilful and not a little cheeky.

surprises which, as it would seem, the Royal THE TEUTONIC KINSHIP OF THRACIANS AND

Academy occasionally prepares for the unima-
ginative mind. The evening when Mr. Woods

was chosen was perhaps the last occasion until
Oxford: Feb. 3, 1884.

MISS ANDERSON'S NEW PART. now when the art public had opportunity for Although nothing that I can write is likely astonishment, though it is true that Mr. Brock's We think Miss Anderson shows more real to shake Mr. Karl Blind's belief in “Geto- election did not occur at a very appropriate power in “Comedy and Tragedy” than she did Germanie” Thracians and Trojans, I may be moment. Perhaps it may now be held, how- in Mr. Gilbert's mythological piece. The general pardoned a few concluding observations. The ever, that Mr. Woods and Mr. Brock have jus: current of criticism, however, seems to be names " Aspurgion" and "Teutoburgion," on tified the favour of their brethren, and we can setting rather against her, as, on the whole, which Mr. Blind lays so much stress, simply do hope that Mr. Colin Hunter will do the same. her new performance is spoken of with less 12ot exist anywhere within the old Thracian Stil, his election will appear to many to be at approval than was given to her earlier appeararea. The 'Asruupylavol of Strabo (from whom, the least premature. We do not express this ances. But there is nothing very surprising in I suppose, Mr. Blind extracts his form “ Aspur- opinion in the interests of any single candidate. this

. It is, we think, only the natural reaction pon ") inhabited part of the old Sarmatian Iand The interests of any single candidate are ill- from a temper of eulogy too unmixed. There to the east of the Palus Maeotis, and were served by an attempt to force his election, for was at first a chivalrous disposition to see bordered, therefore, by a race to be carefully dis- the Academicians act, no doubt, with a sense

of nothing but good in the most prominent actress tinguished from either Thracians or Getae. That their responsibility, and cannot but resent the who for many years has come to us from across astray Germanic tribe should have reached the dictation of the too enthusiastic publicists who the Atlantic, and there is a measure of disapmouth of the Tanais by Strabo's time is not in- have, if the word may be allowed, their pet pointment in the discovery that the possessor of cenceivable when we consider the high antiquity protégés. At the same time, the course of events talent and undeniable charm is not the possessor of the trade routes between the Euxine and the at the last election is undoubtedly surprising, of the fullest genius. In “Comedy and Tragedy." Baltic: witness the late remarkable gold find and the clever and highly promising young Miss Anderson at least shows that she adds to in East Prussia of Greco-Scythian ornaments Scotchman on whom the choice has fallen may the possession of charm much experience and dating from the sixth century B.C. In any deem that it is by a fortunate accident of serviceable tact. The story of the piece has case, however, the High-German form of the election that he is numbered already among a been told at length in the daily papers. It is same “ Aspurgiani” would be fatal to their body from which painters of the figure like briefly that of an honest and home-loving Ethic origin. Nor is Mr. Blind a whit happier Mr. Albert Moore and Mr. J. D. Linton, actress- -a person of blameless conduct, a prowith his second example. The name “Teuto, painters of landscape like Mr. Alfred Hunt, ficient in her art—who, being pursued by the burgion” first appears in Ptolemy as applied Mr. John Syer, and Mr. Keeley Halswelle, addresses of the Regent of France, plans to ba Pannonian town on the Middle Danube, and painters of the sea like Mr. Henry Moore receive him on one occasion in order that he Na region which, so far as we can learn from and Mr. Edwin Hayes are all at present may fall into the hands of her husband. The atcient sources, was never Thracian in any excluded.

Regent and his friends arrive to suppor; he is Inse, and where, by the second century of our Germanic colonists may well have fixed in Water-Colours were opened on Monday by a The schools of the Royal Institute of Painters detained alone with Clarice, and the husband,

by arrangement, breaks in upon them to chalthemselves.

short address from Mr. J. D. Linton, the Vice- lenge effectually one whom hitherto he had When, again, Mr. Blind professes acquaint; President of the Institute. The teaching is challenged in vain. While the Regent and

the Prague and Ragusa " who found a claim of rightly, gratuitous; but, with equal justice, a Lti-sia on Constantinople on the alleged con- pretty high standard of proficiency is exacted Clarice

entertains the guests--who

know nothing from those who seek to profit by it. There are of it-with one of those "improvisations " for suzuinity of Thrakians and Russians,” he is at present between

twenty and thirty students which she, is supposed to be celebrated ; and vfessing acquaintance with writings, which I For the present there is no room for ladies ; | comedy.” is succeeded by tragedy ” when, future to say do not exist. Both Cech and but this is, perhaps, not so very much to be passing from the scene that has engaged

her, so with those of the Roumans (the best lineal regretted, as at the Slade and at Kensington Clarice breaks into anguish at hearing what presentatives of the Thracian stock on Euro- The new schools of the Institute are held in take it to be still a “scene ; ” but it is in truth

to say the least, cordially encouraged. she thinks the cry of her husband. The guests a soil) in recognising the title of the Great Ormond Street, in the studies occupied reality-a reality, however, not so unfortunate aracians to an independent place in the Aryan in the evening by classes of the Working Men's as she had imagined, for her husband rushes in Pertal similarities. The Thracian elements on have been the first Visitors. Each Visitor visits wounded. In the brief time which the piece which I relied for illustration represent in each on alternate days for a fortnight.

takes to play, the actress is required to pass As a whole class of well-ascertained Thracian

through a world of varied emotion. And Miss words, and those wholly un-Germanic in their Miss HELEN BELOE will deliver on Friday, Anderson's own variety is often very consider

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able, as-to take a small instance-in her


Richard Wagner is not forgotten by his reception of the many guests, for each of whom


friends in this country. Last Sunday evening she has not only a new word, but a new manner,

Mr. Leo Frank Schuster commemorated the of cordiality and welcome. At the close she at the last Monday Popular Concert, Miss death of the great master by giving at his becomes exciting—the situation, we admit, is Agnes Zimmermann played a new work of Mr. residence a programme selected entirely from intense; but, then, she does not show herself C. V. Stanford's—a Sonata in D flat. We can Wagner's works.

We do not propose to unequal to it. Mdme. Sarah Bernhardt or Mrs. recall movements, but no Sonata, in that key by criticise the performance, but merely to record Kendal might do still more with it, but what is any of the classical composers, even including the honour rendered to the great man who lived done by Miss Anderson is enough to strike and Schumann and Chopin. Mr. Stanford has in advance of his age. The student of history interest. In the whole play Clarice is really selected, too, a form of composition singularly ought to note the quiet, yet zealous, efforts of his the only dramatis persona of importance; but neglected at the present day; a short piece followers, who, in Gibbon phraseology, are slowly the airs of Mr. Alexander as the husband are with a title or motto, an Etude, or, still better, but surely erecting the triumphant banner of those of a man brave and in earnest, and Mr. a Fantasia proves more attractive. All com- the music drama on the ruins of Italian opera. J. H. Barnes makes an effectively egotistical posers of fame since Beethoven have written There were selections from“ Tristan," and libertine, if not exactly a seductive, Regent. Sonatas, but it is not by these works that they Meistersinger," and the “Ring des NibelAnd Mr. E. F. Edgar gives great gravity and are principally remembered.

Mr. Stanford's ungen.'

The vocalists were Mrs. Hutchmeaning to the few words he has to speak as composition is in three parts.

We have first an inson, Fräulein Friedländer, Miss Mason, the old Doctor, who is sorry to think ill of adagio leading to an allegro. As in Beethoven's and Messrs. Thorndike and Winch. Mr. Carl Clarice, but to whom the supper-party is, for the Sonate pathétique, so the slow introduction Armbruster contributed valuable service by moment, damning, evidence. We make two re-appears in the course of the quick movement; bis clever pianoforte accompaniments, and criticisms of detail. One of them has been we fancy, indeed, that we detect in it a rough also by his conducting of the “ Siegfried" made before, and it applies to the author. sketch of the principal theme to which it leads. Idyll, for which a small orchestra had been Why did not Mr. Gilbert, who has taken the The composer, though acknowledging form, is gathered together, with Herr Ludwig as leader. pains to make his dialogue brilliant and not fettered by it, and there is much to interest We cannot help noticing that the day fixed for characteristic, take the pains also to violate in the plan and developments of this first this anniversary festival, February 3, was not the truths of history less obviously than section. There is a restlessness about the next that of Wagner's death, but thatof Mendelsby causing the Regent of France to die years movement (intermezzo); but we do not think sohn's birth.

J. S. SHEDLOCK. before he really died? The other is a question the pianist interpreted the second theme with we fancy that the tenue of the period was some- The Finale-is "Brilliant, but the least cantuabi: MACMILLAN & CO.'S LIST. what too stately to make it likely that a stair- part of the work. We frankly give first case was used so continually as a seat. Miss impressions : the Sonata requires, and we think TENNYSON'S WORKS. Anderson, early in the play, takes up her posi- deserves, a second hearing.

The pianoforte tion there as if in an accustomed place; and part, admirably played by Miss Zimmermann, later, when Clarice is engaged in improvising, is very difficult; the style of writing for the

THE WORKS OF LORD TENNYSON, several of the guests dispose themselves like- instrument is at times very much after the

POET LAUREATE. A New Collected wise on the ample steps. The ease of the manner of Chopin. At the close there was

Edition, Corrected throughout hy the Author. thing is very modern.

With a New Portrait.
It certainly did not considerable applause, and Mr. Stanford came

Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. belong to the last generation. Did it belong forward and bowed acknowledgment from the to the early years of the eighteenth century? platform. Another interesting feature of the VESTIGIA: a Novel. „By George Fleming,

evening was the appearance of the new American Author of "A Nile Novel,” “Mirage," "The Head of
tenor, Mr. Winch. His voice is agreeable in

Medusa," &c. 2 vols., Globe 8vo, 128.
quality, and his style excellent.

NOW READY, with INTRODUCTORY ESSAY by songs by Handel and Purcell, and obtained MR. HAMILTON’s amusing comedy “Our Regi- well-deserved success with two songs by Raff and RALPH WALDO EMERSON, THE COLment,” at the Globe, cannot really be so com- Jensen, both well accompanied by Sig. Romili.

LECTED WORKS of. (Uniform with the Erersley

Edition of Charles Kingsley's Novels.) Globe 8vo, plete an adaptation of Von Moser as certain The programme included Mendelssohn's Quarenterprising discoverers imagine. So, at least, tett in D major and Rheinberger's favourite

With an Introductory Essay by would be said by anyone going straight into Pianoforte Quartett in E flat.


TRAITS: and REPRESENTATIVE MEN.--5. CONDUCT the theatre without special knowledge of the On Tuesday evening a concert was given at of LIFE: and SOCIETY and SOLITUDE.-6. LETTERS : precise accusation, or of the method of denialSt. James's Hall for the benefit of the Royal and SOCIAL AIMS, &c.

Of these editions, Messrs. Macmillan's is probably the these are English characters, the playgoer may Normal College of Music for the Blind, which most taking, if only for Mr. Morley's thoughtful and say: that is the English curate of a lively order; has been conducted with so much success for charming preliminary essay.”-Spectator. that is the good-naturedly conceited young many years by Dr. Campbell. der of the Lancers; this is a group of Report was distributed in the hall, so that one | STUDIA SCENICA.-AESCHYLI, AGA

MEMNO. By DAVID S. MARGOLIOUTH, Fellow English girls; and that is a fussy English could read of the noble work being carried on New College, Oxford. Demy 8vo, 2s. 6d. middle-class matron. For ourselves, we do not with such signal musical success, and also of

The AUTHOR of JOHN HALIFAX, GENTLEMAN." profess to go into the matter farther. We the financial difficulties. It is a charity which

The first of a Series of Papers by this Popular merely thank Mr. Hamilton-author, adaptor, deserves support, for the Principal does his best

Writer, entitled

UNSENTIMENTAL JOCENIT as you will—and the vivacious and graceful to render every department of the college as TIROUGH CORNWALL," appears in "The English company that has been got together, for an perfect as possible ; and he has proved that the Illustrated Magazine" for February. evening that is, at all events, entertaining. blind, properly trained, are able to compete in The cause for entertainment is continuous; the the world with their seeing brethren. Prof. WALTER BESANT, Author of All in a Gardes fun is all healthy; vulgarity, sometimes so Karl Klindworth came over expressly from

Fair,” &c.--The first part of a New Story, entitled abundant in the “farcical comedy,” is con- Berlin to conduct the concert. His reading of

"JULIA,” by this Favourite Novelist appears is

"The English Illustrated Magazine" for February. spicuously absent. Mr. E. J. Henley represents Wagner's Vorspiel to the “Meistersinger” and amusingly the worries of the father who does the two orchestral movements from « Tristan'

Price SIXPENCE; by post, Eightpence. not contract for a moment that military fever differs considerably from that of Herr Richter ; which besets a garrison town; Mr. Young is a we have become so used to the latter that it was ENGLISH ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE genial friend; Mr. E. W. Gardiner portrays interesting to hear the now familiar music

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, the humours of a clergyman who was as one of under new direction. The college choir dis- 1. “THE LOVING CUP.” After a Painting by D. G. the noisiest men at Oriel ;” and Mr. Gerald tinguished themselves in various pieces by

II, AN UNSENTIMENTAL JOURNEY THROUGH Moore is simply delightful with the young Wagner, Gounod, Mendelssohn, and Liszt.

By the soldier's good-humoured self-assurance. And One part of the programme, indeed, was devoted

HALIFAX, GENTLEMAN.” With Illustrations by as for the ladies, Miss Carlotta Leclerq is entirely to the last composer, and included the

C. Napier Hemy.

With Illustrations by Harry properly gushing, Miss Fanny Brough delivers charming Chorus of Reapers from Herder's repartee with a piquant significance, Miss Prometheus,” and an Ave Maria and Ave IV. THE CHARACTER of DOGS. By R. L. STEVENSON. Trevelyan has a distinct grace of gesture and Maris Stella, Nos. 2 and 7 from the composer's

With Illustrations by Randolph Caldecott.

V. THE HUMMING-BIRD'S RELATIVES. By GRANT carriage, and Miss Abington is very taking and new Kirchen-chor-gesünge. The latter are quiet

ALLEN. With Illustrations by Charles Whymper. expressive. So that altogether it is a good and elegant specimens of church music-as

VI. JULIA (to be continued). By WALTER BESANT.

VII. THE CAMPAGNA: a Poem. By AUGUSTA WEBSTER. cast, employing usefully many agreeable people music, however, not particularly interesting; VIII. THE ARMOURER'S PRENTICES, By CHABLOITE who are not, for the nonce at least, invited to Mr. Alfred Hollins, one of the best pupils of

M. YONGE. Chapters X., XI., XII.

ORNAMENTS, INITIAL LETTERS, &o. portray profound emotion, or to act with the the college, gave an excellent performance of intellectual subtlety of “high” as distinguished Beethoven's Emperor Concerto. "Mdme. Albani Single Numbers, 6d.; by post, 8d. Yearly, post-free, 78, 6d. from "farcical” comedy. was the solo vocalist.


He sang


5s, each volume. 1. MISCELLANIES.






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SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1884. a definite year as the commencement of a a8 best he can, while in the English Dic

linguistic period. The compilers of the Eng- tionary the eye is at once directed to the No. 615, New Series.

lish Dictionary have therefore to trace the object of which it is in search. Littré, for The Editor cannot undertake to return, or development of the language through a period instance, prints the illustrative examples in to correspond with the writers of, rejected literary remains, before arriving at the chron- definitions

, the only use of strengthened type manuscript.

ological points at which the labours of Grimm being in the Arabic figures prefixed to each It is particularly requested that all business and Littré commence. Moreover, the year definition. In the present work, the standard letters regarding the supply of the paper, of Dr. Murray's work as the dates fixed by don " type, which stands out boldly from the

1150 is not in the same sense the beginning form of each word is printed in large“ Clarenšt., may be addressed to the PUBLISHER, and Grimm and Littré are the beginning of theirs

. page, so as to catch the eye at once. The not to the EDITOR.

It is true that both the French and the various historical forms are given in “small

German writers have drawn largely on the Clarendon,” and the definitions in ordinary LITERATURE.

literature of earlier centuries for the philo- type. Under the definition of each sense of A Nero English Dictionary on Historical logical illustration of the words included in a word are arranged the quoted examples in

Principles ; founded mainly on the Materials their Dictionaries, but they have not done so a smaller letter, each quotation being precollected by the Philological Society with anything like the fullness aimed at in ceded by its date in heavy figures, so that the Edited by James A. H. Murray. Part 1. the present work.

Part I. the present work. Although Dr. Murray chronological range over which a word, or 4-ANT. (Oxford: Clarendon Press.)

admits no word which became obsolete before a sense of a word, extends may be measured

his initial date, yet every word which he does at a glance. In this way the several defini(First Notice.)

admit is carefully traced from its earliest tions of a word are spaced off from each It is now nearly twenty-seven years since the appearance in “Anglo-Saxon” writings, and other by an intervening paragraph of smaller Philological Society commenced the collection the successive variations of sense and form type. The value of this arrangement in of materials for its great English Dictionary. which it underwent in the oldest period are abridging the labour of consulting the DicThe number of persons who have shared in discussed with the same fullness of detail and tionary can scarcely be over-estimated. the task amount to thirteen hundred, and this illustration as those which took place through- With regard to the definitions, which form great company of labourers have accumulated out the succeeding ages. Again, while in the strongest point of Littré's Dictionary, and å body of three millions of quotations, taken the French and German Dictionaries there are the weakest point of that of Grimm, the from over five thousand different authors. many words and special senses of words for present work may, perhaps, be considered to The first instalment of the work for which which no literary authority is adduced, many hold a middle rank between the two. these unexampled preparations have been of the illustrative examples being simply scarcely be charged as a fault that Dr. made is at length before the world, and it is sentences framed for the occasion, Dr. Murray Murray has not imitated the excessive subnow possible to judge whether the new Dic- in almost every case furnishes a quotation division of significations into which Littré tionary will be worthy of the enormous labour from an English writer, with minute refer- has frequently run. To give twenty-three which has been expended upon it. Happily ences to chapter or page. The authorities numbered senses of the word eau, for instance, for the credit of English scholarship, the quoted range in date from the Ruthwell Cross is an over-refinement which is rather conpresent specimen affords every reason to hope (here assigned to A.D. 700) to the Daily News fusing than helpful. The definitions of prethat the skill of Dr. Murray and his assistants of July 6, 1883.

vious lexicographers have frequently been prove equal to the arduous task which

Another point which has added to the accepted by Dr. Murray, in many cases with lies before them. It would be wonderful arduousness and the value of Dr. Murray's due acknowledgment of their source. Here indeed if, in so vast an undertaking, there undertaking is that his standard for the admis- and there we notice a definition which seems should not be many things to which criticism sion of words to dictionary rank is rightly incorrect or inadequate. The modern sense might object; but it may be confidently much less rigid than those set up by his pre- of ache, for instance, is not exactly “a conaxerted that, if the level of excellence reached decessors. The Teutonic purism of Grimm tinuous or abiding pain, in contrast to a sharp in this opening part be sustained throughout, led him to reject many words which every or sudden one; and when it is said that the completed work will be an achievement German understands, and which are freely this word is “used of both physical and without parallel in the lexicography of any used in the literature of his own and earlier mental sensation,” it should have been noted living language.

times. No doubt many of the swarm of that the latter use is somewhat forced and In comparing the Philological Society's foreign words, and of words clumsily adapted rhetorical. We speak quite naturally of a English Dictionary with the only works which from foreign languages by tacking on the mental pain; but when we use ache in a tan claim to be regarded as its peers—the termination -iren, never ought to have become similar sense we are consciously employing French Dictionary of Littré and the unfinished German. But their naturalisation has been figurative language. Kingsley's phrase, German Dictionary of Grimm-it must be in fact recognised by the mass of speakers “healthy animalism,” is certainly out of remembered that the scope of the English and writers of the language, and they should place as part of the definition of Animal work is in several respects far larger than find a place in its Dictionary, although they Spirits; the expression (at least as Kingsley that proposed in either of the others. For might be branded with an obelus as philo- used it) denotes something quite different. one thing, the period of time embraced in the logically infamous. Dr. Murray has wisely The one portion of the Dictionary which English Dictionary is by several centuries gone to the extreme of admitting every word may be charged with incompleteness is what longer than that surveyed by the great French which is used by any English writer, pro- may be termed the phraseological department. and German lexicographers. The classic vided that the author who employs it himself Here, as in the definitions, Littré often falls Prench language of Littré begins no earlier regarded it as standard English, and not as into an excess of copiousness which need not than the seventeenth century, and the New foreign, dialectal, or technical.

be imitated. Still, a dictionary of this charHigh German treated by Grimm goes back One great merit of the new Dictionary is acter ought to contain every combination of only to the middle of the fifteenth century. the remarkable manner in which the con- words which has any fair claim to rank as an But the aim of Dr. Murray and his coadjutors venience of readers is consulted in the typo- idiomatic phrase. Thus, under the word is nothing less ambitious than to catalogue graphical expedients employed to ensure Acting we may reasonably look for “ acting and, so far as the materials suffice, to discuss facility of reference. This advantage is edition," "acting play; » under Agent for historically every word which has belonged indeed shared to some extent by the other “free agent," and other similar expressions ; to the standard English vocabulary at any lexicographical publications of the Clarendon under Able' for “able seaman.' None of time since the language passed out of the fully Press, and notably by the Etymological Dic- these are formally noted in this Dictionary, inflected stage commonly known as Anglo- tionary of Prof. Skeat; but it is here carried though some of them appear in the quotahason. The epoch of this change is fixed by to a degree of perfection never before aimed tions. Under Alive we miss the familiar Dr. Murray at the year 1150. The literary at.

The literary at. The size of the page is identical with phrase “ alive and kicking," for which literary terrenness of the hundred years preceding that adopted in Littré's Dictionary; but a authority could probably be found. Under this date happily obriates much of the incon- page of Littré is, typographically, a chaos Age the combination old age” of course Tenience usually attending the assignment of through which the reader must find his way occurs in the cxamples, but its idiomatic

will prove

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