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she were a real college girl, that she ground is not fertile, and the ploughwould help to chair Miss Wriothesley ing. whether undertaken in malice or round the college, and shout herself good faith yields but a sorry crop. boarse in her applause. And certainly, The writer who takes the after-cathe pathos of her looks would not keep reer of the graduate for his theme has her. awake on the night after the a wider and more fruitful field. The Tripos lişts had placed her among the college story ought to provide healthy coveted First Classes.

and interesting reading for the jeune The author of A Newonham Friendship fille, the other offers possibilities for has succeeded better in rendering the treatment of problems of a wider something of the spirit, of the place, and deeper interest. We should exbut she has unfortunately fallen into pect to find among modern novels the the snare of over-description. She tragedy of some woman who had preknows her subject and loves it-loves it ferred books to love, and found books so well indeed that she cannot bear to barren in the end. We should be prepart with any of it, and loses herself pared sympathize with the woman in an endless multiplicity of detail. No whose intellectual interests were enlittle incident, no girlish conversation gaged in a life-and-death struggle with is too trivial to be recorded. She is the dictates of her heart. Something for ever putting her favorites through of this problem, indeed, we meet in A their paces for our benefit, and gush- Girton Girl, by Mrs. Edwardes, one of ing over them until we grow weary of the earliest novels that claimed to deal their surpassing beauty and their evi- with the subject. But the "girl" does dently indescribable charm.

not live up to her title, for she never And one and all these writers are reaches Girton at all. She had convinced that a strong admixture of counted without the fatal charm of love interest is essential to the success the hero, whose first kiss solves the of their tale. So that some young problem for her, and reveals her "a men who are clearly intended to be

very woman after all." very manly, athletes and brilliant One of the earliest products of the scholars, cela va sans dire, are gener- Higher Education to be met in fiction ally introduced to complete the picture. is Angela Messenger, the charming And this adds the last touch of incon- heroine of All Sorts and Conditions of gruity to the description. For whatever Men. Angela is introduced to us strollour heroines may be, whether poten- ing by the river with her friend, to tial mothers of families or high-school whom she is confiding her views on mistresses in the making, they are at life in general and her own future in any rate quite unromantically occupied particular. The friend is no doubt during these three years of college life. intended to represent the typical stuBooks and games, not love and mar- dent. For her the world has no interriage, are the order of the day. And

est. Mathematics and the welfare of books and games are quite wholesome the Higher Education of women jointly ingredients for the daily life of youth, hold exclusive possession of her soul. but very poor material for fiction. She yearns to wrest not only academic There are, of course, always possibili- honors, but the very buildings of the ties among coaches, and we have it on men's most ancient foundations from trustworthy evidence that even under- the rival sex. For the rest, she is graduates may be possessed of irresis- pale, spectacled and unbending, and adtible charm. But these are side issues; mirably adapted to serve as a foil to from the point of view of romance the the charming heroine. There is

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denying that Angela is a very nice ton student. Lois, we may suppose, young woman, but we have an uncom- represents the product of college trainfortable suspicion that it is against ing working on very favorable, original great odds and in spite of her college material. True, she has all the vigor training that her maker allows her to and independence of spirit of the colkeep her charm. She herself sums up lege girl. But she looks with some Newnbam and its limitations with contempt on the avocations of her colscant courtesy, and pours contempt on leagues, and nothing could be further the studies with which her college ca- from her thoughts than any wish to reer bad been chiefly occupied. In- put her education to the traditional deed, we suspect that her maker's sole use. We have no reason, therefore, to object in sending her to Newnham was suppose that the writer intended to to enable her to pursue the study of give more than a modicum of credit to Political Economy, in order that she Girton for Miss Cayley's successful might denounce it afterwards with full career. effect. For Angela is his chosen in- The boldest and at the same time, strument for the annihilation of the the most sympathetic sketch of a col"dismal science," and it was necessary, lege graduate is Mr. Bernard Shaw's therefore, that she should have had Vivie Warren. “She is an attractive special training in its specious falla- specimen of the sensible, able, highly cies. Such training, in the days when educated young middle-class Englishthe London School of Economics and woman." As she was Third Wrangler the provincial Universities were still in her year, we feel that the Mathunborn, could only be obtained in Cam- ematical Tripos is avenged, and the bridge. So Angela, we conclude with reputation of Newnham redeemed. regret, cannot be claimed as anything Vivie Warren sums up in her own more than an accidental product of personality the entire spirit of the the Higher Education.

higher education on its material side. Miss Cayley, a later product, is, we She represents much more besides, venture to believe, no longer purely ac- and there are tendencies in her for cidental. Her author does not treat which her parentage is obviously reher with anything like the seriousness sponsible. She is keen, clever and cawhich Sir Walter Besant devotes to his pable, straightforward and direct to heroine; but then Lois Cayley was cre- bluntness, endowed with a quantity of ated not to point a moral, but merely good sense and a quality of penetration to adorn a tale. She is a surprisingly which are truly alarming. She is efficient young woman, whose brisk- plucky, alert and honest, absolutely ness, courage and resource almost take selfish and a materialist to the finger our breath away. As she adds to these tips. In this last respect she typifies qualities good looks, honesty and not the higher education so much as every sort of virtue, the college which the modern spirit. She hates holiproduced her has every reason to be days, this candid young person; she grateful to Mr. Grant Allen.

Still we cares nothing for beauty and romance; fear that even Lois Cayley was not in- art and music she has tried and would tended to represent a type, or at best not go through the experience again only an exceptional one. Like Angela for anything that could be offered to Messenger she has a friend, a pale her. What she likes is working and spectacled friend, devoted to the teach- getting paid for it. “I must work," ing of the higher mathematics, who is she tells us, "and I must make more presumably intended to typify the Gir- money than I spend," the "must" re

LIVING AGE. VOL. LI. 2655

ferring purely to a necessity of her with her. She has made good ber mind. This characteristic she inher- claim to the title of Vierge forte, and its from her mother, but she is an hon- she stands almost alone in English est woman while the mother is a fiction in that character. blackguard, she deals in nothing more It is curious that with all the maharmful than figures and calculations terial at our disposal we have not as while her mother trafficked in human yet treated the problem on a large lives. Very characteristic is the scale and in a serious manner. It is young woman's determination to even more curious that this should choose her own way of life at any have been done in a country where the cost. For love she naturally finds no material hardly existed and the probtime in her busy scheme of existence, lem was barely foreshadowed. and the question of work versus mar- Frédérique, and Léa, Les Viorgas Fortes, riage does not present for her even the the author had to imagine a set of cirrudiments of a problem. She ex- cumstances foreign to his national expresses herself unambiguously on this perience, and was obliged even to inpoint-"Now once for all mother, you vent a college in which his heroines want a daughter and Frank wants a might graduate. To be trained in pubwife. I don't want a mother and I lic spirit, to learn the meaning of freedon't want a husband." But in fair- dom and the uses of economic indeness to Vivie it must be remembered pendence he sent them to England. that she was prepared to stand by her With Monsieur Prévost's treatment of mother staunchly enough while she the problem, and with his conclusions thought that it was only on account of we are not here concerned, but there is a regrettable and perhaps regretted no doubt that he depicted the characpast that Pharisees pointed the finger ter of his heroines—their weakness as of scorn. It was only when she dis

well as their strength, their defects as covered that the past had its continu- well as their qualities, the spirit which tion in the present, that the wealth animated and the ideals which inspired which she was invited to share was be- them, with extraordinary penetration ing produced by the foulest methods and remarkable sympathy. And yet conceivable, that she decided to rup- in this country, where all the conditure relations and launched the unfil

tions are favorable, where freedom reial ultimatum which we have quoted. quires no apology and the serious Vivie's fortitude throughout the very treatment of any question can always nasty experiences which she undergoes command a hearing—in this country commands our admiration, and

where women's colleges have existed hope that in her independence and the for more than forty years, the vierge coveted office in Chancery Lane, she forte who is the natural development may find something to compensate for of the strongest type of girl graduate, the bitter taste which the revelations is still waiting for her exponent. of those summer days must have left

I. Reinher. The National Review.

we

THE CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF CHESS.

Lost in the dim distances of the Interesting, however, as the philology long-forgotten past, the history of the of chess may be, the history of the origin of chess-the most ancient of all game itself, and of the different pieces games, beloved alike by king and peas- of which it is composed, is of still ant--has formed the theme of many greater interest, for its own intrinsic learned writers.

value as well as for the study of conJIistorical research on this subject temporary constitutional and military has been carried out by savants of all history wbich is thus afforded. ages and nationalities, both Western Up to about the ninth century of the and Eastern; but in spite of the most Christian era by far the largest part strendons endeavor, up to the present of the population of India adhered to inoment, the exact manner in which the Buddhist religion. The recent this game came into existence is bur- event of the finding of the crystal casied in complete oblivion. Nor is it ket, containing certain bones of likely that successive ages will be any Gautama the Buddha, in the Peshawur more successful in elucidating this district, incidentally emphasizes this problem than present or past genera- fact; an event of considerable historical tions. This is all the more remark- importance, which may have been able considering the world-wide ubiq- passed unnoticed, except by those in uity of the game.

Chess, with the close touch with the most recent archvery slightest alteration in its form, is æological discoveries in India. known throughout the length and The ancient Buddhist faith positively breadth of the world-civilized or un- forbade the shedding of blood; and, incivilized.

deed, predicted a far severer punishThe balance of evidence tends to ment in the world to come to the show that chess is Indian in origin. soldier than to the murderer. The anThe ordinary Hindustani word in use cient Pundits reasoned that a murfor chess is "shatrang,” which in real- derer, generally, would only slay unity is a Persian word but which is in der the impulse of the moment or uncolloquial use throughout India. The der some sudden provocation; but that word "chess" is a mere corruption of the soldier went out to battle with the "shatrang." But "shatrang" itself is fixed intention of slaying: he killed in derived from a still more ancient San- cold blood-and was guilty of the scrit word—"chatauranga."

greater crime in consequence. We are thus led to the belief that, al- But at the same time, the cravings though the chess of mediæval and mod- of human nature for strife—that bump ern Europe was undoubtedly derived of pugnacity which is marked to a from Arabic or Persian sources, yet greater or less extent on the cranium India was the real cradle in which the of every member of the human race game

nurtured. The words was not overlooked; and of all the "check” and “mate," mere phonetic theories which have been advanced as equivalents of the Persian words to the origin of chess, for it must be "Shah”=a king, and "mat"=he is remembered that the exact origin is dead—the king is dead-are conclusive quite unknown, the most plausible approof of the Persian origin of the game pears to be that the ancient Buddhist so far as its introduction into Western priests invented the game of chess, so countries is concerned.

that the natural figbting instinct of

was

was

а

mankind might find an outlet without ancient MSS. the game has always transgressing the Buddhistic command- been played with sixteen pieces; and ment, which prohibited fighting.

although the movements and even the In the light of the early history of names of the different pieces have vaIndia, which, in the main, is one long ried considerably in the course of the procession of invasion, rapine and mur- last ten centuries—particularly about der, this theory may seem fantastic; the fifteenth century—yet in its main but it must be remembered that the essentials the game as now played is Buddhist priests were wont to shut the same as it was in the days of long themselves off completely from the ago. world in some secluded spot in their It is very doubtful whether the endeavors to follow the rigid teachings original chess

four-handed of their founder; and it is by no means game, played with dice, as some have impossible that, finding the funda- supposed. The essence of the game mental fighting instinct of humanity clearly points to a military origin, was an almost insuperable barrier to where chance would be eliminated and their inner strivings, these priests at- where the natural sequence of events, tempted a solution of the problem by the result of worldly experience, would the invention of the game of chess. produce two rather than four battling

In attempting to unravel the history hosts. Apart from this, the confusion of chess it is a most unfortunate fact which would result from four independthat the climate of India is an unfavor- ent sets of chessmen playing on the able one for the preservation of ancient same chess-board would be almost inmanuscripts. Old manuscripts seldom extricable, while the evidence furlasted more than four hundred years. nished by the names of the pieces For this reason copies had to be made points to the same conclusion. The in order that the ancient writings fact that the movements of the pieces might be preserved.

in the earliest days of chess were not Two grave sources of error are thus the same as they are now would not opened out-inaccurate copying in the alter this conclusion. Throughout all various transcriptions, and interpola- time these moves have not greatly vation by the scribe; the latter person- ried. age was often no doubt himself a The chess-board is most certainly the young Pundit, who would be naturally same, though it was not until the sixwishful to put forward his own views. teenth century or thereabouts that the These reasons, in themselves, are suffi- surface was chequered black and cient to account for the obscurity of white. the origin of the game; and for these The king, the most important piece same reasons it is highly probable that on the board, round whom the whole this origin always will remain hidden, game centres, was said to be subject to even from the most learned and ener- capture; but under these conditions the getic worker of any subsequent gen- method of conducting the game is not eration.

quite clear, because in modern chess It might be mentioned in passing that the capture of the king terminates the the Hindustani and Sanscrit word game. Possibly all pieces and pawns “chatauranga” is used to mean "chess" had to be captured before the game in the most ancient MSS. extant. This was finally won. At this early period is an additional fact going to show the the king could make three moves at a probable Indian origin of the game. time in any direction, and in addition

So far as it is possible to rely on could make a knight's move in order to

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