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ture capable of high development should Schools and the "masters" of the pubbe precluded by poverty from all devel- lic schools. Too much is put in, no opment is the deepest of personal enough drawn out from the child's owu and natural disasters, though it mind. The teacher cannot think much happen, as it does happen, several of individual natures, when faced with thousand times year.

Physical a class of sixty. Yet it would be waste is bad enough-the waste of difficult to overrate the service of the strength and health that could Board Schools as training grounds for easily be retained by fresh air, open manners, and anyone who has known spaces and decent food, and is so re- the change in our army within twenty. tained among well-to-do children. This five years will understand what we physical waste has already created mean. Nevertheless, at fourteen the such a broad distinction that foreign- boy has often reached his highest meners coming among us detect two spe- tal and spiritual development. When cies of the English people, and Indians he leaves school, shades of the prisonon arriving are horrified to realize that house begin to close upon him. He the boasted Imperial race consists of a jumps at any odd job that will bring majority so degraded in appearance as in a few shillings to the family fund. our working-men and women. But He becomes beer-boy, barber's boy, the mental waste is worse. It is a van-boy, paper-boy, and in a year or subject that Mr. Paterson dwells upon, two he is cut out by the younger genand he speaks with authority, as one eration knocking at the door. He has who has taught in the Board Schools learnt nothing; he falls out of work; and knows the life of the people across he wanders from place to place. By the bridges from the banana-box to the the time he is twenty-two, just when grave.

the well-to-do are “finishing their edu

cation,” his mind is dulled, his bope "Boys who might become classical scholars," he writes, "stick labels on to

and interest gone, his only ambition is parcels for ten years, others who have to get a bit of work and keep it. At literary gifts clear out a brewer's vat. the best he develops into the average Real thinkers work as porters in metal working-man of the regious we have warehouses, and after shouldering iron

called unknown. Mr. Paterson thus fittings for eleven hours a day, find it

describes the class: difficult to set their minds in order.

. With even the average boy These are the steady bulk of the there is a marked waste of mental cap- community, insuring the peace of the ital between the ages of ten and thirty, district by their habits and opinions and the aggregate loss to the country far more effectively than any vigilance is heavy indeed."

of police or government. Yet, if they

are indeed satisfactory, how low are At fourteen, just when the "educa

the civic standards of England, how tion" of well-to-do boys is beginning, fallen the ideals and beauties of the working boys' education stops. Christianity! No man that has dreams For ten or eleven years he has been can rest content because the English happy at school. He has looked upon

worker has reached his high level of

regular work and rare intoxication. school as a place of enjoyment-of interest, kindliness, warmth, cleanliness, We do not rest content; far from it. and even quiet of a kind. The school But to us the perpetual wonder is, not methods of education may not be the that "the lower classes are brutalized," best. Mr. Paterson points out all but that this brutality is so tempered that is implied in the distinction be- with generosity and sweetness. It is tween the "teachers" of the Board not their crime that surprises us, but

their virtue; not their turbulence or And yet there are still people who discontent, but their inexplicable ac- sneer at "the mob," "the vulgar herd," quiescence. "O sacred head, O dese- "the great unwashed," as though princrate, O labor-wounded feet and ciples, gentility, and soap were privihands,” cried the poet before a Crucifix leges in reward of merit, and not the of the Son of Man, and to-day is a accidental luck of money's chaotic disfitting time to remember the words. tribution.

The Nation.


The “form and order” of the Corona- We hear so much of the Coronation, tion Service and of "the ceremonies that the public might easily pass into that are to be observed" has been is- thinking that the Coronation is a kind sued in various shapes and at various of pageant of which the symbols mean prices by the King's Printers (Messrs. very little beyond keeping up a traEyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding dition. Owing to gossip, the influx of Street, E.C.) and we may employ the visitors, and the power of a popular occasion of re-reading this noble sery- Press, it might happen by one means or ice to look into its religious, and polit- another that the significance of the Corical meaning. Gladstone wrote of the onation would be lost in an orgy of Coronation Service with passionate ad- secondary meanings. The only cormiration. What are the underlying rective of that distorted yet inevitable ideas which appealed to him, and tendency is to read the Service. If which shine through the whole service ever there was a form of words which in its relation to the people? The causes all the tokens and trappings of Service is, as Gladstone said, a thing an ancient usage to fall into their by which the religion of the nation is proper places and serve the central and attested. It is like the compact made most simple purpose of the ceremony, it at the accession of a Jewish King-a is this Service. The King holds the covenant between the Lord and the nation in trust, and never has greater King and the people. The King is re- emphasis been laid on the profound reminded that he owes allegiance to God sponsibilities of that trust. One might and justice to his people; the obliga- be casually led to think of the Coronations of the people to render homage tion as an excessive act of homage to and obedience to the King are de- the King, on whom all attention is conmanded on the condition that the King centrated. Nothing could be wider of obeys the Divine law, and administers the truth. As one reads the Service justice in the light of that law; and one is rather impressed by the thought both King and people avow their con- that a King, exceptionally sensible of viction of the unalterable mercy and the nature of his charge, could hardly guidance of the Almighty on condition bear up under the burden of responsithat their part of the covenant be ob- bility loaded upon him and urged with served. Although the Service is, one all the emphasis of weighty words. might almost say, lyrical in its spirit of The person of the King, we mean, endevotion, there is no insistence what joys the homage of the people only as ever on purely distinguishing Anglican the embodiment of the trust confided to doctrines. It is a Service which any his keeping From the first word to Christian might join in without dissent. the last there is not a breath or shadow


of sycophancy. The Service is worthy as upon Bishops; and the episcojal of a free people-worthy of a people character of the vestments worn by the who rationally but devotedly believe, King is plain to the eye. "The Recin the convenience and efficacy of a ognition,” as it is called, of the King constitutional hereditary monarchy. and Queen very early in the Service,

The Service is a selection from words takes one back to the ancient custom of and usages which go back to the ear- electing a King: liest times. The accretion of ceremo

The King and Queen being so placed, nies hundreds of years ago had already

the Archbishop shall turn to the East become so unmanageable that

part of the Theatre, and after, together abridgement of the Coronation became with the Lord Chancellor, Lord Great inevitable. In a history of the Corona- Chamberlain, Lord High Constable tions, "The Coronation Book," by the

and Earl Marshal (Garter King of Rev. Jocelyn Perkins (Sir I. Pitman,

Arms preceding them), shall go to the

other three sides of the Theatre in this second edition, 7s. 6d. net), we are re

order, South, West, and North, and at minded that Richard II., worn out with every of the four sides shall with a the protracted rites, was carried faint- loud voice speak to the people; and the ing from the Abbey. Parts of the King in the mean while standing up by ceremony gradually fell into disuse,

his chair, shall turn and show himself

unto the People at every of the four but the whole was still inordinately

sides of the Theatre as the Archbishop long. After the Coronation of George

is at every of them, the Archbishop IV., for example, the procession of the saying: Regalia was abandoned. This fine “Sirs, I here present unto you King and telling ceremony was revived at GEORGE, the undoubted King of this the Coronation of Edward VII., and the

Realm: Wherefore all you who are

come this day to do your homage and present form of Service (with the pos

service, Are you willing to do the sible exception of the sermon, which,

same?" however, is expressly required to be The People signify their willingness short) seems to have brought us to a and joy, by loud and repeated acclama. point where nothing can be sacri

tions, all with one voice crying out, ficed without spoiling the historical

"God save King GEORGE.”

Then the trumpets shall sound. grandeur of the office.

As Mr. Perkins says, the Coronation William the Conqueror, as we know. is in danger of losing some of its mean- was anxious to secure his position by ing through being performed so long exacting the expression of popular conafter accession. The "sacring” of a sent-i.c., the consent of election-when King with the holy oil undoubtedly ex- he received the crown from Archbishop pressed more to Englishmen, say be- Eldred. The “Yea, yea!" of the peofore the time of Queen Anne, than it ple was, unhappily, taken by the Nor expresses to us to-day. The unction man soldiers to be a hostile shout, and was supposed to invest the King with they fired the houses of the Saxons. peculiar powers, and he emerged from Two or three times the suggestion of the ceremony possessed of a dual char- popular election is to be found still emacter, half cleric, half lay-a mixta per- bedded in the Service. One may find sona:

a counterpart to the survival of these Not all the water in the rough, rude sea suggestions in the fact that anyone has Can wash the balm from an anointed a right to attend the gathering of Privy King.

Councillors and other notable persons The divine aid was, and is, invoked who assemble on the demise of the upon the Sovereign in the same manner Crown to proclaim the new King, and also to sign his name to the proclama. land, and the doctrine, worship, discition. That assembly is not a meeting pline and government thereof, as by of the Privy Council but in truth rep

law established in England? And will resents the Witan and so the tradition

you preserve unto the Bishops and

Clergy of England, and to the Churches of popular election.

there committed to their charge, all The promises cxacted from the King such rights and privileges, as by law are sobering indeed:

do or shall appertain to them, or any

of them? Will you solemnly promise and

King. All this I promise to do. swear to govern the people of this United Kingdom of Great Britain and No sooner is the King crowned than Ireland, and the Dominions thereto be- the choir adjures him in delightfully longing, according to the Statutes in

direct and simple words:—"Be strong Parliament agreed on, and the respec

and play the man: keep the commandtive Laws and Customs of the same? King. I solemnly promise so to do.

ments of the Lord, thy God, and walk Archbishop. Will you to your power

in His ways." Nor must we forget the cause Law and Justice in Mercy to be

excellent words-as moving as any in executed in all your judgments? the whole ceremony—with which the King. I will.

Dean of Westminster gives a copy of Archbishop. Will you to the utmost

the Bible to the King: of your power maintain the Laws of God, the true profession of the Gos- Our gracious King; we present you pel, and the Protestant Reformed Reli- with this Book, the most valuable gion established by law? And will thing that this world affords. Here you maintain and preserve inviolably is wisdom; this is the royal Law; these the settlement of the Church of Eng. are the lively Oracles of God.

The Spectator.



A number of police and diplomatic can set his foot on the ladder which revelations in recent months have conducts him to the directorate of one called attention to the extraordinary of Europe's greatest newspapers; and and threatening development which the every foot of his tortuous progress is international spy has taken in the marked by secret transactions with world behind the scenes at the present dangerous accomplices and public catasday. Many circumstances have com- trophes to trusting dupes. Great agbined to render his sinister calling at glomerations of alien populations in once more easy and more formidable. almost every country afford ready symFrom the telephone to the aeroplane, pathizers to the spy, facile aids to his from the abolition or facilitation of inquisitions and investigations, dexterpassports to the cosmopolitanism of ous informants in his search for knowlnewspapers, commercial agencies, and edge, devoted accomplices, bound by Stock Exchanges, there is everywhere the shibboleths of race and tradition, the means of sudden communication when the agents of law or government and surreptitious profits to an extent are pressing hard upon the traces of incredible in times not very remote the betrayer of national security. It from our own. A Cairene broker's was easier for the ministers of justice assistant, by first spying on the domes- to track an escaping criminal from den tic secrets of an extravagant prince, to den in the Alsatia at Whitefriars or


in the Liberties of Westminster two other clients as well. And if the ofhundred years ago than it is to-day to fer of purloined intelligence to an atwatch or capture the subtle thief of taché fails to result in a bargain, then public secrets who is protected by the there is the chance of disposing of the fraternity of calling and kinship from venture to an editor, even an American Houndsditch to Odessa.

In addition to politics and the The scandal at the Quai d'Orsay, as Press there is the Stock Exchange. the Paris Press is accustomed to enti- Early knowledge of a State secret may tle the disclosure of diplomatic secrets be far more valuable on the Bourse by a subordinate of the Ministry for than up the back-stairs of an embassy Foreign Affairs, may serve to illustrate or a legation. the unscrupulous skill of the spy as The cosmopolitan nationality of the well as the extent of his operations international spy immensely assists his and the variety of his methods and oc- quest for the materials of his trade. In cupations. The world-wide system, in- nine cases out of ten the persons who deed, by which a grave and cultured are in possession of news or documents Oriental, a Jew from the Turkish prov- which the spy wants to know or to ince of Mesopotamia, was able to of- copy, and who are at all likely to be fer the most intimate documents of the tempted by his offers, are persons who French Foreign Office for purchase by are in financial distress, or who have London newspapers, cosmopolitan con- habits which bring them to the usurer cession-hunters at Constantinople, or at least occasionally. Here one cosItalian and German Governments rea- mopolitan comes to the assistance of sonably suspected of a desire to pry another cosmopolitan; or, rather, the into French policy, forms a phenome international spy can get on terms of non of modern development that has intimacy and familiarity with all the too many counterparts.

The many

international money-lenders of the tongued Maimon from Bagdad-his place. Those fowl of a feather have very name reminiscent of the great one belief in common; that birds of Maimonides of the Middle Ages who is prey should help one another, unless the pride of Jewish philosophy-seems self-interest oppose. A share of the to have qualified himself from his ear- spoil easily removes the obstacle of liest years for the practice of the pecu- self-interest; and the spy learns from liar profession which he and his class the usurer precisely what officials in love to exercise. Speaking most Euro- confidential positions have expensive pean

well most Levantine tastes and deplore the difficulty of intongues, he possessed the linguistic dulging them. Means are found to key to half the back-doors between the bring the spy and the confidential offiTigris and the Thames. He became cial together, in some congenial place, a gatherer of information. Informa- at a gaming-table, in a club of doubttion of all kinds and any kind. For ful antecedents. The acquaintance is the merchant of such wares there are made. The temptation is sketched the most various descriptions of buyers out. A mere glance at certain papers, to be found. A common pretext and or their copies will be repaid liberally, a common object of the collection of lavishly, and not a soul in the world news is to supply the Press. There need ever hear of the transaction. The are so many papers, and there are so spy is ready to pledge “his word of many sorts of information which are honor" that there is no treason in the in demand. Besides, to supply the transaction; that the intelligence is Press is a handy cloak for supplying merely wanted for a newspaper; or for



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