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the Sunday-school work, the greater weakness of business men and politiwill be your dividends of salvation." cians. Take Sweden, for example. Not without reason has the Standard "In the beginning of September, 1909, Oil Trust been described as “evangel- Mr. Stendabl's report was issued, ical at one end, explosive at the which proves by an abundance of senother."

sational and, at times, amusing evi"Yes, such are the ethics of business dence that the so-called Swedish and of politics in America," is the com- Vacuum Oil Company is identical with placent comment of the British reader. that of Rochester, U.S.A., that it has He had, however, best reserve his evaded Swedish taxation, fraudulently judgment until he has read the con- rebranded cheaper as dearer oils, and, cluding chapter, which seeks to probe by a very curiously concealed system the mystery of the “low-flash point" of bribery, induced engineers of the still retained for standard oil sold in Royal Navy to diminish the effectivethis country. A Select Committee, ness of their service." which sat upon this question twelve Will the Trust establish a worldyears ago, taking the evidence of such monopoly? This issue remains to be scientific authorities as Lord Kelvin, fought out. With the rapidly expandSir H. Roscoe, and Professor Ramsay, ing uses of oil, new profitable sources reported in favor of raising the flash- of supply in several countries have point, in view of the great growth of been opened up. It is no longer a accidents. But when the Flash-point question of dividing the market with Bill came up for second reading in the produce of the Baku wells. In 1899, it was rejected “on the pledge of Galicia, Roumania, and elsewbere, vast Mr. Collings, then representing the new sources have been tapped, and a Home Office that the Government stout resistance has been offered to the would deal with the whole subject of American invader. Two powerful the storage of petroleum and of lamp combinations have been formed, the accidents.” But nothing has ever yet European and the Asiatic Petroleum been done, and as Professor Silvanus Unions, possessing capital of a magP. Thompson has recently remarked, nitude fitted for the world-combat "The scandal of the free sale of dan- which is even now in course of being gerous low-flash oil continues.” One fought out. What will be the issue way or another, the Standard Oil Com- of the conflict between these commerpany seems to get its way here as in cial monsters struggling for the masAmerica, and careful students of such tery of continents remains to be seen. evidence as is available will probably It is difficult to see what protection the conclude that it does so by employing oil-using public can procure against the same methods. Indeed, as we fol- a peace which shall either apportion low the tortuous career of this protean the oil empire between two or three monster in India, Germany, France or gigantic companies, working by Sweden, we find it appearing in diverse agreement,


shall enable the shapes, with various protective titles, great boa-constrictor of America to but always operating with the same effect unity by swallowing its rival audacity and cunning upon the same monsters.

The Nation.


Logically speaking, of course, you it, it remains a good impulse, and the cannot put yourself in the right by peace

of mind which confession acknowledging that you are in the brings remains a mystery, however elowrong. Practically, however, it is al- quently we may argue against the posways being done, and those who make sibility of earthly absolution. One the acknowledgment with a good grace proof of the goodness of the impulse disarm their accusers: graciousness is is that when yielded to it produces a gift for which the possessor gets full goodness in others. Every decent man credit from the time that he can speak loses his sense of rancour in the face of till the last man who remembers him an apology. It dwindles in exact prois dead. We might almost divide the portion as he believes the apology to world into those who acknowledge and be sincere. A complete and gracious confess their traasgressions and those expression of regret is of course more who seem constitutionally unable to do easily accepted than an awkward one, so; but this would not be to separate but that is only because the latter is between the sheep and the goats. The less immediately understood and more world forgives the man who openly re- easily misjudged. We are inclined to pents (unless he has done something think the awkward offender is not so very unusually bad); he also forgives sorry as the man who is not shy. As himself, crosses off the debt, and starts a rule we are mistaken. It is a cruel fresh; but there are secret penitents man—and an utterly worthless woman who never speak and who cannot for- -in whom an expression of regret cregive themselves. It would be senti- ates not commiseration but contempt. mental, perhaps, to think too much We should say they are more excepabout the mental pains of these dumb tional than the people at the other end sinners.

They suppress a good im- of the moral scale who feel no movepulse of. nature, and are a cause of ment of revenge under any circumunkindness and injustice in their fel- stances. The Christian religion makes low creatures. The natural and right a large demand when it ordains that thing is to "own up." Still, we ought a repentant neighbor is to be forgiven not to be too hard on the man who ten times a day, but the demand is cannot apologize. He is not likely to simply made upon our patience; the be very happy, though he may grad- sentiment appealed to can hardly be ually become a saint; for he will disap- considered less natural than the sentipoint his friends. After all, goodness, ment which prompts to retaliation. pare and simple, is not what we ask Admission, however, is not quite the of our intimate acquaintance. We same thing as apology. There are dem:und it in the abstract of peers and certain faults which people never repoor people, and all those whom we pent-perhaps they do not know they lump together in classes but do not possess them—which are rendered comknow much about singly. What we pletely innocuous by admission. There ask of our friends is that they should is a childish vanity, for instance, a be lovable.

childish, if disproportionate, appreciaWhatever one may think of the uses tion of their own value, for which it to which the impulse to confess has would be churlish indeed to dislike been put by theologians, or of the doc- many men and women. Half the detrines wbich they have evolved from light of a present to a child is in the showing of it, and more than half the story about the trouble they have given pleasure which some grown up people over a sixpence. A true comment derive from an expression of apprecia- upon their action would run thus: “I tion is in the repeating of it. They am so abominably mean that I would lack the quick sense of the ridiculous make any fuss and risk any amount which stands many of us in stead of of pain to my neighbors before I would humility, and they are none the worse forego the veriest trifle." Again, they for being without it. Often we like will say: "I do think that everyone them for the unconscious trust they re- should do their duty, and I was de veal in the amiability of their fellow- termined, though I hated to do it, that creatures. Some women-some of the I would make So-and-so do his." If very best-have a tendency to plot for they want to describe their action at other people's benefit. The deceit they all they ought to say, “I am by nature believe themselves to practise and con- a tyrant, and I am willing to wear tinually allow themselves to reveal is myself out if only I can wring a few as innocent as a child's romance. paltry acts of submission from any

Indeed, the ostentatiously frank one." Both men and women often say type of woman is not a very agreeable “I speak my mind," or "I feel I must one. Goaded by an antiquated accu- speak the truth,” when they ought to sation of slyness, she blusters about say, "I never make the slightest efher bad qualities. I am a good fort to control my natural tendency to hater," she admits, or “a violent parti- verbal cruelty.” san," (why are women so proud of The people who discuss their own partisanship?), or “a careless speaker." virtues in the abstract are not, we Having said this, she considers that think, greater bores than those who she has "advertised herself out of the discuss their own faults. The former law," and is free to do someone a bad are, however, as a rule the better turn, act wrongly in a good cause, or people, for they make some effort for repeat gossip with conscious inaccu- very shame's sake to live up to their racy.

. Very often her world forgives boast, while the others have effectually her because she has warned them of prepared themselves and their friends her peculiarities and they are deceived to expect the worst. Such frankness by what they foolishly think her in- is prompted by subtlety. It is no plea genuousness. Pope knew her very for forgiveness, but merely a method well, and said of her in his catalogue of saying "Merci d'avanoe" for future of female failings:

indulgence practised by those who

have grasped the great fact that the And she who owns her fault but never

vast majority of men are very simple, mends,

and a large proportion when not angry Because she's honest and the best of

are very kind. "Thou shalt not hide" friends.

is a commandment more generally recThere is a still more contemptible ognized by the commonplace moralist method of cheating conscience which than "Thou shalt not be found out." deceives many.

The device is very It is curious to reflect that a public simple. It consists in openly pro- opinion which is so kind to a man or claiming one's faults under the bare woman who "owns up" about the misnomer of some distantly allied vir- things which may be said to concern tue. "I do like justice," says some- his or her soul is so harsh to the conone, “and I cannot bear to be done out vert where intellectual matters are of my rights.” Then they tell a long concerned. If a man has begun life

with a false conclusion, and comes in wardly that a man should stick to his later years to repudiate it, he gets lit- errors rather than keep changing his tle indulgence from any one, and often opinions. As a matter of fact we are appears to be ashamed of himself. all very doubtful outside the region of His former co-believers usually regard morals where truth lies, and we think him as a turncoat. We all believe our- stability of more importance than conselves to be followers of Truth, but it clusion. Morality is in theory the one would never occur to us to forgive a subject upon which nothing can be said stumbling fellow-disciple ten times a absolutely. In practice it is the only day! Indeed we most of us feel in- thing about which we are all agreed.

The Spectator.


Fiction is to-day mainly written by quite a perfect one." Secure in the women; and it is already possible to possession of "a woman's true heart," compile an anthology of words and they discover “a Foul Wrong," defeat phrases used and understood by Scotland Yard, and engage in detectwomen alone.

ing crime in Ross-shire. They cast a “Man-like” is a woman's word; so glamour over legal gentlemen and a is "friendly-wise," and "alright." No respectable family solicitor, a dry man, male author would make the heroine a bachelor given to charging six-andsay "I am a very woman!" It is the eightpence, departed so far from prowomen authors, too, who ruin the hero fessional practice as to say that it was every week by “a paper found in the not for him to read the secrets of a left-hand drawer of an old bureau." woman's heart-subsequently forget

Heroines lead an anxious and har- ting to charge Miss Myrtle thirteenassed life. Young persons "sweep up" and-fourpence “to advising you to take when out for the evening; ladies when your own way." exceptionally tender “flute"; and girls, “Dainty" is a woman's word. It is on the slightest provocation, "pant." used equally of an authentic collection "'I shall have the world at my feet of Goss China, the property of one one day,' Rachel panted, 'clapping and Geneviève, and of a practical tableapplauding me to the echo .. the cloth, belonging to “a poor dressmaker world!' " Heroines do things in brack- with a dear, old face." Some girls are ets. They speak (gloomily) and possessed of "a dainty figure”; and, in (grudgingly) and (archly). Grand-un- shaking hands, heroines give melancles are addressed (yearningly). Hero- choly young gentlemen a “dainty hand ines do not reply; they “flash.” The in friendly-wise.” They live with the best heroines "ripple.” “'How man- tea-cup permanently in their womanly like! Aminta rippled."

fingers; tepid tea and insubstantial Heroines and ladies going into the bread are technically referred to as “a magazines to say that their heart will dainty meal.” find “its king" are “not exactly beauti- Faces are "proud"; and ladies with ful." Though there is ever something an imperfect nose bave "a pure, proud, about them which lures the careless lovely woman's face, with glorious passer-by to look again, their face is soul-lit eyes." Heroines are "slight.” "not quite flawless," and the best hero- Chairs, on the other hand, are “deep"; ines suffer from a nose which is "not and after the accident of a sprained


ankle you "almost carry Elsie's slight his "half-frozen fingers. He was helpfigure to a deep chair."

less as a babe." The general helplessIn the important matter of costume, ness of heroes is their prevailing note. emotional dresses are worn and vir- Barristers are briefless. Man is good ginal thoughts go with white frocks. in so far as he approaches a distinctly “Clinging white draperies" are essen- feminine type, and the ideal is to be tial to the heroine, and "colors" are "a very woman." The best men, pernot worn.

sons with well-kept hands, are distinEyes are extremely significant. The guished by "a touch as tender as a heroines have "glorious, dark-blue, woman's." Colonels and Majors who soul-lit, womanly eyes." Ladies of a delimitate frontiers and hunt "big villainous type, on the other hand, are game" have "a mouth as sweet as a recognizable by their "green eyes.” girl's.” The eyes of Colonel MelOn encountering at a country house combe are "luminous with sympathy"; eyes "scintillating like emeralds," a the war-worn veteran weeps “like a bachelor should despatch a telegram babe." summoning himself to the death-bed Then there is the Wretch and the of “his grand aunt, Barbara Batley." Brute. His wife is a "deeply wronged In Chapter Thirty-Four Green Eyes woman.” The Brute has "a retreating

“unmasked." Heroines with chin.” But ... "there is no bint “pansy eyes," ladies with orbs "misty of weakness about his sister, albeit she with unshed tears," are dedicate and was altogether sweet and womanly." unlike anything on earth. Though Often they are men with green eyes, they have shortened their hair and with "dark olive faces," and a cigar. length ed their skirts, "as yet no The Brute "grinds his teeth.” “His thought of love has entered their evil passions were thoroughly roused; bright young lives," and "all that they swept his soul like a blasting seemed too far away from their young flame." The Wretch is greedy, and glorious thoughts."

when you write of him, the feminine Gentlemen with “the most expres- language runs naturally into terms of sive dark eyes" lead a harassed life. eating and metaphors of gross glut

The hero is a clod, a thing stuffed tony. "He kept his eyes on the hallout with straw. It is the business door like a chained wolf on meat beand profession of a hero to come into yond his reach." accidents; his occupation is to tumble Burglary is venial, and so is bloodoff his horse; he needs "womanly care letting. There are viler things against and compassion.” He goes over cliffs; the Brute, and dark matters which he is sand-bagged; he runs a hook into cannot be expiated by retiring to his "poor hand" while fraudulently South America or taking "a solemn pretending to fish, and he “almost oath.” “Against my guardian's wish faints.” Awakened out of a "swoon"

almost in defiance of her auby the application of cold water, he thority ... I married the man I sees a face whose "beauty is graven loved. He proved to be a gambler for ever on the tablets of his memory.”

and worse!" This degraded He says “'For pity's sake let me in' person, in fact, had sworn at his wife;

A face was pressed against the and was generally "a most determined, window-pane .. ghastly, pallid, unscrupulous man." He dies in Chapwith white lips and eyes that gazed ter Twenty-Eight. And wasn't he in unseeing fashion." In fact, there "horrid"! had been a fall of snow. She chafes

The Saturday Review.

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