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But is there not an important sig- ual with the cosmopolitan and indiffernificance in the very fact which makes ent; it is the something sacred which our intellectuals desperate with indig- neither an individual nor a nation can nation, the fact that you cannot change afford to neglect. Mr. Forster, imthe "public mind” so rapidly as you pressed as he is with the need of can change its tramway services, its change, directed instead of haphazard, governments, or the place the cellar, nevertheless perceives that there are the crust of the earth, or the sky- permanent elements, belonging to charin which it is to be housed? It is eas- acter, in our blood and our tradition, ier to take a man up in an aeroplane which cannot be ignored without peril. than it is to make him agree that his Mr. Galsworthy, in The Patriciarh neighbor ought to run away with his is no longer the mere antagonist of the wife, or that his sons ought not to established order of things. He seems read Thucydides. Even amongst to have attained a sort of optimism those writers whom I have named there strangely at variance with his earlier is beginn ng to arise a half-formed views; to have perceived that running consciousness that amid all these through all these conflicts, revolutions, changes in circumstances we must be and evolutions, there is and has been a careful how we admit changes in char- certain national sense, a sort of colacter and in mental calibre; a con- lective reasonableness, which is consciousness that we are in need of some stantly making itself felt, and being fixed point by which the world may expressed in its best form by the leadbe enabled to retain its sanity. Now ers of opinion, the aristocrats of nathere are two classes of people who ture; that the torrent runs, as it were, believe in permanence; those who between solid banks; that in the long think that the world is the same al- run character triumphs over confusion. ways because they are too silly to open There is in this view, doubtless, the their eyes; and the very small class of danger of complacence. But it is those who have felt profoundly that all worth noting that the time is already things are changing in something more passing when the transformations than the Heraclitean sense, who have wrought by science and its attendant yet penetrated to the necessity of a agents can shake the soul within our permanence, of an organic human con- bodies. Science was applied to industinuity, underlying the multiplex cir- try, and it changed the appearance of cumstances and ideas of our life. England; it was applied to organic
And this brings me back to Mr. Fors. life, and it destroyed ancient history. ter and Mr. Galsworthy. “Howard's It was applied to religion, but before it End," the old-fashioned house which had quite demolished it, became its gives its name to Mr. Forster's novel, ally. It has been applied to morals, is contrasted with the new buildings aud has threatened them, but must which are occupied and vacated, which needs be called into their support. spring up on all sides and are vica- Character, becoming once again its riously inhabited, which draw nearer own master, promises to hold science and nearer to the garden and the wych- in leading-strings, to control the proelm of "Howard's End.” It is the digious, artificial, invented, but in. symbol of permanence, of the old or- creasingly manageable collective organder which “connects” the past with ism, and to make of England what it the present, the personal and individ- likes. The English Review.
R. A. Scott James.
PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION.
BY THE LATE LEO TOLSTOY.
Amongst the learned who study phil- which establishes the foundations of osophy one meets some individuals who all other truths, they, in order to esstudy it-not, as most of them do tablish these truths, unceasingly conmerely professionally-but for the sake struct one theory after another, withof their own souls.
out ever reaching any definite result. It is difficult for these learned men Great erudition and even greater flexto free themselves from the scientific ibility and ingenuity of mind often ensuperstitions in which they have grown courage them in this; but the chief up and matured, and by the service of reason that their labor fails to yield wbich conspicuous worldly success is results, is the false (as I họld) convicso often obtained. But some of them, tion accepted among them, that religion possessing live, sincere, and moral na- is nothing else than faith: faith, in the tures, unceasingly strive to liberate sense of credulity-the acceptance of themselves. Realizing in their inner statements certain people have made; experience all the narrowness-or, to and that, consequently, faith or reliput it plainly, the stupidity-of the gion can have no significance for philmaterialist view of life, which is in- osophy; and that philosophy, if not ancompatible with any moral teaching, tagonistic to religion, must at least be they are inevitably drawn to the ac- entirely independent of it. They, with knowledgment of a spiritual principle all the scientific philosophers, overlook as the basis of everything, and to the the fact that religion (faith), besides question of man's relation to that spir- the meaning now attributed to it—that itual principle; that is to say, they are is to say, besides dogmas and the esdrawn to questions of ethics, to which tablishment of blind belief in certain more and more attention has been paid Scriptures—has another meaning. This of late.
real meaning is the acknowledgment What it comes to at bottom is, that and clear expression of the indefinable by a long and intricate road of scien- elements (the soul and God) felt by tific philosophy they are brought to the everybody. And so it is that all the simple position accepted by every Rus- questions with which scientific philososian peasant-even by those who are phers are so zealously occupied, and to illiterate-that one must live for one's solve which an endless number of musoul, and that, in order so to live, one tually contradictory and often stupid must know what to do and what not to theories are constructed, were solved do for that purpose.
centuries ago by religion, and solved in The relation of these learned men such a way that there is, and can be, to the matter is, I consider, perfectly no need and no possibility of re-solvcorrect; but unfortunately they for the ing them. most part cannot manage to free them- These men, like all their fellow-philselves from the scientific ballast they osophers, do not perceive that religion have assimilated as something neces- —not the perversion to which religion sary and valuable and that has to be has everywhere been and still is subutilized, but which really, by obstruct- jected—but religion in the sense of the ing reason, prevents its free play. acknowledgment and expression of inSharing with all scientific men the su- definable but ever-realized elements perstition that philosophy is a science (the soul and God), is the inevitable
LIVING AGE. VOL. LI. 2675
condition of any reasonable, clear, and mutually contradictory theories one fruitful teaching of life of teaching on the top of another, in attemptfrom which alone firm principles of mo- ing to define the undefinable. Such rality can be deduced-and that there- are the teachings of life of the Arisfore religion, in its true sense, cannot totles, Platos, Leibnitzes, Lockes, be opposed to philosophy; and more Hegels, Spencers, and of many others than that, that philosophy cannot be a -their name is legion. In reality, all science unless it accepts the data es- these teachings consist: (1) of idle reatablished by religion for its basis. sonings about what is not subject to
Strange as it may seem to those who reason, reasonings which might be are used to consider religion as some- called philosophistics, but not philosothing inexact, “unscientific,” fantastic, phies: the love of philosophizing, but and inconstant, and science as some- not the love of wisdom; and (2) of poor thing firm, exact, and incontrovertible repetitions of what, in relation to this -in philosophic matters the very re- moral law, has been much better exverse is the case.
pressed in the religious teachings. The religious conception of life says: Yes, strange as it may seem to those "Before all things, and most indubit- who have never thought about it, the ably, there exists something indefin- understanding of life of any pagan who able, and that is our soul and God." in his religion acknowledges an inBut just because we know this before explicable origin of all things, personeverything else, and more indubitably. ified by him in any kind of idol-unthan anything else, we can in no way reasonable as his conception of that indefine it; yet we believe it exists, and explicable origin may be has yet an is the basis of everything, and on that understanding of life incomparably belief we build all our further teach- higher than that of a philosopher who ing. From all that is knowable to does not acknowledge the undefinable man, religious perception selects the basis of all knowledge. The religious thing which does not admit of defini- pagan acknowledges something unde tion, and says of it, “I don't know." finable, and believes that it exists and And that attitude toward what it is not is the origin of all things; and on this given to man to know is the first and undefinable something he builds, well most essential condition of true knowl- or ill, his understanding of life, and he edge. The teachings of Zoroaster, the submits to that undefinable Origin and Brahmins, Buddha, Lao-Tsze, Confu- is guided by it in all his actions; while cius, and Christ are of that kind. The the philosopher-endeavoring to define philosophic view of life, on the other that which defines everything else, and hand, seeing no difference, or shutting can therefore not be defined-has no its eyes to the difference between firm foundation on which to build his knowledge of external phenomena and conception of life or to use as a guide knowledge of the soul and of God, re- for his actions. gards a chemical combination and It could not be otherwise, for all man's consciousness of his own ego, knowledge consists in establishing reastronoinical observations or calcula- lations between causes and effects. tions and the acknowledgment of the And the chain of causes is endless, and Origin of all life, as alike open to ra- evidently the study of certain series of tional and verbal definition; and—con- causes in that endless chain cannot fusing the definable and the undefin- form the basis of a world-conception. able, the knowable and the unknowable A few days ago a learned professor -unceasingly constructs fantastic and explained to me that all the faculties of the soul have now been traced back the endless chain of cause and effect. to mechanical causes; "only conscious. This knowledge is his consciousness of ness is not yet quite explained,” said his spiritual ego. he with striking naïveté. “We al- When man discovers this consciousready understand the whole machine, ness directly for himself, he calls it only we don't quite know by what and "consciousness"; but when he finds this how it is set in motion." This is consciousness, which is common to all amazing! Only consciousness (the mankind, in religious teachings, in dis"only" is delightful) is not yet ex- tinction from reasoned knowledge, he plained by a mechanical process! “Not calls it "faith.” Such were all the yet explained," but the professor is faiths, from the most ancient to the evidently convinced that any day the newest. The essence of them all lies news may arrive that some Professor in the fact that, despite the often abSchmidt of Berlin, or Oxenberg of surd forms they have taken in their Frankfort, has discovered the mechan- perversions, they yet give to him who ical cause of consciousness, that is, of accepts them, such bases of knowledge, God within the soul of man. Is it independent of the chain of cause and not plain that an old woman believing effect, as alone render a reasonable in the Kazán Queen of Heaven' is not conception of life possible. only morally but mentally incompara- So that the learned philosopher conbly superior to that learned professor? fined within the endless chain of cause
What's to be done? Where are we and effect, who does not acknowledge to get the foundation of our world- a religious basis, is inevitably forced to conception, since reasoning—the activ- seek for an imaginary and impossible ity of the mind-supplies no such foun- cause of all causes; while the religious dation? Has man, then, no other man recognizes this cause of all causes, knowledge than that obtained by rea- and has faith in it; and consequently, soning? The reply is obvious: each in contrast to the scientific philosopher, man within himself is conscious of a possesses a firm understanding of life knowledge quite distinct from and a sound guidance for his actions. soned knowledge, and independent of
The Hibbert Journal.
THE LITTLE COMPTON SENSATION.
Behind the bar of the “Dove and whiskers to his brilliantly polished and Easel" (famous as being the only inn squeaky boots. As he pursued his conso called in the country), Mr. John templation, the outer-doors were pushed Gandy stood reading a newspaper; open, admitting a stream of yellow sunwhen business was slack Mr. Gandy shine, and with it a little, bald-headed always read a newspaper, and in con- man with a red nose and a green sequence was the best informed man baize apron. He approached the upon public affairs in Little Compton. counter, eyed Mr. Gandy deliberately, Mr. Gandy laid down the paper and and ordered a pint of ale. Mr. Gandy gazed severely from beneath his gold- drew the beer as if it were a sacred rimmed spectacles at nothing. He office, wheezing the while.
He was was a model publican, from his velvet a man with a ponderous manner, and skull-cap and immaculate Dundreary a full bar or an empty bar 'made no dif"A celebrated wonder-working icon.
erence to the sacred flow of the liquor. He had an eye that could cower a later Mr. Gandy moved in the same “drunk” more effectually than the direction, lifted the flap of the bar and muscle of a barman.
passed into the room, also closing the "Dry work movin',” said the man door behind him. As he left the bar with the red nose pleasantly.
he touched a bell which produced Mrs. Mr. Gandy wheezed.
Gandy, in black, wearing much jew“I'm a stranger 'ere," continued the elry, and a musical-comedy smile as man, as he produced some bread and persistent as Mr. Gandy's wheeze. cheese from a piece of pink newspaper.
When the pantechnicon-man went "Funny little 'ole, I calls it. Nothin' forth from the bar-parlor it was with to do, far as I can see. No street ac- a thirst only half a day in arrears, a cidents 'ere, I'll take my oath," and he joyous look in his eye, and a vague unlaughed genially at his own joke. certainty about his gait. Outside the
"You're one of the pantechnicon-men “Dove and Easel” he lifted his green from Holmleigh ?" queried Mr. Gandy baize apron, a finger and thumb at with dignity.
each corner, and made a few shuffling “Right, first time!" laughed the ir- movements with his feet, then he repressible, with his mouth full of winked, grinned, and finally laughed as bread and cheese. “I'm up at the he passed on his way up the road. Fort, I am. Oh! It's b, I tell Mr. Gandy left the bar-parlor, spoke to you. Sorry! it slipped out." This Mrs. Gandy, and disappeared through had reference to the word he had used, the glass door into the private parlor. wbich bad caused Mr. Gandy to "look" Two hours later Mr. Gandy reappeared. at him.
He had made up his mind. "The Fort?" queried Mr. Gandy. The pantechnicon-man felt as only a “The Fort?"
man can feel who has made up a fifty "Yus! the Fort,” grinned the man. per cent deficit. His mind was work“That's what I calls it. Never saw ing busily. He was obviously in posso many guns in all me puff, millions session of a secret that other people of 'em. What the what 'e wants 'em thought worth paying for. As he for I can't think. Millions!"
walked down the village street he pon. The man was obviously serious, and dered deeply, unsteadily. Presently Mr. Gandy became interested. At that he paused and slapped the green baize moment carter entered. The apron covering his leg. He walked pantechnicon-man immediately pro- over to where Mrs. Grinder was standceeded to get into conversation with ing at the door of her little general him. Presently he caught Mr. Gandy's shop. A remark of Mr. Gandy's had eye and read in it curiosity. He was set him thinking, with the result that a man whose thirst was always a day he was soon ringing the bell at The in advance of its quenching, for to- Towers. Half an hour later he walked day's liquor never seemed more than down the drive of The Towers, the resto satisfy yesterday's craving. Host idence of Sir Charles Custance, J.P., a Gandy fixed the pantechnicon-man sovereign richer than when he entered, with his eye, and then slowly trans- and the thirst deficit still further referred his gaze to the door of the bar- duced. At the gates of The Towers parlor. The man followed the eye of he paused. Coming towards him was mine host with a grin, and sauntered a dogcart, driven by a small, fierce towards the door, looked round, saw looking little man. It was Mr. Roger that he was right, passed through, Greenbales, who farmed, as a hobby, softly closing it behind him. A minute at a considerable yearly loss, to prove