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sense and us in another. As to that Perhaps they impeach his orthodoxy man of leisure, who seems to take no from the other side, and regard him interest except in sport or the acts of a bloodthirsty anachronism (any his own relations, perhaps there may phrase will do to abuse a miscreant). be something manly under the clean It is ludicrous that it should be so, but and handsome mask that hides his indi- it is. Another reason which will often viduality from the world—something account for an apparently unreasonwhich comes out to our friend when able dislike is the fact that we are he is alone with him. After all, we each of us proud possessors of a darllike him better than the literary man ing and special virtue. There is some who writes so well about every subject one matter, perhaps, some very little and only speaks on one-and that one matter wherein our conduct is perhimself. Now and then our friend's fectly immaculate-perhaps we never enemies puzzle us too. We do not forget to return a loan, even if it is really mean his enemies, of course, in only a sixpenny magazine; or we never any serious sense. Some lighter word improve a story, or never speak against ought to be invented to describe mod- anyone. There are some people who ern enemies. Enmity among friendly never make friends with anyone whose people is as dead as gluttony, but we special virtue does not match theirs. still suffer from keen dislikes just as Very like, if we consider the matter, we suffer from bad indigestion. We we shall find that that is the case with do not go about nowadays looking for our friend and his enemy. Another fre opportunities to do anyone any harm, quent cause of unreasonable dislike is but there are certain people whom we resemblance: the man we dislike for no hate to see, and sometimes we show it. reason reminds us of one we hated Also we always put a bad interpreta- with good cause. tion on their actions, and we do not at But, however difficult we may find it all care if they come to know that we in individual instances to account for do.

our friends' likes and dislikes, we selNow and then we have a friend who dom find any difficulty in accounting is the enemy of another friend. When for the society which he lives in as a first we find it out we are amazed. whole. The element of choice comes But the amazement seldom lasts. As in here so much less than is supposed. a rule we find some satisfactory ex- Except in the cases where people are planation of the disagreeable fact. born with a strong social will or an Very often it is nothing but a radical extreme social fastidiousness, men and difference of opinion. Religious bitter- women live, socially speaking, where ness is almost dead-among the edu- they must. They are held where we cated, at any rate—it is a mere plati- find them by what we call “ties.” None tude to say that the same sincere need live in a house they do not like, search for truth leads one man to Rome, and most need not live in a parish they and another to Geneva, and a third to do not like, but their choice of houses Agnosticism, but those who smile con- and surroundings is, as a rule, strictly temptuously at the man who feels a limited, though they are not in the poprejudice against his neighbor on ac- sition of having what we call "no count of his creed will make of his choice." political opinions an à priori argument The really difficult thing to account against his bona fides. He cannot for is the friends that our friends be a patriot because he does not agree make, and the company they choose to with them about universal service. keep, among the heroes of history and



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fiction. In the world of fiction there never flirt, nor have flirted with any are no limitations; gratitude does not real young women of the type of Troljoin us to one man, nor spite divide us lope's heroines. They would be infrom another. We can live in the clined to kick Johnny Eames if they highest or the lowest society—just as saw him, yet his troubles interest them we please--and we are continually intensely. Is it the art which fasamazed at the choice of even our inti- cinates them? We doubt it. It is the mate friends. Some of them appear change of society. Sometimes, again, to move among the marionettes made we find a young man, a sound, cheerful by the second-rate romancers. Many, sort of person, who we thought might of course, keep only the best company, be familiar terms with Scott's but even then we may wonder at their characters, or at least with those of choice of friends. Who has not been Louis Stevenson. In the world of ficamazed to hear some friend express an tion we should expect to see him in intense admiration, indeed confess a company with Alan Breck, or “the sealong-cherished passion, for some one faring man with one leg," or consortwe should least have expected them to ing perhaps with one of Anthony like-say, for instance, Miss Austen's Hope's petty Kings. In real life he Emma? Perhaps the speaker has mar- goes, roughly speaking, with that sort ried a wife who is the very opposite of of people; but when he chooses his own the heroine who fascinates him. So friends without let or hindrance, we far as we know he was free to choose, find him moping about with Maeterfor Emmas not uncommon linck, and making imaginary love to (though Elizabeths are rare), and we Mélisande. What have they in comthink he might easily have found one. mon? It is hopeless to wonder. Then Moreover, be adores his daughters, who it is really sad to find what excellent belong to a totally different type, and ladies absorbed in their domestic or Mrs. So-and-so, who really is an Emma, their philanthropic concerns go for holis a woman he cannot away with. iday excursions into a world which Emma-in the book-answers to some modern novelists have created, where bit of his nature which we do not almost everyone is what, outside a know. The present writer knows one book, they would certainly call very woman who stoutly affirms that she wicked and where most people are would like to have married George what anyone would call very unhappy Meredith's "Egoist.” The inequality indeed. How can it refresh them to of the proposed yoke defies description, do this? Apparently they take no but she is matched by the men who harm from their bad company-they declare themselves enamored of Becky come back just the same. The only Sharpe, and then diligently hunt out visible effect of their sojourn is to give and marry one of the few Amelias still them a slight contempt for those who to be found upon the market. Then prefer to read something more like real what unexpected people may be said to life. spend their holidays with Trollope in For ourselves, we must confess we Barchester! People who would, we never met the man who had read should have thought, be utterly out of Shakespeare and the Bible and them their element in a Cathedral town; only. No man, we are certain, ever who would be bored by a gossip with read Shakespeare without reading Archdeacon Grantley, and could not be other books if he could get them. The bothered to humor poor Mr. Crawley people who do know Shakespeare well for two minutes together, and who are very often not the people that we should expect to know him. Pick out Sometimes we have felt as if the from among your acquaintances some great proof of the existence of the subman of the world with a real acquaint- conscious self did not depend upon the ance with its tragedy and its comedy, evidence of the Psychical Society, but its men, its women, and its customs. upon common observation. There is Very likely he will confess that he a self in many a man who is certainly never takes Shakespeare off his shelves. not known to bis friends, who lives in Perhaps he will amaze you by saying worlds that he never appears to enter. he reads Dante every day. The Spectator.


Slowly, and with difficulty, an ele- Such are the disturbing questions mentary standard of personal hygiene which Sir Almroth Wright raises by has won acceptance among the more the lecture delivered recently at Burintelligent and educated strata of our lington Gardens. "There is a belief population. Cleanliness, fresh air, and that by washing people wash off the regular exercise may be said to be the microbes. We do take off a certain corner-stones of this hygiene. None of amount of microbes, but we also de. them comes easily to the “natural stroy the protective skin which is all man.” The early makers of the He- round our bodies like the tiles of a brew laws found it necessary to sum

house. When one has a horny band mon all the rigors of divine and hu- no microbes can get near the skin. A man vengeance to teach the rudiments great deal of washing increases the of cleanliness. Washing has always microbes of the skin, so I do not think figured as a semi-religious act, a repu- cleanliness is to be recommended as an table rite. Its gradual extension from hygienic method." The natural man class to class, from nation to nation, is, indeed, no more a lover of fresh air has been taken as the outward and vis- than an enemy of dirt. On the conible sign of the spread of civilization. trary, we know that he loves stuffy Regarded as a habit of hygiene it is a rooms and hates a draught.

Our anmodern acquirement. Even so shortcestors, not long ago, drew close cura time as half a century ago a compara- tains round their beds lest any oxitively small proportion of those who dized air, even from the carefully spoke of the workers as "the great un- closed chamber, should penetrate their washed" had a bathroom in their lungs in slumber. Even now it is a house. Now the respectable mechanic triumph for our health visitor to pertakes his tub and with proper patriotic suade a cottage-woman to open a winpride contemns "the dirty foreigner," dow. When she consents it is usually although in point of fact the washing “to please the lady," rather than for habit is acquiring as firm a hold of any good she thinks she gets from it. the chief continental peoples as of our She will now be able to quote the great own. But what if all this hardly ac- Sir Almroth. "Why is the fresh air quired virtue be a mistake, a cunning cure only applied to tuberculous disinvention of the soap manufacturer, or ease? I hold it to be a dreadful supera distinctive badge of immunity from stition. The whole of the doctrine of manual labor? What if it be simply a fresh air requires to be revised." disease of civilization ?

The habit of taking exercise, or un


dergoing needless pbysical exertion of scepticism regarding some of our most any kind, is quite unintelligible to most cherished beliefs in matters of health. nations. “What induces these infidels Now such utterances cannot fail to proto run to and fro when they might voke profound disquietude. Is this sit still?" is the well-known comment scepticism to be regarded merely as of a Turkish potentate as he watched the perversity or eccentricity of genius, Englishmen playing a cricket match. the exaggerated distortion of a specialNothing, indeed, is more firmly rooted ist which finds a panacea in some sinin the orthodoxy of the well-to-do Eng- gle mode of therapeutics, such as inoclishman than the belief that games ulation, whose superb and all-sufficing and sports involving arduous physical value renders all prophylactic treatenergy are good for health. But it ment of trivial account? Or can it be seems that this belief is as artificial, as


modern hygiene consists fsuperstitious, as the others. "There largely of a fanatic creed bred of the is no evidence," says Sir Almroth, “that excessive fears of the classes who, dithe man who does not take physical ex- vorced from manual labor, the "natercise is more liable to disease than the ural" lot of man, have leisure and man who does." But he is not con- means to elaborate a hygienic ritual as tent with destroying one by one our unmeaning, as injurious to their sanity 'hygienic idols. He must pull down of body, as the religious rituals to the whole temple of the false goddess. their sanity of mind? It is now widely "I have noticed in the circulars of the held that a habit of excessive eating, as Health Society the phrase, ‘Preven- formerly of excessive drinking, pertion is better than Cure.' I would like vades those classes able to afford exto stamp that out. We should wait pensive diets. Yet even the medical until we are infected, and then take profession still stands divided upon steps to kill the microbes."

the merits of "feeding up," both as a We observe that in some medical general precept and for particular comquarters this extraordinary pronounce plaints. Are we about to see a similar ment is treated as a huge joke. But rift of professional opinion open up on we have a higher regard for Sir Alm- other maxims of ordinary hygiene roth Wright's reputation than to be- which we have come to regard as ablieve that he could perpetrate SO solute in their authority upon our clumsy a piece of dangerous facetious- lives? ness. Though we have men on our The issue is no light one. Everyjudicial bench who habitually disre body now-a-days is so much of a faithgard Bacon's advice that "Judges healer as to be aware of the imporought to be more learned than witty," tance of having a medical man in whom the leaders of our medical profession he has confidence. But if this per'have never so demeaned themselves as sonal faith is important, much more to seek to confuse the public mind upon important in the long run is the mainthe gravest issues of health.

We are

tenance of the collective confidence driven to the conviction that Sir Alm- which belongs to the authority of the roth Wright, one of our chief authori- profession. Now this collective conities and pioneers in pathological re- fidence is definitely damaged by these search, is a whole-hearted disbeliever novel doubts sown in the public mind. in these elements of popular hygiene. The dilemma which these candid docNor does he stand quite alone. Other tors set before the lay mind is of a far men, hardly of less eminence, have graver sort than that propounded by rented from time to time the same Mr. Bernard Shaw. It may be briefly

stated thus. Readers of the article on ual members of the profession. ExMedicine in the “Encyclopædia Bri- treme diversity, open and avowed emtannica” will be impressed by the enor- piricism, fluctuations in treatment almous and multifarious advances made most as rapid and incalculable as the in every department of the science. fashions in dress, displace in actual Everywhere the expert toil of many practice the close conformity of the autrained minds, the wealth of experience thoritative text-book or the law court. gathered in many quarters, have con- Though the candor of Sir Almroth tributed to impart an air of exactitude Wright's statement, "I have been in to the results expressed in language of consultation with twenty-one doctors so much technical precision. Or, turn round a rich man's bed, and none of to another arena, the law courts. Here them knew what was the matter with a sheaf of recent reported cases shows him," may be rare, most of us have had us a profession so firmly established occasion to suspect that the grave in intellectual orthodoxy that they rally taciturnity of the bedside manner was as one man in protest against unauthor- often but the cloak of a conscious failized practitioners who claim to fight ure to diagnose. Such occasional, nay against disease by weapons forged in frequent, failure may well be considsome outside armory. Though ered an inevitable incident in the delithroughout the history of therapeutics cate endeavor to track the secret irthe most important discoveries have regularities of morbid processes in naslowly fought their way as heresies ture. But the profession devoted to into the reluctant acceptance of the so difficult and intricate a study might profession, this lesson of history car- at least be expected to cultivate a ries little force to teach toleration or more liberal spirit towards the free liberality to the present occupants of groups of workers on its borderland or office. Following in the witness box hinterland, whose adventurous discorthe row of expert witnesses summoned. eries have enriched its fund of knowlto convict some osteopath or other un- edge in the past, and are assuredly re authorized practitioner, or to defend quired to maintain its progress in the some member of the fraternity whose future. The habit of heresy-hunting is patient in a hasty operation "fails to as injurious to medicine as to religion, rally," one would suppose that the pro- and it harms the bigot even more than fession of medicine had reached a level the heretic. Meantime the layman of scientific certainty in diagnosis and stands distracted between this attitude in treatment. Yet the confidence of absolute professional authority, on which such professional solidarity sug- the one hand, and the destructive scepgests is strangely contradicted by the ticism which Sir Almroth Wright repdetailed experience of everyone who resents. has familiar intercourse with individ

The Nation.


What is the sound and sweetly reasonable view for a man to take of the modern accession of women to the realms of sport? A new epoch in the athletic emancipation of the sex was

inaugurated by the victory of a lady golfer over one of our foremost champions, and, with women fearlessly narigating airships and aeroplanes, there seems, short of polo and the football

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