Page images

plished, its more difficult task remains cis Joseph I., Francis Deák, and Count still to be fulfilled. There is great Andrássy in 1867. According to this need of carrying into effect the pro- principle, it is of absolute necessity posed reforms in the internal adminis- that in polyglot States like Austria and tration of Hungary, and the develop- Hungary there should be one predomment of the common army is also im

inant race. This predominance was perative, in order to safeguard the posi- to be held by the Germans in Austria tion of Austria-Hungary as a great and by the Magyars in Hungary. It Power. There are other questions too, is true that in Austria the Germans in connection with establishing a sys- have to a certain extent lost their op tem of perfect parity between the two portunity of playing the leading part, States of the Austro-Hungarian Mon- for which they are themselves to blame, archy.

but the weakness of the Austrian-GerPublic opinion abroad is, I believe, mans does not imply that the Magyars mainly interested in the internal affairs should follow lead and renounce their of Hungary, so far as it concerns the predominant rôle in Hungary, to which peace among the different nationali- they are entitled, There can be no ties, the problem of social reform, and doubt that the administrative system the franchise reform. Count Khuen- of Hungary is obsolete and its disadHéderváry and his Cabinet will have vantages are felt alike by Magyars no easy task to grapple with these and non-Magyars. The existing franquestions. From the speeches of the chise system is also out of date and has leading statesmen it appears that in to be reformed. solving these problems the Govern- At this juncture it is not inopporment intend to act upon its repeatedly tune to return to the charge brought declared principles.

forward by the Nationalists, that at As to the Nationalist question, it is the last general election they were hamunderstood that the Government's de- pered in the exercise of their political sire is that there should be perfect har- rights. They attribute their defeat to mony between the Magyar and non- a policy of "oppression" pursued by the Magyar inhabitants of Hungary, and Héderváry Government. The Nationthat these latter should enjoy the same alist members were decimated at the rights and share the same duties with elections; only three Slovak and five their Magyar countrymen. This does Roumanian members obtained seats, not mean any renunciation of the pres- not a single Servian or German was reervation of the Magyar national char- turned. The defeat of the “Nationalacter, with which the conquerors and ists,” however, is not due to any campreservers of Hungary have stamped paign of persecution organized against the country. Any effort to change this them, but to the turn of the tide, which constitutional basis would be resisted shattered also the two Independence to the utmost as an infringement of the parties, the Catholic people's party, and right of the Magyars, who constitute the democratic fraction as well. The the greater half of the population, and real cause of this defeat was, that the wbo, not only by their numerical supe- electorate as a whole was imbued by riority, but through their historical past the desire that Parliament should be and eminent political qualities have al- purged of all the extreme elements. ways been the upholders of the King. They condemned the extreme political dom of Hungary. The underlying tenets of the Independents and the principle of this policy is based upon clerical tendencies of the Catholic the "dualistic system" created by Fran- people's party, just as much as they


were tired of the subversive racial pol- to the idea of a Hungarian State, icy of the "Nationalists." They have without any detriment to their own voted for the sober and moderate pol- Nationalist individuality, and have as icy of the new party's platform. a consequence supported the predom

The attitude of the “Nationalist" inant Magyar party. Another inconstituencies in supporting the Gov- stance of quite recent date is that the ernment is deserving of particular at- Servian group, without in any way tention. It is a striking proof that the prejudicing their individuality as Sergreat bulk of the non-Magyar national- vians, were able to contract an alliance ities in Hungary do not approve of the with the ultra-Magyar, chauvinistic extreme policy of "racialism," and of Justh party. This must have been the means the Nationalist agitators present to the mind of Count Stephen have adopted in furtherance of their Tisza when, during the summer sesaims, but that they are desirous of sion of the Lower House, he delivliving at peace with the Magyars. ered an important speech, in which he They have no reason to be discon- condemned the separatist tendencies tented, for the Magyars respect the of the Nationalist policy, and called right of the non-Magyars to their moth- upon the Roumanians in particular to er-tongue to such an extent, that in all relinquish their independent endeavors secondary and borough schools German and to join one of the Hungarian paris an obligatory subject, and the Ser- ties. Count Tisza

evidently vians, Roumanians, and Transylvanian thinking of the new Government party, Saxons have their own elementary and which includes a larger number of secondary schools, where the lan- Servians, Roumanians, Germans, and guage of instruction is Servian, Rou- Slovaks than were ever comprised in manian and German respectively; and any separate Nationalist group.

As a in the University of Budapest there are result of Count Stephen Tisza's speech, ordinary professorships for the Servian negotiations were opened with the (Croatian), Roumanian, and German leaders of the Roumanians, the majorlanguages. If anything, this is a proof ity of whom are evidently in favor of that the charge so frequently brought peace, for they know that of all naforward abroad, that the Hungarian tionalities in Hungary their situation is Government Magyarizes the non-Mag- the most advantageous. They enjoy yars by force, is totally unfounded. complete autonomy in respect of their Indeed, there is not a shadow of truth Church and of their schools. Morein this accusation. In fact, the num- over, particularly in Transylvania, ber of Slovaks, Roumanians, and Ser- they have so wide a scope in the field vians is not only not decreasing, but in of agriculture and banking affairs that several parts of the country a not in- even the most superficial observer canconceivable number of the German- not fail to notice the gradual eliminaspeaking population is continually be- tion of the Saxons and the "Szeklers." ing absorbed by the Roumanians and The Roumanian bishops and many the Slovaks. This is the case in members of the educated Roumanian Transylvania and in Upper Hungary. classes are Magyarophile, and are workThe sober elements of the Nationalists ing in the interests of peace between have always recognized that they are Magyars and Roumanians. It is to be bound to go hand in hand with the hoped that before long these efforts Magyars, as even the Independent will be crowned with success. Saxon people's party in Transylvania A series of important measures are have always professed their allegiance before Parliament, the passing of

which is imperative as well for the wel- payment in specie, which already exfare of Hungary as that of the Dual ists in practice, shall be formally acMonarchy. Of course, the paramount knowledged. This would facilitate question of Hungarian politics is the the quotation on foreign exchanges of reform of the franchise. The new Hungarian Government stocks, the is. Government's attitude is "More baste, sue of which is to a large extent deless speed.” It is th intention to pendent upon participation of foreign wait for the data of the census, which capital. The extension of the Bank began on January 1 this year. This Charter until the year 1917, is just unis intended to be taken as a basis on der discussion in the Hungarian Parwhich the Reform Bill shall be drawn liament, and it seems likely that the up. It seems that the Government's measure will be passed at a very early programme does not embrace Count day. Andrássy's system of plural voting. As to the “Military Question," time is There is a plan of distributing the con- pressing. During the seven-year cristituencies in such a manner as to pre- sis which has raged concerning this vent the natural supremacy of the Mag- question, the Austro-Hungarian army yars being impaired or weakened by and navy have been unable to be de“Nationalist" or "Socialist" tendencies. veloped sufficiently to keep pace with As a corollary to the Reform Bill, the the progress made by other Powers, Government proposes to reform the ad- and the state of things in the army and ministrative system on a centralistic navy may be best gauged from the principle, in order to put an end to the words used by Baron Schönaich, the prevailing abuses, preserving, however, Common Minister for War, who said: as far as possible the autonomy of the "Unless the obstacle which has hithcounties in local affairs.

These ques erto stood in the way of the developtions, requiring, as they do, a large ment of the army, namely, the deamount of work, are not likely to be mands of Hungary, are removed withrealized until the autumn of the com- out delay, it is doomed to die of coning year.

sumption." The matters receiving immediate at- Small wonder that the military questention of the Government are those tion is weighing heavily upon the Govreferring to the bank and military ernment. To meet the expenses needed questions, especially the latter, which for the development of the army and has to be settled before the bringing in navy, the Common War Minister reof the Army Bill (supply of recruits). quires huge sums of money, far in exThese are the two cardinal points in cess of the means provided by the norHungarian politics, causing many a mal War Budget for 1910. The Govcrisis and obstruction, and it is by no ernment, of course, anxious to maintain means impossible that during the pres- the position of the monarchy as a great ent winter session they will again pro- Power and to enable it to pursue its voke violent scenes in Parliament. policy of peace, is obliged to supply Both sides of the Dual Monarchy are the expenses, so far as the resources equally concerned that these questions of the country will permit. Conseshould be peacefully settled without de- quently, it is expected that the new lay.

Army Bill, to be laid shortly before the In connection with the renewal of Hungarian and Austrian Parliaments, the Bank charter, the Government in- while raising the number of recruits tends to come to an agreement with the supplied by Hungary, will involve an Austrian Cabinet that the principle of annual increase in expenditure of a

permanent character. It is not doubted blems, the introduction of the Hungathat the majority both in Parliament rian language in the army, and of a and in the Delegation (a council of del- new military criminal procedure. The egates elected by the Hungarian and Hungarian and Austrian authorities Austrian Parliaments to decide upon are already discussing the details of “common" affairs) will endorse the settling these questions, and the SovGovernment's views in this respect. ereign himself has given his consent,

It might be of interest to say a few recognizing that they are not detriwords, at this juncture, concerning the mental to the efficiency of the "commilitary reforms, so frequently heard mon” army. It is to be hoped that afof in connection with Hungarian pol- ter the solution of these contentious itics. There is a strong desire that problems, which for the last decade the Hungarian part of the common have paralyzed the political life of the (Austro-Hungarian) army should be country, a period of calm and construcgiven a certain national character. tive work will set in. The Government, though it stands on Before a thorough clearing up of the the basis of the "sixty-seven" princi- political horizon, it is possible that the ples, cannot ignore these demands, Hungarian Parliament will be the deeply rooted as they are in the Mag- scene of some stormy debates, but the yar population of Hungary.

large and united majority of the GovTo satisfy this popular wish, the ernment is bound to come out victoGovernment feels it its duty to carry rious. The spirit of the "National out progressively the stipulations con- Work" party seems to be confidence tained in the programme formulated by in itself and in its leader. Count a committee consisting of members of Khuen-Héde ry's position at Court, the former Liberal party in 1903— his political past, and his charm of known as the “Committee of Nine.” manner, fit him to play the part of a These reforms are not incompatible statesman who has to fulfil a great with the principles of parity enunci- mission. He is also ably seconded by ated in the Compromise of 1867, and his colleagues in the Cabinet, which indo not prejudice the Constitutional pre- cludes such eminent men as Mr. de rogatives of the Sovereign as the head Hieronymi, the Minister of Commerce. of the army, as to questions regarding A Government composed of first-rate the organization and supreme control politicians and supported by a large, of the military forces. The reforms united majority augurs well for the tending to emphasize the political in- resurrection of the high standard of dependence of Hungary as a State, re- parliamentary life, which characterfer to such matters, as military em- ized Hungary of the past. The National Revlew.

W. de Ruttkay.

By M. E, FRANCIS (Mrs. Francis Blundell).

CHAPTER XXI. An hour or two later Sam arrived, very hot, dusty, and anxious; the horse, which he had borrowed, had managed to pick up a stone on the way, and Sam, being unused to drive, and ab

sorbed in his own thoughts, had failed to notice this fact for some time, with the result that the poor animal was now lame. The thought of the blame which awaited him on his return lay heavy on young Sam's heart and

whetted his wrath against his sister. was threatened with "a rod in pickle." If she had behaved as a respectable "Maybe I'll have summat to say girl ought to behave, he told himself, too!" he cried angrily. “ 'Tis all very he would have been spared all this well to talk about joyful meetings, but trouble and possible expenseas like I think folks what does wrong did as not he would be held answerable for · ought to be held accountable for the accident.

it." It was with a lowering brow that he "True, indeed, my son," said the tied up the horse to the gate post and elder Strange severely; "I'm glad to strode into the house. Had he not hear you admit it." been so much preoccupied with his "Come, Mr. Strange," observed Davengeful thoughts, he would have no- vid, with a pleasant smile, 'this is a ticed the familiar appearance of an- happy occasion, as you did say just other horse which was browsing at the now, and I hope you'll let bygones be opposite side of the lane, and of the bygones. I'm pleased to make accart wbich stood shafts downward quaintance wi' my new brother-in-law, close beside the hedge.

and I'm sure if he has made any slips He marched up the flagged path with in the past he'll be ready to turn over his most manly stride, and burst in a new leaf now." upon a peaceful family party assem- "Come and sit ye down, my dear," bled at tea. On Mr. Strange's right cried Mrs. Strange in a pleading whiswas seated Tamsine, and next her, per. “There, I dare say father'll fordressed in his Sunday clothes, and get all about your foolishness, if ye looking perfectly happy and at ease, don't go for to vex en now; an' 'twould was shepherd Davidge; at the very really be a pity to spoil every one's moment that Sam entered his mother pleasure this happy day." was replenishing the stranger's cup, She twitched him by the sleeve as while Tom Strange, with his blandest she spoke, but he jerked away smile, was plying him with currant his arm, looking angrily from David to cake.

Tamsine. “What's the meanin' o' this?” cried "Brother-in-law!" ejaculated he. "I the young emissary of justice, stopping didn't know it had got so far as that, short in the doorway.

though indeed I heard o' Tamsine's "Why, 'tis Sam!” exclaimed Mrs. going-on." Strange. "I d' 'low it'll not be so "Hush, for shame, Sam. You didn't much of a surprise to you as to we, ought to speak of your sister like that, Sam. Your sister Tamsine has been and such a steady maid, one we do all tellin' us about her young man an' know as is to be trusted anywhere." brought en over to see us.”

"I will speak,” cried Sam; "I—" Mr. Strange cleared his throat and "Samuel," interrupted his father, gazed sternly at his son.

with a threatening movement of the "I be sorry," he remarked, “as this head and shoulders, “if you do so much shouldn't be a joyful meeting for all as say one word more to insult your parties, but I'll have a word or two to sister an' her future husband you'll say to you presently, Samuel."

just walk out o' this house an never The wind was taken out of Sam's show your face here again. I must sails with a vengeance! There sat the 'polygize for my son's forgetting hisculprits, whom he had come to de- self like this,” he added, turning with nounce, in the full enjoyment of the a dignified air to David, “but there, family favor, while he, the avenger, he've been keeping low company of

« PreviousContinue »