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wood, or rippled water or broken kin's theories form the very foundaclouds, much may be done by touches tion of impressionist painting; and no or crumbling dashes of rather dry better origin can be desired. color, with other colors afterwards put To sum up and rebut much irresponcunningly into the interstices. The sible criticism. An impressionist picmore you practice this, when the sub- ture worthy the title is highly finished ject evidently calls for it, the more --for that which is completed is finyour eye will enjoy the higher qualities ished. It is definite as the solution of of color. The process is, in fact, the a problem of Euclid. It is so full of carrying out of the principle of sepa- knowledge that only people of cultirate colors to the utmost possible refine- vated taste can fully appreciate its ment: using atoms of color in jurtapo merit. It is subtle, refined and of sition, instead of large spaces.”
infinite resource. It is a vital art. For striking examples of results to It is a cheerful, optimistic picture, be attained by this method see Monet's nobly uplifting, good and healthy to live series of “Poplar Trees" and "Hay- with-a veritable antidote to the blues. stacks in Sunlight”; observe the dark- Indeed, so charming is it that throughened edges of the trunks and leaves out a lifetime's association it retains where the highest light pours around its power of evoking pleasurable emothem, and note also the quality of tion. It never palls. One is atpaint by which that light is arrived at, tracted by its freedom and freshness, and particularly study the shadows for at a single glance one perceives the cast by those leaves, trees and stacks. art to be the outcome of a joyful spirit, All this must surely come as a revela- untrammelled by fetters of tradition or tion to most people, even to profes- the theories of scholiasts. sional artists.? Never have Ruskin's Finally, we have in impressionist pictheories been more convincingly put tures an unconventional rendering of into practice than by Monet's practice, Nature. We almost feel the vibration and never has pioneer artist's practice and palpitation of light and heat; they been so triumphantly vindicated and are fresh, radiant and sweet as a noseconfirmed as by Lumière's scientific gay of spring flowers, and give a mardemonstrations in color photography. vellously deceptive appearance of open
I am compelled to cease my analogies air and movement which must be seen here, but the student who will trouble to be believed. The cult of sun-worto dig into “The Elements of Drawing" ship, of joy in sparkling color, of pure will discover how, in the matter of health-giving open-air art must, sooner composition, of touch, of tree drawing, or later, predominate in England as it and the rendering of sea and sky, Rus- already predominates throughout the
world. • Readers who are interested will find many
The mission of Impressionism collections of Impressionist pictures readily is to depict beauty that elevates, light accessible in Paris (as, in lesser degree, they will find them in every great art gallery
that cheers. throughout the world). The principal Parisian collections which I recall to mind are
It may be said that we are all imthe following (there are very many others, some perhaps even more important than the
pressionists now. Certainly of art majority here listed): - The Count Comando, students, the future directors of taste, Baron Hy, de Rothschild, Monsieur DurandRuel, of 16 Rue Laffitte and owner of the com- that is a fact, for practically all those prehensive Rue-de-Rome collection, Georges Viau, M. Waldeck-Rousseau, M.M. Bernheim
who take up landscape painting as et Fils, of the Avenue de l'Opéra; the Caillebotte legacy of the Luxembourg Gallery (by
their life's work follow with admirano means the best. even of the earlier co lec- tion the route laid out in such peril and tions but historically interesting); and, lastly, the rost recent and most magnificent giři privation by the great pioneers of imever received by the Rouen Art Gallery, namely that of thilate Monsieur Dupeaux.,
pressionist painting. All honor to them! The Contemporary Review,
“THE NEW ERA IN HUNGARY."
a new era.
Hungary is witnessing the dawn of time the government has been carried
As a Hungarian living in on in an unconstitutional way, namely, England, I think it may interest the without a Cabinet having its root in British reader to hear from an Parliament, the Exchequer having no biased source the scope and the signifi- Budget-in one word, that state of af. cance of this new era. To under- fairs prevailed which is called in Hunstand fully the present situation we gary "ex-lex.” In April 1906 there was have to look back to the recent his- a change for the better. Between the tory of Hungarian politics.
Crown and the parties a compromise After the conclusion of the compro- was effected, and the different parties mise between Austria and Hungary in having agreed to a working arrange 1867, a strong "dualistic" party--the ment, the Coalition Cabinet came into Liberal party-took in hand the reins power. of government of Hungary. The This Coalition Ministry led by Dr. leader of this party, Koloman de Tisza, Wekerle, Francis Kossuth, and Count ruled over Parliament for fifteen Andrássy accepted office on the underyears.
His successors followed in his standing that the demands of Hungary footsteps, and the Liberal régime saw relating to the Army—the main cause thirty years of power.
In 1905 a of an endless crisis—were to be shelved. swing of the pendulum swept the Lib- Though these were the terms of the un. eral party away.
It seemed as if it derstanding between Crown and Coalhad been annihilated.
ition, there was an inclination to beInstead of the Liberal party with its lieve that the Independence party, with overwhelming majority in Parliament, its absolute majority in the Coalition several other parties came to the front. Government and in Parliament, would The hitherto small group of Independ- be able to stamp the new Administraents, whose creed is that of the Revolu- tion with an "anti-dualistic" tendency tion of 1848, viz., the severance from
of its own. These beliefs were not · Austria and the creation of an Inde- realized. The Coalition was unable to pendent Hungary under the rule of the carry out any reforms tending towards Habsburgs, became a party to be reck- the economic separation of Hungary oned with. Another party was that of from Austria, one of the main points the adherents to the compromise of of the Independent programme. The 1867, the “Constitutional Party," and Independent party was anxious to another the “Clerical Party,” also make a stride in this direction, and adherents to the union with Austria. seized the opportunity of the expiration None of these parties were strong of the Charter of the Austro-Hungarian enough to play a leading rôle, and the Bank of issue, as an opportune moment King, who would only entrust the gor- for the creation of a soparate Hungaernment to a party which stands on rian State Bank. the basis of the compromise with Aus- This question, affecting, as it does, tria, had to resort to expedients, the principles of "dualism,” provoked which, however, proved unsuccessful. discord in the ranks of the Coalition, Crisis followed crisis, Parliament was for the "sixty-seven” parties, especially dissolved by military force, endless ne- the Constitutional party, as a staunch gotiations between the Crown and po- supporter of the compromise of 1867, litical groups led to no result. Mean
opposed it. Dissension broke out in
the ranks of the Independence party mise (Ausgleich) of 1867. He has had, itself; the foremost champion of the too, some experience as a parliamenimmediate establishment of an, inde- tarian, owing to the fact that some fifpendent Hungarian Bank of issue, Mr. teen years ago, after the great crisis in de Justh, conspiring against his leader, connection with the clerical reforms, Francis Kossuth, hoisted his own flag as a confidential man of the Crown be and split the Independence party in was premier designate; again later, in two. This ultra-Independence 1903, after the fall of Kálmán de Széll, party, with some 140 followers, threw at the time of a serious crisis raging down the gauntlet, and by means of a concerning the military questions, he violent campaign for month after was for a few months Prime Minister month paralyzed the activity of Parlia- of Hungary. This time Count Héderment. Count Andrássy, Francis Kos- váry again took office at a critical mosuth, and his more moderate support- ment. His first object was to restore ers were unable to save the situation order in Parliament and to start it to and the Coalition Government was work, in order to re-establish the plunged into a protracted crisis, and finances and the administration of the though for a time it still remained in State to their normal constitutional power, yet the course of disintegra- condition. At the same time, he aimed tion became more and more evident. at the re-establishment of good relaA state of “ex-lex" again ensued, and tions between the Crown and the couna new conflict with the Crown was im- try, between Hungary and Austria, minent. Numerous attempts
thus consolidating afresh the principles made to form a Cabinet, but they re- of dualism, which were threatening to mained unsuccessful, as there was no collapse. And finally, he wished to reliable majority to support it. The place the Dual Monarchy on a firm baCoalition had lost credit with the Sov- sis as a great Power. The new Prime ereign and with the country alike. The Minister began his work by making an Government formed from its ranks endeavor to obtain a majority in the was, however, unable to leave its post, existing Parliament, elected under the while there seemed to be no prospect régime of the Coalition. He could of a new Executive. It seemed as if achieve only a partial success. The the seven-year crisis had absorbed the Catholic People's party looked upon whole supply of Hungarian statesmen. him as an ultra-Liberal, and showed no Wekerle, Kossuth, Apponyi, Andrássy, inclination to join him at the cost of had fallen; the attempts to entrust the renouncing their political creed. Count premiership to Ladislas Lukács and John Zichy, who was subsequently apCount John Zichy failed; there seemed pointed Minister of Public Instruction, to be no way out of a chaos which succeeded in bringing one-half of the was reaching its climax.
Constitutional party into the ranks of At this juncture, in the middle of the followers of the Premier, whilst the January 1910, Count Khuen-Héderváry other half, following their leader Count accepted office as Premier, on a strictly Andrássy, did not accept either the dualistic basis. This statesman, who military reforms proposed, or the whole during his long tenure of the Govern- political programme of the new Caborship of Croatia has given ample inet, and consequently remained pasproofs of eminent administrative qual. sive, joining neither the Government ities, and of unswerving loyalty to the nor the Opposition. In the Lower dynasty, was also known to be an un- House itself, Count Khuen-Héderváry dinching supporter of the compro- repeatedly endeavored to prevail upon
VOL. LI. 2666
the House to vote a Budget, so as to ated from the Coalition, mainly avoid an "ex-lex" state. He was not through the agitation which Mr. de only unsuccessful, but the Radical In- Justh, who wrecked the large Indedependents, who had up to that time pendence party, carried on with everentertained hopes, that the King would increasing violence in favor of the Inentrust them to form a Government un- dependent Hungarian Bank. der the control of a “sixty-seven” poli- So the Coalition has been sbattered tician like Mr. de Lukács, or Count to pieces. It came into power four John Zichy, when totally disillusioned, years ago amid an excess of national became so exasperated, that they deliv. enthusiasm, but its loose organization ered an attack in Parliament against soon began to tell. It was clear that Count Khuen-Héderváry and his fellow with its undermining internal strife it Ministers, bombarding them with ink- is impossible to do continued conpots and other missiles. This incident
structive work. Indeed, the elements aroused indignation, not only amongst constitúting the Coalition were too the cooler-headed parties in the Opposi. heterogeneous. The mainstay of the tion, but also in the country, and thus Coalition, the Independence party, had sealed the fate of this Parliament. It
obtained in 1906 a majority, by indulghad long been ripe for dissolution, and
ing in catchwords of political radicalit only survived through the internal ism, but when once in power, they weakness of the Wekerle-Kossuth Cab
were obliged to shelve their "fortyinet. Count Khuen-Héderváry did eight" aspirations and revert to a "sixnot hesitate to dissolve a Parliament, ty-seven" basis. If there is any proof of which showed no inclination to work, the practically indestructible vitality of and appealed to the country.
the "sixty-seven" programme, and the The general elections were held in unsuitability of the “forty-eight” prinJune 1910, and Count Héderváry ob- ciples, as a basis for government in a tained a large majority. The "Na
dynastic country like Hungary, it is tional Work” party has been consti- this reversion of the Independents to tuted, its very name indicating that
the principles professed by the “sixtythe party meant to work in Parliament. seven" parties. While in office, Mr. The members of this new party were de Kossuth himself, although when adrecruited partly from the ranks of the dressing the people or his fellow Inde once powerful Liberal party. Count pendents, he emphasized his adherence Stephen Tisza, a worthy son of the to the “forty-eight” policy, was at the former great leader of the Liberals, same time compelled to confess that Koloman de Tisza, gave Count Héder- in practical politics, in the possession váry very valuable support during the of the Executive, there is no other alelectioneering campaign. A consid- ternative but to follow the line of possierable' number of the adherents of the bilities, and that the "sixty-seven" “Constitutional party" also joined the dualistic basis, so highly respected by new party, and Count John Zichy, a the Crown, cannot, and in the interpolitician of great authority with the est of the State ought not to, be weakCatholics, and a persona grata with the ened. It is this very reason wbich King and the Crown Prince Francis brought the great bulk of the "fortyFerdinand, has, by joining the new eight” electors to the conclusion, that Cabinet, greatly strengthened the Pre- the principles of the Independent party mier's position. The victory at the exclude those who profess them from polls was also facilitated owing to the being entrusted with the national govsympathy of public opinion being alien- ernment. This conviction struck deeper and deeper amongst the masses during re-establishment of good relations bethe closing months of the Coalition tween the Crown and Hungary, and régime, as a result of the destructive by strengthening the “sixty-seven" character of the agitation in favor of principles, to eliminate the ever-recuran Independent Bank, that led to a ring constitutional conflicts, which sericomplete stagnation of parliamentary ously threatened the time-proved polactivity. This was the “psychological icy of “dualism." The approval of the moment" which Count Khuen-Héder- electorate of these is of weighty sigváry, with the intuitive foresight of nificance. a statesman, grasped, and which When Count Khuen-Héderváry enprompted him to enter the electioneer- tered Parliament last July with his large ing campaign at the right moment. majority, he at once set to work to carry
An analysis of the results of the last into effect the main points of his politpolls gives a clue to the change of pub- ical scheme. The activity of the leglic opinion in Hungary. At the elec- islative body was restored, thus the tions of 1901 under Kálmán de Széll, of country was saved from the disastrous 754,702 votes polled, 558,158 (that is, state of “ex-lex," the finances and ad77.7 per cent. of the whole) were re- ministration of the country having corded for "sixty-seven" candidates. been promptly put in working order At the elections held under Count again. The Opposition, leaving their Stephen Tisza in 1905, out of 800,982 bag and baggage behind at the election votes polled, only 500,105 (63 per cent.) contests, was reduced to disunited were obtained by "sixty-seven" candi- fractions without physical or morat dates, and of these no more than 297,- force to enable them to make a stand 941 were recorded for candidates put against the Government. During the up by the Liberal party. At the elec- debate on the Address they made a tions conducted by the Coalition Gov- faint show of displaying some energy, ernment in 1906, the proportion of "six- reproaching the Government with havty-seven" votes was still further re ing obtained its majority by illegal duced. Out of 839,830 votes polled, means. The Government, however, only 316,165 (37.7 per cent.) were se- proved conclusively that, although cured by “sixty-seven" candidates. some excesses might bave happened on And the result achieved by Count the Government side, such as will hapKhuen-Héderváry at the elections last pen in the heat of any contest, the OpJune was, that out of 847,512 votes re- position themselves were none too discorded, 555,988 (65.6 per cent.) were criminating in the choice of their measpolled by “sixty-seven” candidates, a ures, and that a considerable number considerably larger proportion than of civil servants agitated and voted that secured by the “forty-eight” candi- openly against the Government candidates in 1906. This is a clear proof dates. After the debate on the Adthat public opinion has been alienated dress was concluded, other urgent quesfrom the "forty-eight” policy, for which tions were settled, and in the space of a as recently as 1906 no fewer than 520,- few weeks the provisional Budget and 026 votes (61.9 per cent.) were polled, the Army Bill, granting the supply of while last June only 33.4 per cent. recruts, were voted. The Opposition (282,791) of the total number of votes was compelled to bow before the sufell in favor of “forty-eight” candi- periority of the Government majority dates. The electorate of the country and the verdict of the electorate. Algave its sanction to Count Khuen though the immediate objects of the Héderváry's chief objects, namely, the Government have thus been accom