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times agriculture was little understood. It required more labour and expence, and was more precarious, than it is at present. Indeed, notwithstanding the high price of corn in the times we are speaking of, the raising of it so little answered the expence, that agriculture was almost universally quitted for grasing ; which was more profitable, notwithstanding the low price of butchers meat. So that there was constant occasion for statutes to restrain grafing, and to promote agriculture; and no effectual remedy was found, till the bounty upon the exportation of corn; fince which, above ten times more corn has been raised in this country than before. The price of corn in the time of James H. and consequently that of other necessaries of life, was not lower, but rather higher than at present; wool is not two thirds of the value it was then ; the finer manufactures having sunk in price by the progress of art and industry, notwithftanding the increase of money. Butchers meat was higher than at present. Prince Henry made an allowance of near 4d. per pound for all the beef and mutton used in his family. This may be true with respect to London; but the price of butchers meat in the country, which does not even now much exceed this price at a medium, has certainly greatly increased of late years, and particularly in the northern counties. The prices of commodities are higher in England than in France, befides that the poor people of France live upon much less than the poor in England, and their armies are maintained at less expence. It is computed by Mr Hume, that a British army of zo, coo men is maintained at near as great an expence as 63,000 in France, and that the English fleet, in the war of 1741, required as much money to support it, as all the Roman legions in the time of the Emperors. However, all that we can conclude from this is, that money is much more plentiful in Europe at present than it was in the Roman empire. In the 13th century the common interest which the Jews had for their money, Voltaire says, was 2.0 per cent. But with regard to this we must confider the great contempt that nation was always held in,
the large contributions they were fre
quently obliged to pay, the risk they run
for never receiving the principal, the fre
otent confiscation of all their effects, and Wol. LI.
and flowers, were placed 11 large filver candlesticks with funeral wax tapers. The three flags of the deceased were hung at the head of the bed ; two officers of the State Major, and fix Captains of the Marine, who were alternately relieved, attended at the sides of the bed, and two Lieutenants guarded the door of the hall, and sub-officers from thence quite to the door of the court; also a number of priwate centinels. On the day of interment, the company assembled at noon, and just before the corpse was moved, Lieutenant Colonel Baron Van den Pahlen made an admirable speech in honour of the deceased. After this was finished the procession began to move, which was announced by the firing of a cannon, which was answered immediately from the ramparts and from the squadron, and continued every minute during the whole ceremony. Part of the troops under the command of Lieutenant-General Kochius lined the ftreets, from the Admiralty to the Cathedral. The train was opened by a body of Schwartzhaupt's cavalry, with their standards lowered, and preceded by solemn music, under the command of Captain Illig; then followed a company of the Empress's grenadiers, with their arms and colours lowered ; after them the Public School of the town, with their. Preceptor, then the Clergy, and after a Herald; next went General Lehman of the Marine Artillery, with his two Marshalls; then the fix stools, with the Admiral's staff, and the enfigns of the five different Orders, carried by 18 officers of the State Major, taken from the different corps who had served under the Admiral. The three flags carried by three of. ficers of the fleet, followed by the Urn, carried by two more. Then the body, on a funeral bier, drawn by fix horses, covered with black cloth, and led by fix bombardiers, on the fide of whom went the domestics of the deceased in mourning. Twelve captains of ships followed, with their coxswains as porters. At the back of the funeral bier followed Major-General Wrangel, Governor of this town ; the staff, and other officers of the State Major, two and two—all the officers of Government according to their ranks—the noblesse and the citizens. Two marshals with their staves, and a company of infantry, with arms lowered, and drums covered with mourning, closed the procession. In the