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PONAT NATURAE no caesura in 3rd or 4th foot, so XIV 108 inviti quoque avaritiam exercere iubentur. With the thought cf. Cic. Cat. mai. § 5 it is not probable that Nature, like an idle poet, should slur over the last act of life. Sen. cons. ad Marc. 19 §§ 4-5 cogita nullis defunctum malis adfici, illa quae nobis inferos faciunt terribiles, fabulam esse... luserunt ista poetae et vanis nos agitavere terroribus. mors dolorum omnium exsolutio est et finis. In many passages Seneca approaches to the Christian view of death and the life to come ep. 102 § 26 dies iste, quem tamquam extremum reformidas, aeterni natalis est. ['EXTREMUM INTER MUNERA NATURAE=ễσxaтov тŵv púσeɩ åɣaðŵv, cf. 188 da spatium vitae: far from being the proper object of a wise man's prayers'. J. B. M.]

359 QUOSCUMQUE indefinite quoslibet III 156. 230. XIII 56. 89. XIV 42. 117. 210. cf. X 271 utcumque. Observe the rime labores potiores labores 359–361. cf. Cic. Tusc. I §§ 69. 85. On the repetition of labores see n. on 191-2. XIV 47—8.

360 NESCIAT IRASCI Sen. de ir. II 6 argues against the doctrine that virtue turpibus irata esse debet. see on the Stoic 'apathy' Cic. fin. III § 35. Tusc. IV §§ 10 seq. 34 seq. acad. I§ 38. DL. VII §§ 113-4.

CUPIAT NIHIL 4-5 n. Chrysippus in Sen. ep. 9 § 14 sapientem nulla re egere, et tamen multis illi rebus opus esse.

361 HERCULIS II 19-20 peiores, qui talia verbis | Herculis invadunt. VIII 14 n.


HERCULIS AERUMNAS cf. the labours of Bellerophon, Perseus, Theseus, Ulixes, and of Psyche in Apuleius. Cic. fin. II § 118 to an Epicurean percontare ipse te, perpetuisne malis voluptatibus perfruens in ea quam saepe usurpabas tranquillitate degere omnem aetatem sine dolore, ...... an cum de omnibus gentibus optime mererere, vel Herculis pati aerumnas? sic enim maiores nostri labores non fugiendos tristissimo tamen verbo aerumnas etiam in deo nominaverunt. Sen. const. sap. 2 § 1 the gods have given to us in Cato a more certain model of a sage than they gave to early ages in Ulixes and Hercules. hos enim Stoici nostri sapientes pronuntiaverunt, invictos laboribus, contemptores voluptatis et victores omnium terrarum. id. ben. I 13 § 3 in contrast with Alexander, a brigand from childhood, Hercules nihil sibi vicit: orbem terrarum transivit non concupiscendo, sed vindicando. cf. the famous myth of Prodicus (Xen. mem. II I § 21. Cic. off. I § 118 Beier). More than one treatise of Antisthenes, founder of the cynic school, bore the name of Herakles DL. VI §§ 16. 18. He shewed that labour was a good by the examples of Herakles and Cyrus ib. § 3. Kleanthes

was called a second Herakles DL. VII § 170. Prud. hamart. 401 hinc gerit Herculeam vilis sapientia clavam. Lucian vit. auct. 8 Diogenes is asked 'Whom do you emulate?'"Herakles." "Why then do you not also don the lion's skin? for as to the club, in that you are like him.' "This threadbare cloak is my lion's skin, like him I wage war upon pleasures, not by order, but of my own free will, making it my vocation to purge life of them." Iulian or. 6 p 187 S the more generous Cynics aver that the great Herakles also, as he became the author of our other blessings, so also left to mankind the chief pattern of this [Cynic] life too.'

362 PLUMA I 159 n. Sen. de prov. 3 § 10 of Maecenas tam vigilabit in pluma, quam ille [Regulus] in cruce cet. Mart. IX 92 3 4 dat tibi securos vilis tegeticula somnos, pervigil in pluma Gaius ecce iacet. Cic. Att. x 8 § 7 nisi forte me Sardanapalli vicem in meo lectulo mori malle censueris quam in exsilio Themistocles.

SARDANAPALLI schol. S. rex Assyriorum luxuriosus. de quo Tullius in tertio de republica sic ait: S. ille vitiis multo quam nomine ipso deformior. His effeminacy proverbial paroem. gr. II 207 Leutsch Zapd. ènì Tŵv ȧßрodialтwv. ib. 600 πάναβρος Σ. ἐπὶ τῶν τρυφώντων καὶ πολυόλβων. ib. I 449. Iust. 1 3 S. the last king of Assyria, vir muliere corruptior. Arbactus, general of the Medes, having with difficulty gained admission to his presence, found him inter scortorum greges purpuras colo nentem et muliebri habitu, cum mollitia corporis et oculorum lascivia omnes feminas anteiret, pensa inter virgines partientem. The plot is successful; Sard. burns himself with his treasures. Mart. XI 11 5 6 te potare decet gemma, qui Mentora frangis | in scaphium moechae, Sardanapalle, tuae. Two epitaphs of S. the one in Assyrian characters at Anchiale Strabo 672 (cf. Arr. anab. II 5 § 4. Ath. 530) 'S. son of Anakyndaraxes built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day: eat, drink, and be merry, ooie, wîve, taîše, for all else is not worth this' (a snap of the fingers, cf. 1 Cor. 15 32): the other a Chaldean inscription on the tomb of Sard. at Nineveh, translated by Choerilus (Ath. 529) into Greek. DS. II 23 TaÛT' ἔχω ὅσσ ̓ ἔφαγον καὶ ἐφύβρισα καὶ μετ ̓ ἔρωτος | τέρπν ̓ ἔπαθον, τὰ δὲ πολλὰ καὶ ὄλβια κεῖνα λέλειπται, an epitaph, as Aristotle (Cic. Tusc. v § 101 Dav.) says, fitter for an ox than a king. On S. the conqueror, the mighty hunter, his stately palaces, and rich library of brick books, of which fragments are preserved in the British Museum, see Rawlinson's five great monarchies c. 9. Modern writers place him (or them, for some make as many as four of the name) at dates varying from the 10th to the 7th cent. B.C. In classical antiquity he is the typical voluptuary, M. JUV. III. 8

and the last king of Assyria. Moderns (O. Müller, Movers etc.) find in him the Asiatic Hercules.

363 MONSTRO XIV 256. Gronovius on Sen. de ben. IV 28 shews that the word is technically used of physicians' prescriptions.

QUOD IPSE TIBI POSSIS DARE Hor. ep. 1 18 111-2 sed satis est orare Iovem, quae ponit et aufert, det vitam, det opes; aequum mi animum ipse parabo. cf. the distinction in Epikt. man. I between the things which are and the things which are not ἐφ' ἡμῖν. It is the Stoic αὐτάρκεια Sen. ep. 27 § 3 aliquod potius bonum mansurum circumspice. nullum autem est, nisi quod animus ex se sibi invenit. 41 8 I bonam mentem, quam stultum est optare, cum possis a te inpetrare. Markland cites in contrast 2 Cor. 3 5. Phil.

2 13.


SEMITA properly a narrow track Phaedr. III prol. 38 ego illius pro semita feci viam. Mart. VII 61 et modo quae fuerat semita, facta via est. Often used metaphorically Hor. ep. 1 18 103 fallentis semita vitae.

365 366 the same verses XIV 315 316 n.

NULLUM NUMEN HABES OV. f. VI 241 Mens quoque numen habet. amor. III 9 18 sunt etiam, qui nos (poets) numen habere putent. [Sen. Oct. 933 nullum pietas nunc numen


HABES, SI SIT 339 n.

PRUDENTIA Sen. ep. 85 e. g. § 2 prudens beatus est et prudentia ad beatam vitam satis est. §§ 36-8.

366 XIII 18 n. 20. Preller röm. Myth.1 552-64. Philem. in Clem. Al. str. V § 129 OUK OTIV ημîv ovdeμía тúxn cós. Plin. II 22 invenit......sibi ipsa mortalitas numen......toto quippe mundo et omnibus locis omnibusque horis omnium vocibus Fortuna sola invocatur ac nominatur,......adeoque obnoxiae sumus sortis, ut sors ipsa pro deo sit, qua deus probatur incertus.


At the time of the Megalesian games (193), early in April, Iuv. invites his friend Persicus to a frugal dinner.

The rich epicure is admired; the poor, derided: our housekeeping and our whole plan of life should be in just proportion to our means (1-38). Many, it is true, neglect this golden rule; they riot for a while at Rome, and then retire to Baiae, to avoid their creditors (38-55).

To-day, my friend, you may judge whether I practise the frugality which I preach; whether I live like the worthies of those good old times when heaven itself guarded our city (56 -119), or, like their pampered descendants, can relish no meal but such as is served on the costliest tables, by the most expert and elegant slaves (120-161). Let richer men enliven their feasts by voluptuous songs and dances: here you may listen, if you will, to Homer or his rival Virgil (162-182).

Leave then all care behind you; leave to younger men the dissipation of the Circus, and spend the festival with me in enjoyments better suited to our years (183-208).

Whether Persicus is a real or fictitious character does not appear; it is not certain that Iuvenal would have hesitated to address a living friend in such verses as 186 seq.


Cf. Hor. s. II 2. ep. 1 5. Mart. V 78. X 48. XI 52. Plin. ep. I 15; on luxurious furniture Clem. Al. paed. II c. 3; and on the frugal life of the old Romans VM. IV 4.

1-23 the cost of our table must be proportioned to our means; what is due state in Atticus, is stark madness in Rutilus. Many men waste their estate in dainty living, till at last they are fain to enlist as sword-players, and put up with the hodgepodge of the trainer's barrack.

1 21 22. 171-8. cf. VIII 182 n.

ATTICUS Ti. Claudius Atticus (father of Herodes Atticus), who discovered an immense treasure, the entire enjoyment of which was allowed him by Nerva (Philostr. soph. II I § 3.

Zonar. XI 20). He was twice consul (Philostr. § 1. Suid. 'Hpons), the first time before 859 u. c., for he must have been the Atticus consular legate of Syria in the tenth year of Trajan (Eus. h. e. III 32 §§ 3. 6).

LAUTUS I 67 n.

2 RUTILUS XIV 18 a poor noble.



3 APICIUS IV 23 n. Apion the grammarian wrote a monograph on his luxury Ath. 294.

4 CONVICTUS I 145 n. Quintil. VI 3 § 27 in convictibus et quotidiano sermone. Mart. XII praef. illam iudiciorum subtilitatem, illud materiarum ingenium, bybliothecas, theatra, convictus, in quibus studere se voluptates non sentiunt, ad summam omnia illa, quae delicati reliquimus, desideramus quasi destituti.

THERMAE VII 233 n. Mart. v 20 8-10 of an easy life of enjoyment, sed gestatio, fabulae, libelli, | campus, porticus, umbra, virgo, thermae, | haec essent loca semper, hi labores.

STATIONES Plin. ep. I 13 § 2 plerique in stationibus sedent, tempusque audiendi fabulis conterunt. ib. II 9 § 5 ambio domos stationesque circumeo. dig. XLVII 10 15 § 7 ad stationem vel tabernam. συστάσεις. λέσχαι. Special stationes near the forum for provincial towns Suet. Ner. 37. Plin. XVI § 236.

5 DE RUTILO supply loquuntur XIII 181. XIV 189. Madvig § 447 d.

VALIDA AC IUVENALIA MEMBRA as ) iuvenilis iuvenalis connotes praiseworthy qualities, manly vigour. Verg. Aen. v 475 quae fuerint iuvenali in corpore vires. So iuvenaliter.

6 GALEAE VII 33 patiens cassidis. he might have won honour in the field of battle. cf. Iuv. VIII 199 n.

FERTUR 'is reported'; it is the fabula of every lounge.

7 COGENTE VIII 193 n. The tribune (cf. VII 228 n.) has not indeed assigned over Rutilus's estate to his creditors, and so driven him to engage himself to the lanista for his bread; but yet he has not interposed to save him from a degradation worse than slavery (VIII 199 n.). Prohibeo was the technical form of intercessio on behalf of a citizen Gell. VI VII 19 § 5, and the chief function of the tribunate was jealously to guard the freedom of Roman citizens.

SED NEC Ov. Pont. I 1 19 nec vos hoc vultis, sed nec prohibere potestis. Hand Tursell. IV 117.

NEC PROHIBENTE Stat. s. I 2 193 nec me prohibente.

8 v 122 n. [Quintil.] decl. 302 p. 586 Burman ...illum ergo maiores prohibuerunt theatro, qui utilitate, qui gula se auctorasset. Freemen who engaged themselves as gladiators (se

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