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106-108. hi...hos] i.e. the losing crew'...the 'winning crew.' videntur sc. sibi, 'they think.'

110-111. ponto 'towards the sea.' palmas utrasque poet. for palmam utramque. in votato listen to his vows. Cp. 23.

112. quorum aequora curro] 'whose seas I am coursing over.' The accus. after the intransitive verb curro must be considered partly as an accus. of extension, partly as one of cognate signification, as aequora here means much the same as cursum in aequore. Cp. Aen. 3, 191, vastumque cava trade currimus aequor.

113. voti reus] 'if I become responsible for my vow,' i.c.

if my prayer be answered. reus more often means guilty,'


or accused of,' but may take the gen. of anything for which the person is responsible; L.P. § 133.

118. Portunus] a Roman sea-god identified with the Greek Palaemon, C. The title pater is applied to all gods in solemn prayers.


[Aeneas descends to Hades (as did Ulysses in the Odyssey), to consult the shade of his father as to the place in which the Fates destine him to found his new colony. Having evaded by a drugged cake the watchfulness of Cerberus he enters the gloomy portal. The first place is occupied by the spirits of children, the next by those of the unjustly condemned, the next by those of suicides, the next by those who have died of love.]

2. The infants are said to be placed by Vergil at the entrance [in limine primo] in allusion to the Roman custom of burying infants under the eaves of houses.


3. vitae exsortes] 'that had had no share of the sweetness of life.'

4. mortis] genitive after damnati; L. P. § 133, 3.

6-7. nec vero hae] 'not that even these places are assigned without due allotment, or without a judge.' The lines

mean generally that all the forms of a judicial trial are gone through, although the details cannot be pressed. The sine sorte seems to refer to the drawing of lots for the jury, and the urnam movet to the same. quaesitor is the president of a quaestio in Roman law, originally a commission appointed for the investigation of a particular crime, and afterwards a regular court (quaestio perpetua), presided over by the Praetor or some especially appointed quæsitor.

7-8. concilium silentum] 'the conclave of the dead.' [It is not certain whether concilium ought not to be consilium i.e. the jury.]

9-10. Suicide in a Roman's eyes was no crime in itself. These are the spirits of those who have thrown away their lives without any crime of their own to induce the act, and therefore are worthy neither of reward or punishment, as not having shown what their life would have been if completed, quam vellent 'how ready had they been!' i.e. if it were now any use wishing.

13. fas] 'the law of heaven,' cp. 7, 11.

14. Styx interfusa] cp. 20, 17.

16. crudeli tabe peredit] 'has consumed with its blighting canker,' [' pining pain,' L. L.].

18-19. As in life so in death the solitude. Myrtle' is sacred to Venus. pains.'


pining lovers court curae 'their lovers'

[Anchises tells his son Aeneas of the heroes who are to be famous in Alba and Latium, and then in the Rome which his descendant Romulus is to found. To appreciate this prophecy it would be well to read Lord Macaulay's imitation of it in the Prophecy of Capys. The names are not confined to the descendants of Aeneas, but belong to the whole Latin and Roman name.]

3. nostrum...ituras] 'are destined to share in our nation.' nomen is used as equivalent to a nation, as in the phrases nomen Latinum, nomen Romanum and the like.

47 5-8. pura qui nititur hasta] 'who is leaning on his pointless spear.' The hasta pura was a technical term for the headless spear (sine ferro) given, as some say, to a young soldier after his first success, or, as others, to a general celebrating a triumph. It seems here used as a symbol of peace. postuma proles 'your latest born;' not, as the context shows, posthumous.' Silvius succeeded Ascanius as king of Alba. Italo commixtus sanguine 'with a mixture of Italian blood,' because he was the son of Aeneas' Italian wife Lavinia.

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9-10 educet] 'shall bring forth.' According to other legends Silvius is son of Ascanius.

11., unde] from whom, i.e. as descendants of Silvius.

12-15. The kings of Alba in chronological order, but only five out of a list of thirteen as given by Ovid who omits Aeneas Silvius. Si unquam if he ever do obtain the royalty of Alba,' referring to the legend of his having been long kept out of his kingdom by his guardian.

16. qui juvenes] 'what goodly princes these!'

17. civili quercu] 'the oaken garland' presented for the preservation of the life of a citizen.

18-20. Some of the names of the Latin towns (Vetus Latium) which made up the Nomen Latinum, and whose connection with Alba was long maintained by their joining in common worship in the temple of Jupiter Latiaris on the mountain above Alba [Monte Cavo]. imeonent montibus refers to all the towns, which as noted of the Etruscan towns [11, 21] were usually built on various hills in Latium.

Collatia] gave its name to one of the Tarquins. Gabii was captured by Tarquinius Superbus. [From it came the term cinctus Gabinus, cp. 35, 12; see Con. on Aen. 7, 106]. Castrum Inui near Ardea in the country of the Rutuli. Inuus a Latin deity answering to Pan, cp. Liv. 1, 5, Lycaeum Pana venerantes ... quem Romani deinde vocaverunt Inuum. Fidena Castel Giubile five miles from Rome, destroyed B.C. 438. Pometii called also Suessa Pometia captured by Tarquinius Superbus.

21. nomina 'well-known names,' i.e. names of wellknown places.

22. avo] sc. Numitor, who, according to the legend, was restored by his grandson Romulus to the throne from which he had been unjustly ousted by his brother Amulius. comitem ' ally.'

23. Assaricus] great-grandfather of Aeneas.

24-25. geminae cristae] 'the double crest,' like those on the helmet of his father Mars. superum signat 'marks him out as god that is to be,' i.e. by thus decorating him with his own distinctive emblem, marks him out for future deification.

26-27. hujus auspiciis 'with him as her founder.' Romulus obtained the honour of founding and naming the new city of Rome by the omen of the twelve vultures. incluta [clueo, KλUTÓS, Kλów] 'much heard of,' 'famous.' animos 'pride.'

28. septem arces] i.e. the seven hills.


29-32. Rome is to be the mother of great men, as Cybelè is the mother of the gods. There is a special reference to the deified line of the Julian Gens. Cybele is called Berecyntia from Berecyntus a mountain in Phrygia. turrita 'towercrowned.' Cybelè is always represented with a crown in the shape of a battlemented tower. Lucretius (2,606) gives the


Muralique caput summum cinxere corona
eximiis munita locis quia sustinet urbes.

supera alta tenentes] i.e. all in heaven as gods.

33-34. gentem] i.e. the Gens Julia. Caesar i.e. Julius Caesar. magnum...axem 'destined to rise to the great dome of heaven,' i.e. to be deified.

37. divi genus of the family of a deified hero,' i.e. son (by adoption) and nephew by blood of Julius Caesar. Divus is the official title of the Caesars when deified after death.

37-39. For the new era to be introduced by Augustus see introduction to 2. condet'shall inaugurate.' condere is technically said of the Censor when he made the sacrifice after taking the census, etc. at the end of five years: thus condere lustrum may mean either to close one period,' or 'inaugurate a new period.' Saturno cp. 2, 3. Dat. of agent; L.P. §107, ii. 13, for the passive regnata 'reigned over,' for the passive of this intr. verb cp. 30, 26.

39. super] beyond.' The Garamantes were a people of Libya south of the Syrtes. The extent of the empire is exaggerated in compliment to Augustus. Indos represents vaguely the extreme east. The Garamantes were conquered

in B.C. 18.

40-42 tellus] i.e. Ethiopia. extra sidera ‘beyond the Zodiac.' If the sun made an arch over the earth by its course, the other side to that of the speaker might be called extra sidera, the anni solisque vias is only a further description of the same, i.e. the Zodiac. axem cp. supr. 35. aptum 'studded.' [apo or apio, anтw, apiscor, apex] This land, Vergil infers, is to be a part of the Roman Empire. Ethiopia was overrun in B.C. 21 (C.).

43-45. hujus] i.e. of Augustus. For this alleged feeling of general expectation see introd. to 2. turbant are in agitation,' used intransitively, cp. the use of verto, pono, etc. Cp. 6, 4; 21, 3 and index. Maeotia tellus i.e. near the palus Maeotis, sea of Azov.

46. Alcides obivit] 'nor did Hercules traverse so wide a tract of country.' Referring to the iter orbis of Hercules, when he journeyed to Atlas. Cp. Ov. F. 1, 544, emensus longi claviger orbis iter.

47-48. Three of the labours of Hercules, performed in Arcadia, the shooting (fixerit) the brazen-footed stag, the boar in Erymanthus, and the hydra in Lerna.

Augustus is compared to Hercules in putting down barbarous enemies as the latter destroyed monsters.

fixerit] subj. after licet. pacarit = pacaverit.



Referring to the fabled conquest of India by Bacchus. juga his team of tigers. pampineis 'wreathed with vine-tendrils.' agens driving.' Nysae Mt. Nysa is connected with the worship of Bacchus, but it is not known what mountain is intended by it.

51-52. Seeing the future glory of our line to be realised in Augustus (says Anchises) can we Trojans hesitate to continue our enterprise and settle in Italy? factis by our deeds.' virtutem extendere 'to give our valour fuller scope.'

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