Page images

door is said to do what it allows the wind to do by being opened.

11-12. situs] ‘their relative position.' iungere 'restore the connection of.' inconsulti'without the answer they sought, uninstructed,' cp. the phrase iuris consultus 'one instructed in the law,' i.e. a lawyer.

13. dispendia morae] 'loss of time.' tanti, 'of so much importance;' gen. of price, L.P. § 128 a.

14-15. cursus] 'the voyage you have before you.' secundos (proleptic) 'so as to forward your course'; this seems better than merely to say that the epithet of winds is applied to the sails (sinus).

15. quin] the construction is ne sint dispendia tanti quin adeas, [L.P. Append. 2, p. 167] 'Don't let loss of time be of count enough in your eyes to prevent your approaching.'


16. canat...resolvat] depend on poscas. The construction is poscas [ut] canat...resolvat, and begging her to open her lips,' cp. 32, 40. L.P. Append. 2, p. 161. atque ora resolvat 'to unlock her voice and her lips,' i.e. 'to open her mouth and speak.'


20-21. venerata] 'in answer to your prayer,' or 'if you rightly beseech her.' haec so much and no more.' quae... liceat for this subj. see L. P. Append. 2, 166.



fer ad aethera

22. factis] by your achievements.' exalt to the skies,' i.e. make famous.


[Mount Aetna, and the mythological account of its eruptions as caused by the giant Enceladus, who was buried beneath it.]

1. ab accessu ventorum immotus] 'sheltered from the wind.' ab accessu is not an instrumental ablative, it is rather to be explained in regard to the approach of the winds' on the analogy of ab omni parte 'in every respect'; and of the construction of tutus and the like, as in Ov. Ep. 12, 154, tuta nec a digitis ora fuere meis. The harbour is somewhere on the east coast of Sicily.

2. ruinis] 'avalanches' of lava, debris, etc. ruina (ruo) is a downfall.

4-5. candente] 'white-hot,' sidera lambit tongues of fire to heaven.'

❝ shoots

7-8. sub auras] 'skywards.' glomerat 'whirls' [from glomus, a ball of wool].

9. semiustum] 'scorched,' not killed. Enceladus one of the giants who tried to scale heaven.

11. ruptis caminis] 'as from riven furnaces.' The mountain is supposed to be fired by the burning Enceladus, and then to throw out smoke as from a furnace. The furnaces are rupti because of the flames bursting from them. Henry (quoted by Con.) says: "The image is the more correct because eruptions in a volcano are apt not to follow the track of former eruptions but to make new openings for themselves through the solid sides of the mountain.'

12. mutet] The subjunctive is used in subordinate clauses of Oblique Oration, the main verbs being in infinitive urgeri exspirare, L. P. p. 156, 3.

13. Trinacria] the three-cornered land, i.e. Sicily [τpeîs... ǎкpai]. subtexere, 'to veil,' lit. 'to weave under.'

14. monstra] 'portents.' immania supernatural and so 'terrifying' [in.. mânus



16. aethra siderea] 'starry sheen' [atopa = bright, clear 36 air]. For no constellations were burning, nor was the sky aglow with sheen of stars.'

18. nox intempesta] 'the dead stillness of night,' cp. G. 1, 247, intempesta silet nox semper. intempesta, [in...tempus] means the time of night in which no change can be observed, 'the dead of night.' nimbo 'in sombre mist.'


[A description of Fame or Rumour; an impersonification of that mysterious influence by which an evil report unaccountably spreads, as though by instinct, far and wide, and which the Greeks called φήμη.]

1. extemplo] 'at once.' [The word is contracted from extemplo (Plaut.), tempulum is a dimin. of templum a dividedoff space,' hence = punctus sc. temporis.]

3. mobilitate] 'by its ceaseless motion' [mobilitas, mobilis sc. movibilis is from the root which appears in moveo.] primo,


'at first,' adverb, not adj. agreeing with metu.

7. Coeo Enceladoque] see 28, 9.

8. pedibus celerem] 'swift of foot'; abl. of respect, L.P. § 116. pernicibus alis 'with fleet wings'; abl. of quality, L.P. § 115.

9-11. Under every feather of her body there are a pair of eyes and ears, a mouth and tongue. subrigit pricks up,' i.e. to listen.


between heaven and

12. caeli medio terraeque] earth.'

14. culmine tecti] 'the ridge of a roof,' i.e. of a private house, while turribus altis are the towers of the town wall. Vergil therefore means that fame like some evil bird perches on public and private buildings alike, i.e. she interferes in public and private life.


[Aeneas, who has been staying long with Dido in her new town of Carthage, at last urged by the call of the gods to fulfil his destiny by settling in Italy, leaves the harbour of Carthage before daybreak, and without the knowledge of Dido. She only knows that he has gone by seeing his fleet full sail standing out to sea. Her love is thus despised, the sacrifice of her good name neglected, and the faithless lover gone beyond recall. In her agony and fury she prays that the Carthaginians may nurse an undying hate for the descendants of the treacherous Trojans. Vergil of course means in this to make Dido unconsciously the prophet of the long feud between Rome and Carthage, only ended by the destruction of the latter.]


2. Tithoni] whom Aurora loved and gifted with eternal life. croceum] Cp. Tennyson's 'bed of daffodil sky.'

4. aequatis velis] It is not easy to see what Vergil exactly means by 'level sails'; perhaps he is indicating the

appearance of the fleet as seen from land standing out to sea together and keeping line with each other, or perhaps to the sails being all filled equally by the favourable wind.

6-7. pectus decorum...flaventes comas] acc. of respect, L.P. § 100. pro! an interjection 'forbid it!' L. P. § 86.

8. illuserit advena] 'shall this man, foreigner as he is, have poured contempt upon our realm?'

9-10. These futures are equivalent to imperatives, Let some get ready their arms,' etc. sequentur 'pursue him.'

13. nunc] 'only now' when it is too late.

14. en] an exclamation of indignant horror, as in 1, 26. dextra ‘the right hand' as used in pledging troth.

15. quem] 'the pious man whom they say,' etc.

19. patriisque epulandum, etc.] Referring to the horrid feasts of Atreus and of Procne.

20. verum] 'but, it will be said, he might have beaten you.' fuerat for fuisset, cp. 24, 34. L.P. Append. p. 164.

21-22. foros] 'decks.' implessem...extinxem for im 38 plevissom and extinxissem.


super...dedissem] 'I might have thrown myself on the top of the burning pile.'

24. Sol] She appeals to the sun as the universal witness of all that is done in the world. Cp. Hom. Il. 3, 277, 'Héλiós ơ' ὃς παντ ̓ ἐφορᾶς καὶ πάντ ̓ ἐπακούεις.

25. Juno] presides over marriages (harum curarum).


26. Hecate] the infernal Diana, as presiding over crossways (triviae) was called Trivia. She is the patroness of witches and of all those who like them invoke curses on others lata 'greeted with howls,' an intransitive verb with a passive participle; so we have used bacchatus, vigilatas noctes, regnatus, clamatus, etc. nocturnis triviis, at the crossways by night.'

27. Elissae] another name of Dido. Elissa is said to be a Latinised form of the feminine of the Hebrew 'El,' 'God,' and means 'goddess.'

28. numen] 'divine regard,' here with the meaning of anger and vengeance. meritum, 'richly deserved.' malis

(dat. after advertite) 'on these evil ones,' or ' on my misfortunes,' K.

31. terminus] 'fixed decree,' lit. 'boundary.'


finibus extorris] 'driven from the land.' extorris (ex-terra) 'exiled.' finibus abl. of separation, L.P. § 123.

35. iniquae] 'unfavourable to him.'

37. All these imprecations are in a sense fulfilled; one legend states that Aeneas after three years reign was killed in battle, and his body carried down by the river Numicius and so never buried.

39-41. Alluding prophetically to continual hostility between the descendants of the Trojans, the Romans, and Carthage. Tyrii 'Carthaginians,' as colonists from Tyre.


42-44. aliquis] is vocative, 'Arise, some one, from our The Roman bones, to avenge our wrongs, to pursue,' etc. reader would think of Hannibal. colonos i.e. the Trojan settlers in Italy. qui sequare 'to follow'; L.P. Append. nunc olim, 'now or hereafter.' p. 166, cp. 2, 27, &c. cunque...vires, 'whenever they shall have the strength,' lit. Vergil is 'whenever strength shall present itself to them.' thinking of various outbreaks of war between Rome and Carthage which happened as soon as Carthage recovered her forces after a previous war.

45. undas] sc. contrarias.

46. ipsique nepotesque] i.e. both the present and future generations.


[The shame that Dido feels at her favours to Aeneas and his contemptuous desertion of her, can only she thinks be remedied by her death; she therefore orders a funeral pile to be prepared, mounts it and stabs herself. Suicide, according to Roman ideas, was at once the most obvious and the most honourable way of escaping from unmanageable troubles. Vergil has also the death of Cleopatra in his mind.]


1. coeptis immanibus effera] 'in wild excitement at her stern purpose, i.e. suicide.


« PreviousContinue »