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filthy, drunken, lazy, more patient of want than labor.--At the rising and setting of the sun, and especially at night, they congregate, and when one cries out, all cry-run together at the sound of a bell—walk always in couples-are clothed in wool-live by rapine and plunderassert that the world was made for them alone-carry on their amours clandestinely-do not marry-expose their young-fight with their own species—and attack their enemies unawares from ambushes.
“The female differs little from the male, except in having her head always veiled—is cleaner-less drunken, and never leaves her home, which she keeps clean-When young she grasps at all sorts of play things, stares about her on all sides, and salutes the males by nodding.-When older, she becomes spiteful and malignant; and when angry, agitates her jaw-bones incessantly with open mouth.—When called, the females answer “ Ave.”_When allowed, they chatter promiscuously; and if a bell rings, are suddenly mute.
“ Differentia—Man speaks, reasons, wills. The monk is often mute, has no reason or will, is governed solely by the orders of his superiors. The head of man is erect,
Os homini sublime dedit, cælumque tueri
Jussit, & erectos ad sidera tollere vultus. The head of the monk is depressed, with the eyes turned to the ground -man seeks his bread by the sweat of his brow, the monk grows fat by laziness-man dwells among men, the monk seeks solitude and bides himself, avoiding the light.-Whence it follows, that the monk is a genus of mammalia distinct from man, intermediary between him and the ape, approaching nearest to the latter, from which it differs very little in voice or manner of living.
“Simia quam similis turpissima bestia vobis ! “ Usus.—Au useless burthen to the earth.
* Fruges consumere nati'.” Having given this general description, the author proceeds to a particular account of several species of monks, and a few of these we shall in conclusion quote, recurring necessarily to the original tongue.
“ Monachus Benedictinus. “Monachus benedictinus : imberbis; Capite tonso, setoso, corolla lineari sulcato; Pedibus calceatis; Ano caligato: Veste nigra lanea, corpus totum & pedes circumambiente; Cucullo laxo, subrotundo, lato ; Scapulari pendulo, plano, latitudine abdominis; Collari rigido, albo-emarginato; Cingulo lato laneo aut holosericeo; Pallio nigro descendente usque ad talos. Tegmentis internis plerumque nigris, indusio e manica, angustata ad radicem manus, prominulo.
“ Habitus monachi Benedictini gracilis, incessus tardigradus, capite minus depresso. .
“ Clamat ter quaterve de die & media nocte, nonnunquam
· primum ad cantum galli, sono profundo, tardo; & tum induitur tunica crispoplicata, lata, manicis largissimis ; caput vero tegit bireto quadrangulari. .." Omnivorus; jejunat raro; hora quarta post meridiem sitit; & ad haustum convocatur; Auri sacra fame vexatur; nummos studiose conquerit, & in ærarium congerit. Nonnulli vegetant tantum, alii studiis delectantur, e. g. Congregatio Mauri in Gallia.
“Extra domum deponit cucullum* & scapulare cingulo ligat; caput contra aëris injurias pileolo cristato, & pileo biplicato tuetur.
“Fæmina caput velo, subtus albo, supra nigro, & frontem, genas, pectusque sudario albo abscondit.
“Varietates utriusque sexus infinitæ, in loco natali describendæ, ignotis veris characteribus.
“Habitat in collibus; Colles Benedictus amabat. Peregrinus in urbibus.
“Sequitur regulam Benedicti, patris monachismi in occidente.”
The Dominican is less courteously handled, and it must be confessed, that it would do little credit to the feelings of our author, if he had not placed the merited stigma on the murderers of the innocent Albigenses, and the midnight torturers of the Inquisition.
“ Monachus Dominicanus. “Monachus Dominicanus: imberbis; Capite raso, corolla pilosa, lata, continua; Pedibus calceatis; Ano caligato; Tunica lanea textili alba, loro tres digitos lato, cincta ; Cucullo versatili, versus cervicem gibboso, margine sinuato, ad apicem obtuse truncato; Appendice cuculli, seu scuto pectorali rotundato, dorsali acuminato, cum sutura longitudinali utrumque hoc scutum dividente; Manicis æqualibus latis, replicatis; Collari albo, quod vix apparet, cum potissimum mentum crassum & adeps nudæ cervicis in truncum corporis excurrat; In lucem prodiens pallio nigro laneo longo, cum cucullo scutoque pectorali & dorsali nigro, inferiorem album tegente, induitur. Tegmentis interioribus albis potissimum, manica interulæ stricta, infra latiorum prominente.
“Fratres laici, pallio destituti, cucullum & scapulare nigrum nunquam deponunt.
“ Habitus monachi Dominicani hypocrita ; incessus lascivus ; facies perfida. Latrat media nocte, voce ingrata, rauca.
“Eximio olfactu pollet, vinum & hæresin e longinquo odorat. Esurit semper polyphagus. Juniores fame probantur. Veterani, relegata omni cura & occupatione, gulæ indulgent, cibis succulentis nutriuntur, molliter cubant, tepide quiescunt, somnum protrahunt, & ex suis diæta curant, ut esca omnis in adipem transeat, lardumque adipiscantur. Hinc abdomen prolixum passim præ se ferunt; senes
* Connectit ecclesiasticos cucullo destitutos cum monachis cucullatis; natura non agit per saltum.
VOL. III. PART I.
ventricosi maximi æstimantur. Virginitatis sacræ osores in venerem volgivagam proni ruunt.
“Generi humano & sanæ rationi infestissima species, in cujus creatione non se jactavit auctor naturæ. Prædam e longinquo specu. latur, & indicantibus aliis concurrit, eam nisu astuque adsequitur & in accensum rogum compellit; dum circumstans monachorum, sanguinem & mortem anhelantium, corona miseræ prædæ cruciatibus insultat, sibique ululatu horrendo & execrabili latratu applaudens, spolia inter se dividit. Crudelissimum omnium inquisitorem generalem dicunt, qui obtutu solo enecat. Pessimi in Hispania, Lusitania, & America meridionali. Sed nec nostrates veneno carent, lethales si in clima calidius transportentur. Versipelles, jam albo jam nigro colore vestitos, voluit natura, ut dubii omnes metuerentur ab omnibus; ne nimium sævirent, creator beneficus humano generi imperantes dedit, qui speciem hanc aut exterminent, aut excantationibus innocuam reddant.
“ Monacha Dominicana præter velum nigrum & mores candidiores non differt a mare.
“ Sequitur M.D. leges Dominici Hispani, qui primus in genus humanum, annuente summo pontifice, igne sæviit, & ne deessent, qui rabiem hanc exterminatricem propagarent, seculo 13tio ordinem instituit monachorum, igne & ferro doctrinam prædicantium.
“ Simbolum speciei canis rabie perculsus, facem accensam præ se ferens, tormenta, rogum, mortemque minitans.”
With regard to the Franciscan, we shall only quote the general summary of his character.
“Genuinus Francisci filius, & æternus, si fides habenda patri Franciscanorum, qui divino numine se afflatum putans, prædixit : interiturum prius genus humanum, quam hanc speciem; ne fors turbetur economia naturæ, cum, vel sublata unica cimicis specie, catena, qua creaturæ omnes cohærent, rumperetur.
: “ Primum laborum Francisci socium porcum fuisse annales speciei narrant. Dubius enim Franciscus, qua ratione persuaderet Innocentio III. ut suam vivendi rationem approbet, suem vidit in luto se voluntantem, cujus exemplo tractus luto quoque se immersit; & derelicto comite lutosum sese summo sacerdoti ostendit; qui motus hac pietate legibus Francisci benedixit ad initium Sæculi 13ii. Ita Sus Minervam."
: The Trinitarian will be our next selection. In his observations on this variety, the author takes an opportunity of making no very candid reflection upon the objects of its institution.-The design of the founders of the order of Trinitarians, or Maturins as they are called in France, was to establish a fund for the redemption of captives from infidel powers during the wars with the Saracens; and though there may be some ground for supposing, that eventually the market which they created, directed the object of predatory warfare to slave-making rather than plunder, it is impossible to deny the merit and utility of such institutions, at a time when religious enthusiasm was precipitating individuals into continual danger of that captivity, from which there could be no other hope of rescue, than what the charity of other individuals could afford. Abuse of such an order as this, is only another instance of the absurdity of blaming parts of an ancient system, without a comprehensive view of the whole; and of trying particular institutions, by principles adapted to a totally different state of society, from that in which they originated. We should not dismiss the Trinitarians, without reminding our countrymen, that the order owed its first establishment to two Englishmen, and that even at this day there exists a very large fund, left by some munificent spirit, for the same purpose, to the management of one of the London Companies, although the perusers of some late accounts of sufferers by shipwreck and captivity, on the shores of the Sahara, will suspect that this bounty at present finds a less humane mode of appropriation.
“ Monachus Trinitarius. “ Monachus Trinitarius, imberbis; Capite raso capillitio hemisphærico; Pedibus subcalceatis; Ano semitecto; Tunica pannea, alba, loro nigro, ad marginem scapularis prominulo, ligata ; Cucullo laxo, albo, cum scuto pectorali brevi rotundato, dorsali vero longiori cuspidato. Scapulari stricto, tunica breviore, signato. Manicis æqualibus replicatis. Pallio fusco, femora versus demisso, cum cucullo fusco, cucullum album tunicæ absorbente. Scapulari & pallii latere sinistro cruce rubra & cærulea signatis ; Indusio & prætexta lanea.
“Habitus monachi Trinitarii gravis; incessus properans; facies exotica. Clamat media nocte voce dissona, ingrata ; domi ichtyophagus; extra septa monasterii, quamprimum aquam, sicco quamvis pede, transiit, polyphagus, intestinis animalium semper vescitur, & inde Gallis mange trippes audit. Carnem humanam appetit, nundinatione hominum occupatus. Europæos spoliat, prædamque piratis Africæ & Asiæ advehit, servos emturus. Ex oriente redux senectam, seu barbam, induit.
“Peregrinantium & nundinatorum more propria uxore caretnisi fors in Hispaniæ æstuante climate-& aliena utitur. Maritus, cujus domum monachus Trinitarius subit, cornigeri cervi meminerit, qui patres speciei, Joannem de Matha & felicem a Valois, semper comitatur, omnesque imminentis periculi admonet. Patres hi, cervi hortatu, asseclas suos, utpote a reliquis monachis victu & moribus jam dissentientes, separarunt & in propriam speciem coegerunt, sæculo XII.
“ Absoluta migratione hybernat in urbibus."
ART. VI. Sethos, Histoire ou Vie, tirée des monumens anecdotes
de L'Ancienne Egypte. Traduit d'un manuscrit Grec. 3 tomes,
12mo. Paris, 1731. The Life of Sethos, taken from Private Memoirs of the Ancient
Egyptians. Translated from a Greek manuscript into French ; and now faithfully done into English from the Paris edition. 2 vol. 8vo. 1732.
This Egyptian romance was written by the Abbé Terasson, in avowed imitation of Telemachus and The Travels of Cyrus. Gibbon justly characterized its author as a scholar and a philosopher, and the work itself as having more variety and originality than the former of these celebrated productions. A book so praised must be worth looking into, although no other point of comparison may be equally advantageous to it. The author's design was not merely to tell a tale and inculcate a moral, but to illustrate and recommend his favourite theory, that the mythological fables and sacred rites of Greece were all derived from Egyptian customs, and especially from the institutions and practices of the Egyptian priesthood. We have endeavoured to shew how he pursues this object, in the brief epitome of the narrative which we now offer to our readers.
Although that miserable country, Egypt, may have for ages appeared as if given up to the dominion of devils, it was originally under the government of the gods. Seven of these reigned in succession, viz., “ Vulcan, the Sun, Agathodemôn, Osiris, Isis, and Typhon. By Vulcan, to whom they assign no beginning, their philosophers meant that elementary fire which is diffused every where. This same fire, reunited into one globe, is the Sun, the son of Vulcan. Agathodemon, defined by his very name, was their good genius or principle. Saturn, or Time, was the father of Osiris and Isis, brother and sister, husband and wife, the two sexes of nature. Typhon, their third brother, was always regarded by them as their evil principle. Horus was the son of Osiris and Isis, reason or human wisdom, and he began the reign of the demi-gods.” Of these there were nine, of whom the last began the reign of men. “He was, indeed, looked upon but as a man in his life-time; but, after having ruled all Egypt alone by the name of Menes, he was, after his death, in consideration of his happy reign, numbered with the gods, by the name of Jupiter. He had four sonsThot or Mercury, Æsculapius, Athotes, and Curudes; of which the two first were, as well as himself, advanced to the skies. Menes, to render the succession to his states equal, divided Egypt into four kingdoms. Mercury reigned in Thebes,