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in Jeremy Taylor's Liberty of Prophesying, and placing it by the side of that infamous Creed appointed by Pope Pius IV.

Taylor.-" I consider that a foundation of faith cannot alter, unless a new building be to be made, the foundation is the same still; and this foundation is no other, but that which Christ and his Apostles laid ; which doctrine is, like himself, yesterday and to-day, and the same for ever : so that the articles of necessary belief to all (which are the only foundation) they cannot be severed in several ages, and to several persons. Nay, the sentence and declaration of the church cannot lay this foundation, or make any thing of the foundation, because the church cannot lay her own foundation. We must suppose her to be a building, and that she relies upon the foundation ; which is therefore supposed to be laid before, because she is built upon it; or (to make it more explicate), because a cloud may arise from the allegory of building and foundation, it is plainly thus : The church being a company of men obliged to the duties of faith and obedience, the duty and obligation being of the faculties of will and understanding to adhere to such an object, must presuppose the object made ready for them; for as the object is before the act in order of nature, and therefore not to be produced or increased by the faculty (which is receptive, and cannot be active upon its proper object), so the object of the church's faith is in order of nature before the church, or before the act and habit of faith, and therefore cannot be enlarged by the church, any more than the act of the visive faculty can add visibility to the object. So that if we have found out what foundation Christ and his Apostles did lay– that is, what body and system of articles simply necessary they taught and required of us to believe,-we need not, we cannot, go any further for foundation; we cannot enlarge that system or collection. Now then, although all they said is true, and nothing of it to be doubted or disbelieved, yet, as all that they said is neither written nor delivered (because all was not necessary), so we know that of those things which are written some things are as far off the foundation as those things which were omitted : and therefore, although now accidentally they must be believed by all that know them, yet it is not necessary all should know them; and that all should know them in the same sense and interpretation, is neither probable nor obligatory. But, therefore, since these things are to be distinguished by some differences of necessary and not necessary, whether or no is not the declaration of Christ and his Apostles affixing salvation to the belief of some great comprehensive articles, and the act of the Apostles rendering them as explicit as they thought convenient, and consigning that creed, made so explicit, as a tessara of a Christian, as a comprehension of the articles of his

belief, as a sufficient disposition and an expression of the faith of a catechumen, in order to baptism : whether or no, I say, all this be not sufficient probation that these only are of absolute necessity ; that this is sufficient for mere belief in order to heaven; and that, therefore, whosoever believes these articles heartily and explicitly, OEOS LEVEL EV avty, as St. John's expression is, God dwelleth in him, I leave it to be considered and judged of from the premises. Only this, if the old doctors had been made judges in these questions, they would have passed their affirmative; for, to instance in one for all, of this it was said by Tertullian, This symbol is the one sufficient, immovable, unalterable, and unchangeable rule of faith, that admits no increment or decrement; but if the integrity and unity of this be preserved, in all other things men may take a liberty of enlarging their knowledges and prophesyings, according as they are assisted by the grace of God *.'

The Creed of Pope Pius IV.+(After reciting the Nicene Creed, adds), “ I most stedfastly admit and embrace apostolical and ecclesiastical traditions, and all other observances and constitutions of the same church. I also admit the Holy Scriptures, according to that sense which our holy mother, the church, has held and does hold, to whom it belongs to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Scriptures : neither will I ever take and interpret them otherwise than according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. I also profess, that there are truly and properly seven sacraments of the new law, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and necessary for the salvation of mankind, though not all for every one: to wit, baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony: and that they confer grace: and that of these, baptism, confirmation, and orders, cannot be reiterated without sacrilege. I also receive and admit the received and approved ceremonies of the Catholic Church, used in the solemn administration of all the aforesaid sacraments. I embrace and receive all and every one of the things which have been defined and declared in the holy Council of Trent, concerning original sin, and justification. I profess likewise that in the Mass there is offered to God a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the living

Regula quidem fidei una omnino est sola immobilis et irreformabilis, &c. Hoc lege fidei manente cetera jam disciplinæ et conversationis admittant novitatem connectionis operante scil. et proficiente usque in finem gratia Dei. Lib. de veland. Virg.

+ Taken from a tract entitled “The Grounds of the Catholic Doctrine, as contained in the Profession of Faith published by Pope Pius IV.; by the Ven. and R. R. Richard Challoner, D. D. Bishop of Debra, and Vic. Ap.” Thirteenth edition. London, 1828.

and the dead; and that in the most holy sacrament of the eucharist. there is truly, really, and substantially the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ: and that there is made a conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood; which conversion the Catholic Church calls transubstantiation. I also confess, that under either kind alone Christ is received whole and entire, and a true sacrament.

I contantly hold, that there is a purgatory, and that the souls therein detained are helped by the suffrages of the faithful. Likewise that the saints, reigning together with Christ; are to be honoured and invocated; and that they offer prayers to God for us'; and that their relics are to be had in veneration. I most firmly assert, that the images of Christ, of the mother of God, ever virgin, and also of the other saints, ought to be had and retained, and that due honour and veneration is to be given to them. I also affirm that the power of indulgences was left by Christ in the church, and that the use of them is most wholesome to Christian people. I acknowledge the holy, catholic, apostolic Roman Church for the mother and mistress of all churches; and I promise true obedience to the Bishop of Rome, successor to St. Peter, prince of the Apostles and vicar of Jesus Christ.

I likewise undoubtedly receive and profess all other things delivered, defined, and declared by the sacred canons and general councils, and particularly by the holy Council of Trent: and I condemn, reject, and anathematize all things contrary thereto, and all heresies which the church has condemned, rejected, and anathematized. I, N. N. do at this present freely profess and sincerely hold this true catholic faith, without which no one can be saved: and I promise most constantly to retain and confess the same, entire and unviolated, with God's assistance, to the end of my life.”

It was noted above that this creed commences with the Nicene, which we profess and enjoin ; and that what we as Protestants reject are the fancies, heresies, pretensions, and usurpations of fallible, and (many of them) wicked men, and which have never had universal acceptance; and our religion, therefore, is the true terms of catholic concord, in the words of Vincentius Lerinensis, a doctrine “quod ab omnibus, semper, ubique receptum est.”

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EVENTS OF THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH VIALS. A knowledge of the structure of the Apocalypse is that which is most wanting to the attainment of its right interpretation. VOL. 111.-NO, II.


In examining this book, a striking peculiarity is the recurrence of the number seven, in its objects, general actions, incidents, and arrangement. The institution of the Mosaic law, to which the Apocalypse is continually referring, proceeds very much upon septenaries; and the number seven implied, among the Hebrews, completeness, fulness, or perfection. The seventh day was the sabbath : the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year was almost taken up with sacred feasts, among which was the great feast of Tabernacles, or Ingathering; and the seventh month of the civil year contained the other chief feast of the year, the Passover: the seventh year was the sabbath of rest ; and after seven times seven years (Lev. xxv. 8) was celebrated the year of jubilee. See also Lev. iv. 6, and xiv. 16. 27; likewise Lev. xxvi. 18, 21, 24, 28, where the punishment and plagues for sins are threatened to be inflicted seven times.

In the book of Revelation this disposition is prominently exhibited, in the seven epistles, to the seven churches; and in the septenaries of seals, trumpets, and vials. However variously these may have been explained by commentators, they have agreed in considering the order of events to be indicated by the successive numbers. And the epistles to the seven churches have been held to point out the character of the successive periods of the history of the church : and, accordingly, while the first, the epistle to Ephesus, refers to the time of the Apostle, the last, to Laodicea, applies to the time immediately preceding the Millennium.

But there are in the Apocalypse other septenaries besides those literally expressed, which are to be traced out, and can hardly be deemed to be accidental. While the foregoing instances shew the events as successively occurring in the period recorded in the book, these other more covert septenaries relate to place, or action, or incidents connected with the prophetic history. For example, it is seven times, nor more nor less, that the following matters occur.

The Temple of Heaven is seven times the object or source of some act : 1. xi. 1. The temple of God measured by the Apostle, leaving out the II. 19. The temple of God in heaven opened, and the ark of his testaIII.- xiv. 15. An angel out of the temple crying to the Son of man to reap. IV.- 17. An angel out of the temple in heaven with a sickle, to gather the

vintage, now ripe. V.- xv. 5. The temple of the tabernacle in heaven is opened, out of which

come seven angels with vials of wrath, and the temple is filled

with smoke during these plagues. VI.—xvi. 1. A great voice out of the temple orders the seven angels to pour

out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth. VII.

17. A great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, say

ing, on the pouring out of the seventh vial, It is done.

outer court.

ment seen.

There are seven Voices from God or the Lamb. 1.- i. 10. A voice, saying, I am Alpha and Omega. II.- X. 4. A voice from heaven, saying, Seal up those things which the

seven thunders uttered. III. 8. The voice spake again, Go, and take the little book. IV.- xi. 12. A great voice from heaven, saying, to the two witnesses, Come


hither. V.-xiv. 2. A voice from heaven as of many waters and a great thunder, on

the Lamb being on Mount Zion with saints. VI.- 13. A voice from heaven, saying, Blessed are the dead which die in

the Lord. VII.-xix. 5. A voice out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his


The Book of Life is named seven times.
I. iii. 5. II. xiii. 8. III. xvii. 8. IV. xx. 12.

V. xx. 15. VI. xxi. 27. VII. xxii. 19.

The Holy Spirit seven times appears as the source of life. I. i. 4. Grace from the Seven Spirits which are before the throne of Him

which is and was and is to come. II.- iii. 1. These things saith he that hath the Seven Spirits of God. III. iv. 5. Seven lamps burning before the throne, which are the Seven

Spirits of God. IV.- v. 6. The Lamb having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the

Seven Spirits of God, sent forth into all the earth. V. vii. 17. The Lamb shall lead them (those with robes washed in his

blood) unto living fountains of water. VI.- xxi. 6. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water

of life freely. VII.-xxii. 1. A pure river of water of life, proceeding out of the throne of

God and of the Lamb. It has been stated, that there are seven classes of good beings, seven songs of praise, and seven stations in which the Apostle John is placed ; thus

Seven Classes of Good Beings. 1.-Divine. God the Father. II.

Christ Jesus.

The Holy Spirit.
IV.-Human. Twenty-four elders in heaven.

V.- Four living creatures in heaven about the throne.

Saints clothed in white robes, made white in the blood of the

VII.-Angelic. The angels, ministers for the execution of God's purposes.

Seven Songs of Praise. I.- iv. 8. The four living creatures and twenty-four elders in heaven. II.- v. 9. The same, with innumerable angels. III.- vii. 9. The sealed servants of God on earth, with the angels. IV.- xi. 17. The twenty-four elders alone. V.-xiv. 3. Harpers in heaven, with the 144,000 redeemed from the earth. VI.- xv. 3. Those who overcame the beast. VII.—xix. 1. Much people in heaven, the twenty-four elders, and four living


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