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in a great part of the city, destroyed nearly all the shipping in the
harbor, and occasioned the loss of many lives.
prosecution of it for two years.
Bonaparte entered Viasma, which was burnt, the Russians still
retreating. 31. Com. Rodgers arrived at Boston, with the frigates President,
United States, and Congress, and the sloop of war Hornet, after
a cruise of 70 days. Sept. 3–6. The Spaniards under Ballesteros harass the French in their re.
treat under Soult. 5. Bonaparte took a favorable position from the Russians prepara
tory to the battle of Borodino. 6.
Bonaparte spent the day in reconnoitring, and preparing for the battle of the ensuing day. 7. The battle of Borodino--the most sanguinary conflict in modern
times. The French attacked the Russian entrenchments through the whole line about 6 o'clock-various batteries were taken and retaken the carnage was horrible through a great part of the day --the Russians remained masters of the field of battle till the morning of the 9th. Bonaparte retreated 8 miles, where he re. mained till the 9th, when he passed over the field of battle to Mojaisk. At this place he issued his first account of the battle on the 10th. The Russians, convinced that they could not ous. tan another such conflict, retired without molestation. Ku. tousoff, the Russian commander, dated his first' account on the field of battle, the day after it was fought. It is difficult to ascer. tain the numbers engaged; probably Bonaparte had about 200,000, and the Russians somewhat less. The killed and wounded are thought to have been nearly equal, i. e. not fewer than 40,000 OR each side, either killed, or so wounded, as to be incapable of ser
vice in future.ny 8.
The funeral obsequies of Gen. Lingan, (who was murdered by
the Baltimore mob,) was attended at Georgetown by 2090 persons. 14. Bonaparte's advanced guard entered Moscow, the Russians
having withdrawn to the south. That vast city was set on fire by the inhabitants, and by order of the government, in 300 places. The flames raged till the 19th, and left-riot a ten: part of the city
standing 17. A Peace Convention of the State of New York met at Albany. 13. Lord Wellington laid siege to the castle of Burgos. 22 He attempted to take the out works of ihe castle by storm, and
failed with considerable togs.
Toward the end of this month the Emperor of Russia issued a spirited proclamation, which held out to Bonaparıc'no hope of
peace. Oct. 8. Com. Rodgers's squadron put to sea from Boston.
About 100 volunteers crossed lake Erie, and took two British armed vessels, the Detroit and Caledonia, the former of which was burnt.
English convoy of 22 sail lost in the Baltico 13. 'The American forces under Gen. Van Rensselaer crossed into Canada, and took Queenston, after an obstinate conflict.
In the afternoon of the same day, being unsupported by their associates, the party was obliged to surrender. American loss, 100 killed, 900 prisoners. Gen. Brock, the British commander was killed early in the day
Great Britain issued letters of marque and reprisal against the
United States. 18. The U. S. sloop of war Wasp of 18 guns, Capt. Jones, took the
British sloop of war Frolic, of 20 guns, Capt. Wbinyates, after an action of 43 minutes. Both were taken iwo hours after by the Poictiers, 74.
Murat with 45,000 men defeated by the Russians, and driven back 11 miles with the loss of 38 cannon.
Bonaparte leit Moscow with the mass of his army. 20.
Gen. Wittgenstein beat the French under St. Cyr, and took Po. Jotsk by storin.
Gen. Steinhill beat the French under Macdonald. 22. Gen. Winzinjeroile entered Moscow with his troops, but was
himself taken prisoner by the French rear guard. 23. A conspiracyia Paris on the pretence that Bonaparte was dead,
It was beaded by three ex generals Malet, Guidal, and Laboire,
who suffered death iminediately with several of their accomplices. 24. Battle of Malayoroslavitz, in which Bonaparte's main arniy was
defeated, and obliged 10 abandon its mirpose, with severe loss. 25. Death of his Excellency Roger Griswold, Governor of Con
Decticut, an eminent statesman.
A french detachment on the Dwina beaten, and 8 cannon taken by the Russians,
The British frigate Macedonian, 38 guns, Capt. Carden, taken by the United States, 44 guns, Conn. Decatur, afier an action of an hour and a half. U. S. loss, 5 killed, 7 wounded; British loss,
36 killed, and 68 wounded. 29. The Prince Regent issued a proclamation against deserters
employed in American armed vessels.
In the course of this month Lord Wellington began a retreat
from Spain, compelled by the superior force of the French. Nov.
Congress of U, S. assembled. 3. Bonaparte's retreating army greatly harassed by the Russians
at Viasma. The corys of Ney, Davoust, and Beacharnois, were
engaged; their loss 6,000 killed and wounded, 2,500 prisoners. 4. The President U. S. communicated his Message to Congress.
Earl Moira sworn iu Governor General of Bengal, 6. The French retreating army began to be in universal and ex.
treme distress, on account of the cold, and the continual vexations
experienced from the Cossacks. 7 and 8, Beauharnois's corps in imminent danger, and was able to form
a junction with the inain army only by the sacrifice of nearly all its
artillery and baggage. 9. Bonaparte re-entered Smolensk. 14. Battle on the Dwina between Wirtgenstein and Victor; the
latter retired. 16. Battle of Krasnoi. Davoust's corps defeated with great loss. 17. Ney's corps defeated with great loss. 18. A skirmish between the indians and a party of militia in the
state of Ohio. 19. A detachment of 300 U, S. troops marched a few miles over the
line into Canada from the camp north of Plattsburgh, and return. ed again without seeing an enemy; after which the northern army of the U. S. went into winter quarters.
Lord Wellington reached his old lines near Ciudad Rodrigo after a long retreat in presence of an enemy rastly superior to his
army. 23. The French corps under Dombrowski on the Berezina defeated
by Tchicbagoff's advanced guard.
A small detachment of U. S. troops passed the Niagara river, and took a redoubt with 30 prisoners. The next day Col. Winder was sent to relieve the former detachment, and driven back with loss; and Gen. Smythe rallied to pass into Canada, but did
23. Battle of the Berezina between the small remnant of Bona
parte's army from Moscow, joined by the corps of Victor. Oudinot, and St Cyr, on the one side, and the Russians under Tchichagoff, Wittgenstein, and Platoff, aided by the advanced guard of the main Russian army, on the other. Both parties seem to have been so exhausied by forced marches, as not to have fought with their accustomed vigor. The French suffered severely, and were obliged to alter the course of their retreat. This day, or the next, Bonaparte left his arrúy, ird fled across the country with a small guard of trusty officers in Wilna, He had been in great personal danger the prece ling forinight. Judging from his own account, his army must have suffered more from the united horrors of sword, cold, famine and continual fatigue and alarm, during the whole month of November, than is recorded to have becu, guttered by so large an army within the same time, since the world was made. Thirty ih ugand horses died in a few nights, and i hc army from Moscow lost all its cavalry and all its artillery. It was with difficulty that a small body guard for the Emperor could be
ada, but did not pass.
The Russians entered Wilna, and took several thousand French
prisoners, 14. A bilt passed the Senate U. S. to build four 74's and six frigates,
28 to 2.
A bill also passed the Senate for the relief of merchants, who
had given bouds un:ler the non-importation acr, 25 to 5. 13. Bonaparte reached Paris abom 11 at night, having Aled with
the utmost speed from Walra in disguise, under a feigned namne,
and with a single attendant.
The bill to relieve the merchants also passed, 64 to 61.
The Russians entered Memel. 99. The British frigate Java, 38 guns, capi. La abert, taken by the
Constituion, com. Bainbridge, after an action of one hourand 55 minutes: British loss, 70 killed, and more than 100 wounded; U. S. loss, 9 killed and 25 wonnded. The Java was made a com.
plete wreck, and burnt by the captors on the 31st. ). A bill to raise 20,000 additional troups passed 11. R. of U. S.
70 to 37.
The Prussian Generals De Yorcke and Massenbach, with their
corps, joined the Russians, 31. Com. Rodgers with the President and Congress returned to
During this month a great mortality prevailed among the sol. diers of U. S. army, at all their stations.
At the close of the year, the very small remnant of the French armies, principally officers, were at Marienbourg, Marienwerder, Elbing, and Thorn, on the Vistula. This remnant was, for the
most part, collected from the fragments of corps from the Dwina, the army from Moscow having become almost utterly extinct by the middle of December. The ruin of all Bonaparte's forces en. gaged in the attempt to conquer Russia, is one of the most over. whelming erents which ever ipok place in the whole history of the wars of ambition. In June be entered Russia with an immense army, after three years of preparation, and had under his control a more effective and formidable force than was ever before at the disposition of a single commander; in December, a fugitive in disguise, he returns to his capital, and relates with his own mouth the frustration of his designs, and the annihilation of bis army. The loss of the army included the loss of 1200 cannon, 60,000 horses, and immense quantities of ammunition and baggage. The history of the world aifords no parallel.
PLAIN SCRIPTURE READINGS. bach, a very highly valued critic
in this branch of sacred learning, No. V.
that the true character of these
alterations may be understood, It has been intimated, that and the grand edifice of Christi. there is danger of becoming te- anity with all its pillars of doc. diõus, at least to common read. trine and duty may be seen to ers, by too minute a detail of par- stand on an immoveable foundaticulars in the course of these tion. If a selection were made Plain Scripture Readings. Per comprising those various readhaps this danger may be some- ings only which affect the sense, what diminished by stating, in the writer might be suspected of this place, the design of the wri- partiality. Besides, it is desirater in noticing all the emenda- ble that every person should actions proposed by Griesbach, and tually see, that such various the principal doctrines contained readings as the omission of the in each passage of Scripture tak- word and, or the transposition of en as ihe subject of examina- a word, or the change of a prepojion.
sition, or the omission of the Mention is frequently made, nominative case, cannot possibly, in modern publications, of the in a vast majority of instances, great number of various read. alter the sense in the least. ings in different manuscript In detailing the doctrines copies of the Scriptures. This taught by Christ and the Evannumber is so great as to astonish gelist, the writer has two objects the unlearned, and to make in view. them think the variations of dif. The first is, to induce his ferent copies of the Scriptures readers to compare each doc. to be vastly more important than trine with the passage from they really are. It seemed use- which it is stated or inferred. A ful, therefore, to set before the habit of reading the Scriptures common reader all the alterations attentively, and with a desire to of our text proposed by Gricş: understand their whole meaning,
is of vast importance to every favor any class of disputants. If Christian, who intends to ad- the word be not genuine, it vance in divine knowledge. doubtless crept into the text
The second is, to shew with from some comment. The paswhat comparative frequency the sage appears more forcible withvarious truths of Christianity are out it. No doubt, great malice taught. It is sometimes said, by has been exhibited against Christhe disciples of modern liberali- tians, even in speaking what was ty, that those doctrines, which true, in order to disparage their are usually called the doctrines characters, and out of hatred to of the Reformation, are seldom the cause of Christ. Thus, for taught, even in appearance, by instance, when Christians have the sacred writers. A particu- sustained immoral characters belar examination of any consider- fore they became Christians, the able portion of Scripture will world are apt to take special care expose the error of this assera that this fact be kept in rememtion.
brance. Real hostility to Christ The prosecution of my pres. is very frequently manifested in ent plan through the Gospel of this way; and when thus maniMatthew will, perhaps, answer fested may operate as a testimothe chief purposes I have in ny in favor of the persons against view. The plan may then be al- whom it is particularly directed. tered, or dropped altogether. If these papers should be generally Proposed emendations in our perdeemed unprofitable, they will be discontinued immediately on learning that such is the fact. Ver. 5. Blessed are the meek;
One word more: Let no per- for they shall inherit the land. son suppose, that, because these Dr. Campbell, has shown very papers are numbered, it is neces- satisfactorily that this is a prefsary to read the whole in order erable translation to the common to understand any. They are By the word land he unnumbered for the sake of dis- Ederstands heaven, spoken of by tinction; but may be read sepa- the Psalmist, (from whom this rately, after the abbreviations clause is quoted,) under the fig. contained in the first number are ure of the promised land. He understood.
argues that all the blessings here
described are of a spiritual naMATTHEW V, 1--20. ture, and are to be enjoyed in a
future state of happiness. It has The only various reading admit- been a difficult thing to tell in ted by Griesbach as an alteration what sense the meek inherit the in the first twenty verses of this earth. Persons of this character chapter, is the omission of the often suffer in this world from word falsely in the 11th verse. the rapacious, the proud, the viHe classes this among the pro olent; but there is a land which bable omissions. I know not
they will hereafter receive in that the omission of the word undisturbed possession, even the falsely can have any effect to ren rest, which remaineth for the peoder the passage doubtful, or to ple of God. To explain at large Vol. V. New Series.