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better acquainted with their own is said to be owing to a difference tongue; but that process being of dialects.* slow, he undertook to compile à V. PERSIAN. Four distinct “Dictionary of the vernacular versions of this important lan: dialect of Bengal," which was in guage have been undertaken. the press at Serampore in Aug. The first was begun as early as 1811,

September 1798 by the late Col. While Dr. Carey resided at Colebrooke, Surveyor-General in Mudnabatty he stated also that Bengal, at that time a Captain in The language of the common the army, at Calcutta. He after people through the country was wards carried on the work under the Hindostanec; and in his the patronage of the College of speech delivered at the public Fort William. Before the month Disputation in the College of of March 1805 the Gospels were Fort William, in 1805, he spoke finished, a part or the whole of of the "colloquial Hindostanee," which has been printed at the Colin distinction from the “cominer. lege press, and deposited in the gial Bengalee," and the classic Bibliotheca Biblica of Calcuttą. Persian.' By the Hindostanee

The second version was unspoken by the common people dertaken by the Baptist Missionhe appears to mean this vernac. aries, about the month of Sepular dialect, which he elsewhere tember, 1804; and before the calls a mixture of Hindostanee, middle of September 1806 the Bengalee, Persian, Portuguese, book of Psalms was translated. Armenian, and English. Other- By the end of July 1807 Sabat wise his accounts do not agree. had joined them, and they had And it is certain that the Hindos- begun to print. But in the tanee in some of its dialects, month of October Sabat was reprobably in all, is much corrupt- moved to Dinapore, and this vered by foreign mixtures.

sion was abandoned, after being The pure Bengalee is a lan- carried on “to a pretty large guage copious, beautiful, and ex. extent." pressive, and is easy of acquisi The third version was begun țion, especially since the gram- in October, 1807 by Sabat, who mars and vocabularies which soon after was joined by Mirza, have recently appeared: but it is both under the superintendance difficult to read it with proper of Mr. Martyn emphasis, as there is no pointing priated before November 1809, at all. It contains some words and Luke before May 1810, at nearly resembling the Hebrew; which time 800 copies of each but it is manifestly derived from had been deposited in the Biblithe Shanscrit, to which it is inti- otheca. By October 1811, the mately related in expression, version of the New Testament construction, and character. In many cases it is impossible to • B. P. A. vol. i, p. 79 note, 92, 93, know how to spell Bengalce 121, 128, 149, 171, 178, 182, 183, 234, words without a krowledge of 216, 217, 222, 223, 320, 368, 446, 447.

Vol. iii, p. 64. Mem. p. 69. Ch. Ob. the Shanscrit. That proper vol, xi, p. 242. Nar. p. 39. Pan, vol, names are so variously spelled vii, p. 277. R's. Cyc. under Hengal, in different parts of the province' language of:

Matthew was


was finished.

At what place er classes," is reputed "the Matthew and Luke were printed French of the East.” “It is does not appear; but no part of spoken;" says Dr. Buchanan, wat the version was in the press at all the Mussulman Courts in Serampore so late as Jan. 15, India, and is the usual language 1812. The Bible Society, at the of judicial proceedings under the time of making their last Report British government”. It is also had not heard of its being in the "the general language of Westpress. The Old Testament was Asia, particularly among about to be translated.

ihc higher classes," "being gen. The fourth version was un- erally understood from Calcutta to dertaken by the Rev. L. Sabas. Damascus.” “Spoken over near. tiani, an Italian priest of the ly one quarter of the globe," and Romish church, many years a being "the proper tongue of a resident at the court of Persia, great kingdom,” in which there aud a man of great learning. are at a low computation two This version is designed for the hundred thousand Christians," Christians dispersed over Persia, besides multitudes of Jews, it who are represented as being stands next in importance to the very desirous of possessing the Chinese and Arabic. Scriptures in a plain translation. VI. HINDOSTANEE. The book When the Bible Society made of Psalms in this language was their eighth Report, in May of formerly published at Tranquethe present year, they had not bar by the Danish Missionaries; heard that Mr. Sabastiani had which probably was the volume proceeded further than nearly to of Scripture in the library of the the end of the Epistles. But Dr. Elector of Wurtemburg in 1804. Carey spoke of the version as

In the present age three Hindoscomplete in October 1811. At tanee translations have been comthat time it was printing at Se

menced. rampore, at the expense of the The first was begun before Corresponding Committee of the the end of 1802, by William Bible Society. It was still in Hunter, Esq. of the College of the press in January of the pres. Fort William, and by the month ent year.

of March 1805, the four Gospels The modern Persic is account. were translated, and a part of ed by some to be "indisputably a them printed at the College derivative of Shanscrit, through press. They were in the press the medium of the ancient Zend;" in September 1804, and by Febbut Dr. Buchanan, after an inti- ruary 1805, Matthew and a part mate acquaintance with Sabat of Mark were struck off. How and Mirza, confidently pronoun- much has since been printed we sed it to be an offspring of the are not told, not however the Arabic. Five years before, he whole of the Gospels. As Dr. had numbered it among the "pri- Hunter is still living, and is the mary" languages of Asia.

This language, which was in * Ch. Res. p. 199, 200, Mem. P. troduced into India by the Mogul 11, 12. Star in E. p. 27. EL R. No conquerors, and is understood 32, p. 396. Ch. Ob. vol. xi, p. 321. there by "multitudes of the high. B. P, A. vol. i, p. 397.

Secretary and Examiner to the than half of the New Testament College,” it is not known what printed. “We have reason," say Eause prevented a publication of they, “to believe the version will the whole.

be pretty generally understood." The second version was be. Nov. 9. Printed to Rom. xii. gun by the Baptist Missionaries New Testament translated, and about the month of September the Old from Job to Malachi. 1804, wbile the first was in the [From Job to Malachi seems press. As early as January 1996, to have been afterwards rejectMessrs. Thomas and Carey had ed] formed a plan to publish the March 8, 1810. Nearly the Scriptures in this language, but whole New Testament printed; various circumstances obliged the Old Testament, except the them to abandon the design. Pentateuch, translated. When the work was undertaken End of 1810. New Testaby Mr. Hunter, Mr. Carey an ment published about this time. nounced the event with joy, and Oct. 4, 1811. A second edi. said, “I have much desired to tion of the Gospels printed, and sce the Bible printed in Ben- Genesis in the press; the Old galee and Hindostanee before I Testament translated to Job. die.". In September 1804, the [Thus from Jub to Malachi was Missionaries were waiting to see rejected.] the work that was in the press, The third version was begun intending after that to publish a in 1807 by Mr. Martyn, who version of their own. In Sep was joined in his labors, the tember 1806 they were translato latter part of that year, by. Mirza ing into two dialects, the Hindos. Fitrut. In December, 1809, the tanee, according to the Shanscrit first draught of the New Testafor the common people, and the ment had been sometime finish. Hindostanee according to the ed; and before the month of Persian, (the dialect spoken at February 1811, it was fit for the Delbi,) for Mussulmans of learn- press. The printing soon after ing. But before they began to commenced at Serampore, at the print they relinquished both, and expense of the Corresponding made a new version leaning to the Committee of the Bible Society Shanscrit; and with this they have The work was in the press in proceeded ever since; though October 1811, and in January from the difficulty of bringing 1812. This version is in the into regular shape a language so Hyper-Arabico dialect, or aca unformed by grammatical rules, cording to another statement, they have been obliged once or in the Persian Hindostanee, twice to cast away their first (much having been drawn both draughts, and pronounce less ac- from the Persian and Arabic complished than they had thought sources;) and it will be chiefly done at a former period.

11seful to the higher ranks of End of July 1807. Part of the Mussulmans. new version of Matthew printed. The Hindostanee language,

End of the year 1807. Printed in common with the Bengulee, to Mark v.

is derived from the Shanscrit: Aug 12, 1809. Litile more It is supposed 10 have been fore Vol V. New Seriere

merly spoken over all Hindos. much of the Hindee or Hindostan proper, including Bengal and tanee, as to converse in it, and all the northern parts of India preach for some time intelligion this side of the Ganges. But bly. [It was therefore the vulgar since the intrusion of the Mogul tongue.] This is," he adds“but a conquerors and other nations, it jargon indeed, yet it is the current has become mixed with the Per- language of all the West from sian and other languages; and be. Rajamahl to Delhi, (that is, from ing spoken over extensive re the border nf Bengal to the wesgions, differs much in its dialects. tern extremity of the English It became the more easily cor- dominions,] and perhaps further, rupted with foreign mixtures, though more and more mixed as it was used only for colloquial with the Persian as it advances purposes, no prose compositions towards that country. With this I or grammars being found in the can be understood nearly all over language, except those which Hindostan," (evidently mean. have been published in modern ing Hindostan in the largest times by Europeans at Tran- sense.] The dialect spoken at quebar and in Bengal. In Ben- Delhi is called the Persian Hin. gal it was impossible but that dostanee. the language should become Although this language is mixed in the mouths of the vul- probably no where spoken in its gar with the Persian, Bengalce, original purity, there is in all the Portuguese, Armenian, and En: mixtures which form its different glish, and such a confused mass dialects, a part which may be is precisely the vulgar tongue distinguished as pure Hindee. of Bengal. Yet the Hindee But in making versions into the part so far prevails in that con• language, it was no more necesa! fusion as to give it still the name sary for the translators to confine of Hindostanet. The vulgar themselves to pure ' Hindee tongue was unquestionably the words, than it is to confine an Hindostanee in which Thomas English version to pure Saxon and Carey planned to publish words. Words must be adopted the Scriptures in January 1795. that are in actual use. Mr. Mar. Mr. Carey, in 1794, had called tyn's work, which abounds with this vulgar tongue the Hindos- Persian and Arabic terms, is still tance, and said it was “a mis an Hindostanee version, and so ture of Bengalee and Persian," is Dr. Carey's, which is accomconfounding thus the Hindee, modated to the multitude who and Bengalec, parts, which is the use the vernacular language of Jess to be wondered at as they are Bengal. He certainly intended both derivatives from the Shan. his version for the common peo. scrit. By the end of 1795 he ple of that province, and expect. had learned that one of the comed that it would be pretty genponent parts of that jargon was erally understood. And it probdistinct from the Bengalee and ably comes as near to the verPersian, and, was the pure Hin-. nacular tongue as any translation sustance. At the end of 1796; can that is governed by grama being then at Mudnabatty, le matical rules. te marked, "I bave squired so proper language is not yet select

s. Otherwise the

ed in which to give the Scrip- is difficult to determine. But tures to the mass of the people they certainly admit into thai. at his own door.

division Patna and Agra which In producing a composition out lie between Bengal and Delhi. of this chaos the purer the lan The Hindostanee, then, is the guage, the more it would lean vulgar tongue of Bengal, where to the Shanscrit, the mother of it leans to the Shanscrit, and the Hindostanee, and the more the current language from that freely it admitted Persic terms, province westward as far as the more it would lean to the Delhi, and perhaps further, Arabic, the mother of the Per. where it leans to the Persian. sian. The style of Dr. Carey's In Surat, Guzerat, and other version is the most pure, that places on the western coast, it of Mr. Martyn's the most court is still applied to purposes of ly. But as the former is much commerce as the Bengalee is in the more intelligible to the mul- Bengal. Indeed one inay be un. uitude, it proves that the vernac derstood with it nearly from ular language of Bengal par- Cape Comorin to Thibet. It takes much more largely of “pervades Hindostan generally;" the Hindee than of the Persic and is called "the grand popular, character. This yernacular language"of the country, and ove tongue at least in some one of of the primary and popular lane its dialects, is that which has guages of Asia.". The Mission. been called at Calcutta “the col. aries calculate that their trans, loquial Hindostance.” Probably lation will give light to a popu. the Dictionary of the vernacular lation as great as that of France language which is printing at and, Italy, which probably ex. Serampore, contained terms. ceeds forty millions.* drawn from foreign sources not

VII. MAHRATTA. This version admitted into Dr. Carey's ver,

wa's commenced in the College sion.

of Fort William, before Janu. There is a region on this side ary 21, 1804, "by. Vydyunath, the of the Ganges which by those who Mahratta Pundit, under the su, are now in that country is distin- perintendance of Dr, Carey." guishingly called Hindostan; and Sep, 24, 1804. Printing had it does not include Bengal. The commenced at the College press, ancient Hindostan proper com

l'eb, 5, 1805. Ten chapters of prehended Bengal, together with Matthew were printed. åll the Soubahs lying north of a March-First draught of the crooked line drawn from the New Testament nearly done. mouths of the Ganges to the

• Ch. Res. p. 130, 134. 157, 208-, Gulph, of. Cambay. Whether 211. Mem. P. 11, 12, 09. B. PA, the writers now in India mean vol. i. 79 note, 92, 93, 178, 190, 201, to include under that distinction 204, 2:2, 223, 348. vol. iii, p. 34. Nar, all that used to be known by the p. 39. M. B, M. M, vol. 11. 44, 130. name of Hindostan proper, except 241, 321, 326. Pan. vol. i, P. 131.,

vol, ii p. 98, 106. Gh. Ob. vol, xi. p. Bengal, or whether they apply p. 37, 570 with 572. vol viii. p. 44,97 the denomination to a less region M's. Geog. vl.ii.p 203, 204, 318, west of Bengal, where the Hin- 319, 434, 43% dostapee language is spoken, is

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