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245

Regna Liburnorum, et fontem superare Timavi,
Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis
It mare proruptum et pelago premit arva sonanti.
Hic tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit
Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit armaque fixit
Troia, nunc placida conpostus pace quiescit :
Nos, tua progenies, caeli quibus adnuis arcem,

250

regna Liburnorum' is not so much the its sound after bursting up. “Proruptum,' interior of the Liburnian territory, which 'bursting up: comp. 7. 459,

toto proAntenor coming by sea would not pene- ruptus corpore sudor.” This description trate, as the kingdom lying far inward in of the Timavus has been censured as out the Adriatic. "Superare' is said to be a of place in the speech of Venus; it hownautical word by Serv., who quotes from ever expresses the portentous character of Lucilius "promontorium remis superamus the region into which Antenor is allowed Minervae." Here and E. 8. 6, where it is to penetrate with safety. also applied to the Timavus, it probably 247.] • Tamen,' in spite of all these denotes difficulty.

dangers. 244.] •Fontem Timavi' is rightly ex- 248.] ‘Genti nomen dedit,' probably plained by Henry of the fountain or source Veneti, which was identified with Heneti. of the Timavus. Between this and the sea Henry however argues from • Troia arma' (a distance of about a mile) there are sub- that Troja is meant : see on v. 242. 'Arma terranean communications, through which fixit,' hung up his arms and those of his the salt water forces its way, breaking out comrades, in token that their sufferings by at the fountain through seven mouths or flood and field were over. Serv. comp. holes in the limestone rock, and overflow- Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 4, "armis Herculis ad postem ing the channel of the river. See the ac- fixis.” count quoted by Henry from Cluverius, 249.] Nunc, &c.: Wagn., Forb., and Ital. Antiq. 1. 20, and more recent de- Jahn understand these words of the death scriptions cited in the same note from of Antenor; but in spite of the special Wittmann and Schlözer. It appears from pleading of the former that a peaceful Serv. that this view was received by death would naturally be mentioned as the many in his time; but the subsequent climax of the wanderer's happiness, and commentators, including Heyne, Wagn., that Antenor, even during the Trojan war, and Forb., understand .mare proruptum' must have been near the grave, it is eviand 'pelago 'of the volume of the waters of dent that the sense required is rather that the river, so that ‘fontem Timavi' has of a tranquil settlement following on lato stand for the river itself.

bours. The language undoubtedly is such 245.] 'Per ora novem :' the general ac- as is more generally applied to death or count, as intimated above, appears to be sleep, but the occurrence of such expresthat there were seven of these ora,' or sions as conponere pacem” (7. 339., 12. sources. Cluverius however l. c. speaks of 822), or “foedus” (10. 15), conponere the whole of the country to the sea as bellum foedere” (12.109), and "urbem tuta

unum perpetuumque saxum innumeris conponere terra” (3. 387), proves abunpassim altissimisque antris perforatum ;" dantly that the words 'conpostus pace' and it seems from Wittmann's account may well have been used of the repose of that the ora’ are constantly overflowed, a peaceful life. Possibly too Virg. may so that their number is not easy to ascer- have thought of Ennius' celebrated lines tain. Polybius asserts that the water in • (A. 18. 7), “Sicut fortis equus, spatio qui all but one of these 'ora' is salt, which saepe supremo Vicit Olympia, nunc senio Strabo denies. The two are reconciled by confectu' quiescit," where of course peaceCluverius, who reports from actual obser- ful old age, not death, is meant.* The vation that the sea occasionally bursts up antithesis between “fixit' and 'nunc quithrough six of the sources, and renders the escit' merely implies that, after having water undrinkable. • Vasto cum mur- founded his city, named his nation, and mure montis' refers to the sound of the hung up his arms for ever, he entered on water re-echoing through the limestone a prosperous reign. rock as it bursts up; pelago sonanti,' to 250.] Nos :' she rhetorically identifies

255

Navibus, infandum ! amissis, unius ob iram
Prodimur atque Italis longe disiungimur oris.
Hic pietatis honos ? sic nos in sceptra reponis ?

Olli subridens hominum sator atque deorum
Voltu, quo caelum tempestatesque serenat,
Oscula libavit natae, dehinc talia fatur:
Parce metu, Cytherea, manent inmota tuorum
Fata tibi: cernes urbem et promissa Lavini
Moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli
Magnanimum Aenean; neque me sententia vertit.
Hic tibi - fabor enim, quando haec te cura remordet,

260

herself with her son. · Arcem caeli’ (for presentation (supposed to be unique) of which see note on v. 225) denotes here the Iuppiter Serenus, with the inscription fullest enjoyment of divine honours which "lovi Sereno Sacr.," on an ancient lamp had been promised to Aeneas after death. in the Passerian Museum. "Tempestates' * Adnuis’ with acc. 12. 187. 'Adnuis' has means the weather rather than the storms, a special propriety as applied to a promise so that there is no occasion to suppose a of Jupiter. néo Xeto kai kat évevoev, Il. Zeugma, with Wagn. 2. 112.

256.] Oscula libavit: see note on G. 251.) • Infandum' interjected, like 2. 523, and comp. 12. 434, and Sueton. “miserum” 6.21, “nefas” 8.688. “Unius Aug. 94, " osculum pueri delibatum digitis ob iram' recalls “saevae memorem Iunonis ad os suum detulisset.” The word howob iram,” v. 4.

ever, even in its primary sense, seems to 252.] ‘Prodimur,' forsaken by Jupiter, mean, not simply lips, but lips for kissing. not, as Heyne takes it, betrayed to de: Heyne remarks that “natae’ is used after struction by the wiles of Juno.

‘olli' as Homer uses "Ektop: after t 8'. 253.] *Honos,' reward,' as in 5. 249, There is great delicacy in the use of the 308. Reponis,' restore us in Italy to the subst. here, which has the force of pater empire we have lost at Troy. Reponere' natae.' See on E. 8. 1, 18. is connected with in sceptra,' which vir. 257.] ‘Metu,' the old dative. Parce :' tually means into the possession of the see on G. 2. 339. “Tuorum fata,' like sceptre.' 'Is this to restore a king to his “ fata Phrygum,” 7. 294. Tibi’ is the throne?'

ethical dative connected with the whole sen254–296.] ‘Jupiter reassures her, tell- tence, as we might say,' to your comfort.' ing her what the course of the destined 258.] •Urbem et promissa Lavini moeTrojan empire is to be, beginning with nia' is a hendiadys. Observe the change Lavinium, passing into Alba, and ending of quantity from Lavina,' v. 2, which is in Rome, whose greatness is to be per. like that in Italia,' 'Italus,' 'Apulia,' fected in the golden age of Augustus.' • Appulus,' &c., a larger licence being al

254.] 'Olli :' Heyne comp. Enn. A. 1. lowed for metrical convenience in proper 31, ‘Olli respondet rex Albai longai.' Nie- names than in other words. buhr, Lect. vol. ii. p. 155, ed. 1844, says 259.] Heyne quotes Enn. A. 1. 47, “unus that Virg. admitted a few archaic forms erit quem tu tolles ad caerula caeli Temin compliance with the precepts of the pla,” which he supposes to be said, not by Alexandrian grammarians about epic Venus, but by Mars, because Ovid intro. composition. Subridens,” smiling gently.' duces the line (F. 2. 487) in a speech of

The line is nearly repeated 12.829. Ho Mars praying for the deification of Ro. minum sator atque deorum,' 11. 725. mulus. Ad sidera :' see on 3. 158. Here

255.) Serv. quotes Enn. (A. fr. inc. 3), apotheosis of course is meant. “Iuppiter hic risit, tempestatesque serenae 260.] Neque me sententia vertit:' see Riserunt omnes risu lovis omnipotentis.” note on v. 237, and comp. 10. 608, “nec te Heyne refers to Gud. Inscrip. p. 5, n. 3, sententiaf allit.” “Magnanimus' of Aeneas, for an inscription “ Iovi Opt. Max. Sere- 5. 17., 9. 204, the Homeric meyáðuuos. natori ;” and Henry says there is a re- 261.] Wagn. has rightly changed

265

Longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo-
Bellum ingens geret Italia populosque ferocis
Contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, ,
Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas,
Ternaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis.
At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo
Additur,Ilus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno --
Triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbis
Inperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini

270

Heyne's punctuation, Hic, tibi fabor noting that he was still in the camp, has enim,' which is also approved by Servius. not been noticed. “Rutulis subactis ' may • Tibi’ implies thou shalt see him victo- very well be the abl. absol.; but it is more rious in Italy.' 'Quando' has the force probably the dative, an idiom common in of 'quandoquidem,'as ote that of 871. The Greek, and found also in Juv. 14. 10, "Cum re' in ‘remordet' may express either a septimus annus Transierit puero.". It is a single recurrence or frequent repetition; variety of the ethical or personal dative. the latter sense seems more natural here. See on v. 102 above. “Cura recursat,” below, v. 662. Remor- 268.] Heyne without reason suspects this dere' is found Lucr. 3. 827., 4. 1135. line. It is a natural attempt to strengthen

262.] Volvens' is probably a metaphor a weak point of the legend, the absence of from a book unrolled. • Volvendi sunt any connexion between Iulus and

any chalibri cum aliorum tum inprimis Catonis,” racter in the Trojan story. Dum res Cic. Brut. 87. Jupiter says he will open stetit Ilia regno'may either be rendered yet further the secrets that lie in the book with Wagn., dum res stetit Ilio regno' of fate. The notion in “movebo" is that (* res stetit' = 'fortuna stetit '), or, which of “quieta movere.” “Fallax historias mo- seeins better, while the Trojan state (res vet,” Hor. 3 d. 7. 20, quoted by Gossrau. Ilia,' like 'res Romana ') stood with power So “excitare,” to cite, as we say colloqui- unbroken (stetit regno,'stood in respect ally, to rake up. “Awaken the secrets of its power '). In the latter case we may of Fate's book from the distant pages compare 2. 88, “ Dum stabat regno incowhere they slumber.'

lumis.” With the perfect after dum,' in 263.) Bellum ingens,' G. 2. 279. Po. the sense of duration, comp. 3. 15, “Dum pulosque ferocis contundet,' 'will crush Fortuna fuit.” its bold nations. Comp. 4. 229., 5. 730, &c. 269.] Volvendis mensibus :' here and

264.] • Mores' conveyed to a Roman in “volvenda dies,” 9. 7, Virg. has fol. many of the notions which political insti. lowed the usage of Enn. A. inc. 69, “ clatutions and a social system convey to us. mor ad caelum volvendus per aethera va. Comp. 8. 316, “Queis neque mos neque git,” and of Lucr. 5. 1276, “Sic volvenda cultus erat ;" and see on G. 4. 5. There is aetas conmutat tempora rerum.” Both not a mere play on the double sense of the in this passage and in 9.7, however, the word 'ponere,' as the building of a city ordinary sense of the gerundive would implies a settled civil government. “Mores have force, as in each case it is a god ponere,' like vouoeteiv in Greek. “Inpo- who may be speaking of destiny, so that nere morem,” 6. 852 ; " Posuere urbem,” we may doubt whether Virg. would have 8.53. There may be a notion too of giving used the word in a connexion where he (ponere' = 'dare,' as Deivai = goûvai), as could not have availed himself of comviris' seems to show.

mon as well as of archaic associations. 265.] The legend was that the first Understood in the ordinary sense ‘volsettlement (represented in Virg. by the vendis mensibus' will be an instrumental camp) endured for three years, Lavinium or modal ablative. • Orbis : for thirty, after which the kingdom was orbis” occurs in 5. 46. The epithet transferred to Alba, which lasted for three which is here wanting must be supplied hundred. For the form of expression from the context, especially from 'mencomp. v. 755 below.

sibus.' 266.] The propriety of hiberna,' as de- 270.] ‘Inperio' may be either dative,

annuus

275

Transferet, et Longam multa vi muniet Albam.
Hic iam ter centum totos regnabitur annos
Gente sub Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos
Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem.
Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus
Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet
Moenia Romanosque suo de nomine dicet.
His ego nec metas rerum nec tempora pono;
Inperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Iuno,
Quae mare nunc terrasque metu caelumque fatigat,
Consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit

280

for his reign,' or modal abl. = 'inpe. Hor. 3 Od. 4. 34, “laetum equino sanrando.' Heins. restored 'ab sede' for a guine Concanum,” and the similar use of sede,' from Med., Rom., &c.

gaudeo. Prop. 5. 10. 20 describes Ro271.] · Muniet,' build and fortify.' mulus with a helmet of wolf-skin ; but Multa vi,' with great power and might, Virg., as Henry remarks, doubtless not,' with strong fortifications.' Virg. meant the 'tegmen’ to cover the whole doubtless followed Lucr. 1. 728, “multa person. munita virum vi,” where however popula- 276.] Comp. note on G. 2. 345. The tion seems meant. Wagn. retains lon- notion here is that of succession. "The gam' as more poetical than ‘Longam ;' he nation shall then pass into the hands of however writes · Longam' in 6. 766. A Romulus.' There is nothing to warrant similar inversion of the names of persons is the notion of Thiel and Forb, that excifound even in prose writers. See Macleune piet'='accipiet asylo.'. Mavortia' may on Hor. 2 Od. 2. 3.

point at once to the birth of Romulus, the 272.] Wagn. and Forb. explain iam' worship of Mars at Rome, and the martial as “de eo quod nondum est, sed suo tem- character of the nation. pore certe fiet,” referring to 4.566., 6.676., 278.] His,' as opposed to their prede8. 42., 11. 708, Tibull. 2. 5. 56, in all of cessors, whose date was limited. Metas' which passages ‘iam' means “at once, a probably refers to the bounds of the emsense inapplicable here. We must rather pire ("rerum '), 'tempora’ to its duration. take it therefore as contrasting Alba and Meta’ however may be transferred from its long-lived dynasty with the preceding space to time, 10. 472. With his temmembers of the series. • And here the pore pono' we may compare kingdom shall endure three hundred years.' cuique dies," 10. 467. * Iam' then will mean, at this point of the 280.] ‘Metu' is commonly taken with series of events. As 'regnabitur' is im- 'fatigat' (like “omnia magno Ne cesses personal, we should rather have expected turbare metu," 11. 400), expressing the * a gente Hectorea. The epithet · Hec- terror which Juno spreads through the torea' is of course not strictly applicable. universe. It may however, and perhaps

273.] It is difficult to say whether better, be taken, as Serv. suggests, for the regina' or 'sacerdos' is to be taken as alarm which Juno feels at the course of the adjective. "Regina,''princess,' 6. 28, destiny, if we compare v. 23, “id metuens,” note, as Antigone is termed the Barr and lo. 9. 'Fatigat’ will then mean, keeps Aída in Soph. Ant. 941. "Sacerdos,' a earth, air, and sea astir, by constantly traVestal.

versing them and exciting their powers; 274.) For the construction Marte so " remigio noctemque diemque fatigant, gravis,' and the meaning represented by 8. 92. Thus Virg. may have had in his it, see note on G. 3. 506.

* Gravida ex eye Il. 4. 26, where Here complains of the aliquo” is used by Ter. Hec. 3. 3. 32, and toil which she and her horses have underOvid (Met. 3. 260) has “gravidam de gone in persecuting the Trojans. semine Iovis.” Partu dabit pariet.' 281.] The phrase 'in melius referre'is Comp. “Furtivo partu sub luminis edidit twice used in Virg. (here and 11. 425) for oras, 7. 660.

*to amend.' 275.] 'Lupae tegmine laetus :' comp.

• Stat sua

Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam.
Sic placitum. Veniet lustris labentibus aetas,
Cum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas
Servitio premet ac victis dominabitur Argis.

265
Nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesar,
Inperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris,
Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo.
Hunc tu olim caelo, spoliis Orientis onustum,
Accipies secura ; vocabitur hic quoque votis.

290
Aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis;
Cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus,

Iura dabunt ; dirae ferro et conpagibus artis 282.] Macrobius (Sat. 6. 5) says that foll. “Pulchra Troianus origine,' from the Laberius was the author of this line; and high line of Troy; as though it had been Suetonius (Aug. 40) tells a story of Au- 'pulchra Troianorum origine.' This congustus' quoting it. It had probably be- nects the line with those which precede. come a stock line to express the grandeur It is conceivable however, as has been sug. of imperial Rome. "Gentem togatam’ is gested to me, that 'pulchra' may refer to not a tame addition, being sufficiently Augustus' personal beauty, an allusion to characteristic; so that there is no need which would be appropriate in a speech to with Heyne to seek a point in any anti- Venus. thesis between 'arma' and 'toga. Hor. 287.] 'Qui terminet,' destined to 3 Od. 5. 10, “Anciliorum et nominis et bound. togae Oblitus.”

288.] For the alleged origin of the 283.] Sic placitum,' oőtws CéDoktai. Julii from lulus see Merivale, Hist. vol. i. Jupiter is speaking destiny. It will be p. 97, who observes that the great Julius observed that “lustra' being a strictly seems to have been the first to assert it. Roman measure of time, Jupiter is thus “Caesar et omnis Iuli Progenies," 6. 789. made to speak the language of the great * Demissum :' comp. G. 3. 35. nation. *As Rome's years roll on.'

289.] 'Spoliis Orientis onustum.' For 284.) Assaracus is the ancestor through similar compliments to Augustus as conwhom Aeneas was related to the royal queror of the East, see G. 2. 171., 4. 560, house of Troy. Comp. II. 20. 230. The A. 8.724 foll. Serv. mentions another read descendants of Aeneas shall triumph over ing, ‘honestum,' which would easily arise those of Achilles ( Phthiam '), Agamem- from the spelling 'honustum,' frequently non (Mycenas '), and Diomede (* Argos').' found in old MSS. Comp. 6. 838, "Eruet ille Argos Agamem- 290.] 'Hic quoque, as well as Aeneas, noniasque Mycenas, Ipsumque Aeaciden, v. 259.

“Damnabis tu quoque yotis” E. 5. genus armipotentis Achilli.”

80. See on v. 286. 286.] Caesar,' Augustus (Julius Caesar 291.] As it is expressed elsewhere, 6. by adoption); not, as Serv. thinks, Ju. 792, E. 4. 8, the iron age will pass into lius, who could hardly be said to be laden the golden. with the spoils of the East, and who was 292.] These four deities are chosen, as not the primary object of a Roman’s Henry remarks, as typical of the primitive homage. We may observe that he is not and golden age of Rome. Vesta has been distinctly spoken of here as Julius Caesar, mentioned before in a similar connexion which would have been ambiguous, but is G. 1. 498, Romulus and Remus G. 2. called Caesar, the gentile Julius being 533. The union of the two latter, as mentioned as connecting him with Iulus. Heyne observes, symbolizes the end of It may seem against this that his apotheo- civil broils. Numa (Livy 1. 21) established sis is spoken of v. 289; but it may be the worship of Fides. Comp. Hor. Car. meant to understand the deification as Saec. 57, “ Iam Fides et Pax et Honor taking place during his life, as we know it Pudorque priscus.” “Cana' occurs 5. 744 to have done, E. 1. 44 note, Hor. 2 Ep. 1. as an epithet of Vesta. 15. With the whole passage comp. 6. 791 293.) 1

* Iura dabunt,' «shall impose laws,'

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