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Aeris in campis latis, atque omnia lustrant.
Quae postquam Anchises natum per singula duxit,
Incenditque animum famae venientis amore,
Exin bella viro memorat quae deinde gerenda,
Laurentisque docet populos urbemque Latini,
Et quo quemque modo fugiatque feratque laborem.

Sunt geminae Somni portae, quarum altera fertur
Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus Umbris ;
Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto,
Sed falsa ad caelum mittunt insomnia Manes.


what awaits him in Italy, and then dis- 607. The gates of Sleep are from Hom.'s misses him and the Sibyl through one gates of dreams, which are similarly deof the gates of sleep. Aeneas sails to scribed Od. 19. 562 foll. Much ingenuity Caieta.'

has been expended in searching for a 887.] Aeris' with campis,' not, as symbolical meaning in them.

Heyne Forb., following Ruhkopf, thinks, with seems right in saying that Virg. wanted *regione.' W. Ribbeck cites Auson. Cu- to dismiss Aeneas from the shades by pido Crucifixus v. 1, “Aeris in campis, some other way than that by which he memorat quos Musa Maronis.” It seems had entered, and that Hom.'s gates forto be a general expression for the place of tunately occurred to him. See Introthe dead," the shadowy plains," aer' duction to this Book. Turnebus and probably including the notion of mist as others wanted to understand somni' as well as of air. Elsewhere Elysium bas somni :' but somnii' would not be the aether and light, as the rest of the infernal same as somniorum.' Here, as elsewhere regions have darkness : here a neutral word (e. g. v. 702 above), Virg. evidently subis chosen. Stat. Silv. 5. 3. 286 seems to stitutes sleep for dreams, on account of have taken it exclusively of the Elysian the metrical unmanageableness of somfields, “ Et monstrate nemus, quo nulla nium.' • Fertur' might conceivably be inrupit Erinys, In quo falsa dies caeloque understood as = 'surgit' or • tollit se;' simillimus aer."

but it is simpler to understand it is re888.] “Perque omnia duxit” v. 565 ported to be, Virg. speaking doubtfully of above.

things that mortals have no direct means 889.] Med. has 'famae melioris amore,' of knowing. •Fertur cornea' like “non evidently from 4. 221, an error which sat idoneus Pugnae ferebaris" Hor. 2 Od. takes away from its authority in such 19. 26. passages as v. 806 (see note there). Ve- 894.] ‘Veris Umbris,' real spirits which nientis, in the future. He was to be in appear in sleep. How far the existence of spired with a passion for the long line of such apparitions agrees with Virg.'s philohistoric glories which depended on his sophy may be doubted: see on 4. 353., 5. valour in Italy. Comp. vv. 718, 806., 4. 722. In Hom. the distinction is between 232.

truthful and lying dreams; and perhaps 890.] · Viro' is introduced for the sake Virg. means to include this as well. See of the juxtaposition with bella. • De

on v. 896. inde' from this time, v. 756. Here and 895.) 'Perfecta nitens' seems = 'perin the next two lines Virg. almost repeats fecte nitens,' like 'saxosus sonans,'. 'lenis 3. 458, 459, the difference being that crepitans,'&c., though 'perfecta elephanto' there the Sibyl is to tell Aeneas what would naturally go together, like "Cymbia here he learns from Anchises. See note argento perfecta” 5. 267. Either word, there.

“perfecta' or ' nitens,' would have ex891.] ‘Populos' of the single Lauren. pressed Virg.'s meaning sufficiently : and tian nation, perhaps with reference to the there is something superfluous in using many nations of Italy, 3. 458, &c. For both. Gleaming with the polish of the Laurentes see 7. 63. “Urbem Latini” dazzling ivory.' 12. 137.

896.j Beautiful as the ivory gate is, the 893.] “Sunt geminae Belli portae” 7. apparitions that pass through it are false. 532


His ibi tum natum Anchises unaque Sibyllam
Prosequitur dictis, portaque emittit eburna :
Ille viam secat ad navis sociosque revisit;
Tum se ad Caietae recto fert litore portum.
Ancora de prora iacitur ; stant litore puppes.


For the power of the shades to send tions till they part at the gate. dreams comp. Clytaemnestra's dream, 899.] “ Viam secat” 12. 368.

“ Post which was sent by Agamemnon, Soph. hinc ad navis graditur sociosque revisit" El. 459, oluae uera olv, olual T1 kårelvo 8. 546. The sense is from Od. 11. 636, μέλoν Πέμψαι τάδ' αυτή δυσπρόσοπτονεί. αυτίκ' έπειτ' επί νήα κιών εκέλευον εταίρους pata. Wagn. comp. Tibull. 2. 6. 37, “ne Αυτούς τάμβαίνειν ανά τε πρυμνήσια λύσαι, tibi neglecti mittant mala somnia Manes," of Ulysses leaving the shades. which Virg. may have thought of, if it 900.] • Recto litore,' sailing straight was published before his death. “Falsa' along the shore, like “recto flumine" 8. probably refers both to the quality of the 57. He follows the line of coast, and it apparition and to the message hat it takes him to Caieta. Heyne read ' limite' brings. Both may be illustrated from the from three or four inferior MSS., to avoid dreams of Hom. : in Od. 4. 796 the appari. the repetition of litore' in the same part tion of Iphthime is made by Athene: in of the next verse: but though the repeti. 11. 2. 6 foll. the Dream-god is sent to give tion is certainly awkward, it seems better false counsel. There is apparently a similar to suppose a slight carelessness on Virg.'s combination of the two notions in Hor. part than to question the reading of all 3 Od. 27. 40 foll., “ imago Vana, quae the great MSS. Ribbeck cuts the knot porta fugiens eburna Somnium ducit." by bracketing v. 901, which is repeated

897.] It is difficult to choose between from 3. 277. Perhaps we may say that ‘ibi' (fragm. Vat., Rom., Gud. a m. p., Virg. inserted it as a piece of his own epic and probably Pal.) and 'ubi’ (Med.). The common place, whether as a stop-gap or former is the more simple, the latter the not, and that this accounts for the repetimore artificial. On the whole I have fol. tion of litore.' The mention of Caieta has lowed Ribbeck in preferring ibi,' as 'por- been objected to, as inconsistent with the taque emittit eburna’ loses force by being opening of the next Book, where it is said thrown into the protasis, and even Wagn. that the death of Caieta, Aeneas' nurse, does not propose to treat it as forming the was the occasion of the name. But this is apodosis, though in 12. 81 he makes ra- natural and Virgilian enough; and we can pidusque' the apodosis to “ubi.' “Na- hardly wish that the poet had rivalled the tumque unaque Sibyllam” v. 752 above. accuracy of Ovid, who in his brief narra.

898.] “ Prosequitur votis” 9. 310. tive of Aeneas' adventures (M. 14. 157)

His' is explained by what precedes, vv. says “Litora adit nondum nutricis haben890 foll. Anchises continues his instruc- tia nomen."


“THEN, binding round their brows the mystic branch of bay, they rose, and in silence entered upon holy ground. . . . .. Fronting them rose the high altar, crowned, like the rest, with laurel, on which all must lay tribute who would enquire aught of Phoebus. Here the priests took of their offering and burnt it upon the slab. If the day were one of consultation, lots then were drawn for precedence, and he whom fortune favoured moved on, past the Omphalos, where Apollo had reposed in early days, past the tomb of Neoptolemus, past the image of Pallas, to the steps of the shrine itself. At the foot he left his train of servants, and mounted all alone, wonder. ing at the marvels round, the open colonnades, the wondrous sculptures filling the pediments of the noble tympana, each commemorating the life and labours of a god. . . . And now the jubilant trumpets of the priests pealed out, with notes that rang round the valley, and up among the windings of the Hyampeian cliff. Awed into silence by the sound, he crossed the garlanded threshold : he sprinkled on his head the holy water from the fonts of gold, and entered the outer court. New statues, fresh fonts, craters, and goblets, the gift of many an Eastern king, met his eye: walls emblazoned with dark sayings rose about him as he crossed towards the inner adytum. Then the music grew more loud : the interest deepened : his heart beat faster. With a sound as of many thunders, that penetrated to the crowd without, the subterranean door rolled back : the earth trembled: the laurels nodded : smoke and vapour broke commingled forth: and, railed below within a hollow of the rock, perchance he caught one glimpse of the marble effigies of Zeus and the dread sisters, one gleam of sacred arms; for one moment saw a steaming chasm, a shaking tripod, above all, a Figure with fever on her cheek and foam upon her lips, who, fixing a wild eye upon space, tossed her arms aloft in the agony of her soul, and, with a shriek that never left his ear for days, chanted high and quick the dark utterances of the will of Heaven."

ARNOLD PRIZE Essay for 1859, pp. 14, 15,



Page 30, note on v. 1. Macrob. Sat. 5. •Acestae.' This may show that the tran2 quotes “Troiae qui primus ab oris' as scriber remembered having seen - Achati' part of the first verse of the Aeneid. On somewhere: but it may also remind us that the other hand Priscian 940 P cites · Ille Virg. made · Acestae' the gen. of 'Acestes.' ego qui quondam gracili modulatus avena' • Acesti' however is read by one MS. in as Virgil's.

the passage from Book 5. P. 36, note on v. 41. So Tryphiodorus P. 55, v. 237. For Pollicitus, quae read v. 650, ávo evds 'Apyelowo lv éxárato não w Pollicitus. Quae. 'Αθήνη.

P. 81, note on v.513. “Perculsus' now Ib., notes on vv. 42, 43. Quinct. appears from Ribbeck's apparatus criticus Smyrn. 14. 444 foll. follows Virg., making to be read by Rom. in 8. 121. Zeus give all his artillery to Athena for P. 97, note on v. 683. Noctem non the occasion, and delight in seeing the amplius unam' is probably to be explained storm which she raises. He imitates Virg. like "neque enim plus septuma ducitur in the speech which Athena addresses to aestas” G. 4. 207, where see the note, Zeus, vv. 427 foll., and also in the visit rather than by the analogy of the passage in Iris is represented as paying on Athena's Lucr. "Noctem' is acc. because - amplius account to Aeolia, for the special purpose is acc.; it would have been nom. if .amof making the tempest worse about the plius' had been nom. ; whereas in “digiheadland of Caphareus, vv. 474 foll., tum non altior unum " the acc. seems to though in the latter case his narrative is be used on the analogy of digitum unum more summary.

altus,” the comparative not affecting the Ib., note on v. 45. W. Ribbeck cites construction in any way. Seneca's poem to Corduba, vv. 13, 14 P. 204, note on v. 180. For Salamine (Wernsdorf's Poet. Lat. Min. vol. 5, p. read Salamina. 1367), “ Ille tuus quondam magnus, tua P. 280, note on v. 257. As neither gloria, civis Infigar scopulo," which is in Heins., Heyne, nor Ribbeck specifies any favour of the common interpretation, as MS. as containing the ordinary reading the writer evidently means to speak of his 'Litus arenosum Libyae,' I have examined banishment to a rocky island as an im- ten of the Bodleian MSS., the same which palement.

I examined in reference to 5. 573 (see the P. 44, note on v. 120. Ribbeck reads Preface). Five of them read 'ac Libyae,' “Achati' from a passage in Charisius 107 P, four ‘Libyae,' one 'ad Libyae.' Those where Pliny is cited as instancing fortis which read “Libyae' are numbered reAchati,' 'acris Oronti’ to exemplify the spectively Auct. A. A. 1 (first half of 15th usage which obtained before his time with century), Auct. B. B. 1 (14th century), respect to Latin equivalents of the Greek Auct. B. B. 2? apparently late), and genitive in -ov from proper names in -75. Auct. F. 2. 5 (middle of 15th century). But Pliny may have quoted from memory, In A. A. 1 and B. B. 2 ‘ac' is written confusing · Achati' with Achilli :' and it above the line. In F. 2. 5 'ventoque' is perhaps a little hazardous to desert all appears for 'ventosque,' there being a the MSS. Heins., who illustrates this blank space where s' has been erased. form of the gen. largely, says that in 5. In B. B. 2 'volabat' is written apparently 301 an ancient MS. gives - Achati' for by the same hand as the rest of the line,



but at a later time, as if a blank space derstood χρυσόν δ' αύτός έδυνε περί χροt to had been originally left and afterwards mean that Poseidon put golden harness on filled in. In A. A. 1 and B. B. 2 v. 257 the coats of the horses. precedes v. 256, but the order is corrected P. 479, note on v. 496. A similar quesin the margin. The inverted order is also tion may be raised about the construction found in the text of one of the other MSS. of G. 4. 99, “ Ardentes auro et paribus lita which I examined, and in the margin of corpora guttis,” where Virg., in his love of another. It appears then that the reading poetical surplusage, has left it doubtful

Libyae,' like * Trinacriis' 5.573 is at any whether he means 'lita corpora’ to be acc. rate prior to the invention of printing, so in construction with ardentes' or nom. in that it may have some better authority apposition to it. He seems to have avoided than critical conjecture.

saying litae corpora' partly for the sake P. 384, note on v. 573. For F. 2. 6 of variety, partly that he might not separead Auct. F. 2. 6.

rate paribus guttis' pointedly from 'auro' P. 410, note on v. 817. Read the manes (comp. Formosum paribus nodis atque of his horses, and his own armour : and aere” E. 5. 90). add, unless we suppose Virg. to have un



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