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Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera,
Credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus,
Orabunt caussas melius, caelique meatus
Describent radio et surgentia sidera dicent:
Tu regere inperio populos, Romane, memento;
Hae tibi erunt artes ; pacisque inponere morem,



well-known lines of Ennius A. 9, fr. 8, nexion with ducere,' like “ lento ar. preserved by Cic. Off. 1. 24, and others : gento” in 7.634 just cited. “Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit perplexed commentators and critics, from

849.] Orabunt caussas melius' has

Cerda to De Quincey (Works, vol. 14, p. 67, Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem: first Eng. ed.), who cannot understand

why Ergo postque magisque viri nunc gloria Virg. should have conceded to Greece supeclaret."

riority in oratory, and in some cases even Rom. and one or two others have ‘resti, insinuate that he must have been jealous tues,' which has been recommended on of the fame of Cicero. But Virg.'s conces. the ground that Anchises is using through- sion is made in a liberal and magnificent out the predictive future. But the pre- spirit, in order that the real fame of his sent is much more forcible, making it an countrymen as warriors and statesmen attribute of Fabius that he saved the state may appear greater : and it is not likely by delay, and being in fact a translation that he thought of the number of indivi. of his name Cunctator.'

dual reputations that the position thus 847.] “ Est rhetoricus locus,” remarks assumed compelled him to sacrifice. In Serv. of this celebrated passage. The con- the general proposition, that the real cessive fut., as Forb. calls it, is used else- greatness of Rome lay in acts of war and where, as in Hor. 1 Od. 7. 1, 3 Od. 23. 13, policy, all moderns will agree with him: instead of the more usual subj. Here it is and whether he has specified oratory more appropriate, as being the language of among the pursuits in which other naprophecy. * Aera' of bronze statues Hor. tions are allowed to excel or has left it to 2 Ep. 1. 240. “Spirantia signa” G. 3. 34. be inferred is a matter of little conseThe reference throughout is to the Greeks, quence. He would doubtless have speci. the natural rivals of Rome. Mollius' ex- fied poetry with equal or greater readipresses grace and delicacy, with some re- ness, if he had not felt that the very menference perhaps, as Forb. thinks, to giving tion of it would have implied a latent the soft appearance of flesh.

egotism. Caeli meatus' like “caeli vias” 818.] *Credo equidem ' 4. 12. Here it G. 2. 477, though there the addition of has almost the force of cedo,' which was “et sidera " softens the expression. Henry conjectured by Markland, and is the first understands the words specifically of the reading of Pal. Credo equidem’occurs 2. heavenly circles. 704., 12. 818, but not quite in this sense. 850.] “ Descripsit radio totum qui genCredo equidem' is not ironical, as Burm. tibus orbem” E. 3. 41. “Surgentia sidera thinks, but means 'I can well believe it,' dicent' seems to mean, will fix, or predict, i. e., I am quite ready to admit it. So the risings of the stars. Hor. 2 Ep. 1. 66 foll., “Si quaedam nimis 851.] Regere inperio' is a Lucretian antique, si pleraque dure Dicere credit eos, expression, as Forb. remarks. Regere ignave multa fatetur," unless there we are inperio res velle, et regna tenere,” Lucr. to read 'cedit' with Bentley from the 5. 1128. We have had “regis inperiis' Queen's Coll. MS. Ducere' is properly above, 1. 230. Romane,' an address to used of producing forms by extension, as the nation, as in Hor. 3 Od. 6. 2. Me. in metal (7.634), wax (Pers. 5. 40, Juv. 7. mento’ is a mode of conveying an injunc237), or clay ("ducere lateres de terra” tion of which Horace is fond, 2 Od. 3. 1, Vitruv. 2. 3). Hence it is transferred to 3 Od. 29. 32, Epod. 10. 4, 1 Ep. 8. 16. marble, probably with the accessory notion • Populos,' subject nations. Comp. geneof the form growing and spreading over rally 1. 263, "populosque ferocis Contunthe material under the sculptor's hand. det, moresque viris et moenia ponet." * De marmore' is a material abl., as in 4. 852.] · Ars' or 'artes' is a common ex457, G. 3. 13, but it also stands in con- pression for pursuits or appliances of any 855

Parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos.

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit:
Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis
Ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnis!
Hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu,
Sistet, eques sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,

kind : here however there is probably a huius praeconii, te legentem.” The most reference to its stricter sense. * These apposite instances he gives are Livy 30. 42, shall be your arts'—these shall stand to where the Carthaginian ambassadors say you in the place of sculpture, eloquence, of the Romans “plus pene parcendo victis and astronomy. Pal. a m. pr. and three quam vincendo inperium auxisse," and inferior MSS. have haec,' and so Ribbeck: Hor. Carm. Saec. 51 (of Augustus), “ Inbut though it is not unlikely that copyists peret bellante prior, iacentem Lenis in should have been puzzled by the older form hostem,” though there inpetret' is the of the nom. fem. plural, as they doubtless more probable reading. were in G. 3. 305, where I would now 854-886.] 'Lastly, Anchises points out read “Haec—tuendae,” the external au- the elder Marcellus, who is attended by a thority for the change is hardly sufficient. younger spirit. Aeneas inquires who the * Inponere' &c. are in apposition with youth is, and learns that he is destined to 'artes,' not, as some have taken them, de- die young, amid the general grief of the pendent on ‘memento, hae-artes' being Roman people.' regarded as parenthetical. For ‘pacis 854.] Mirantibus' seems to mean that all the best MSS. (Pal. and Gud. as well Aeneas and the Sibyl

are already penetrated as Med. and Rom., if Ribbeck's silence is by the grandeur of the vision and the to be trusted) appear to give ‘ paci,' which prophecy, and so indicates, as has been reRibbeck adopts. Admitting the difficulty marked to me, Virg.'s own sense of the of the question, I have on the whole pre- greatness of the elevation attained in the ferred to abide by the more usual reading, preceding passage. which is found in Serv., “leges pacis,” and 855.] Marcellus is of course singled out supported by Livy 9. 14, “gentem quae for the sake of his namesake, soon to be suarum inpotens rerum prae domesticis mentioned. Spoliis opimis,' won from seditionibus discordiisque aliis modum pacis the general of the Insubrian Ganls Viridoac belli facere aequum censeret," quoted by marus. Wagn. Morem pacis inponere however

Gradiensque deas supereminet means more than “modum pacis facere," omnis” 1. 501, where 'deas' is supported being equivalent, as Wagn. interprets it, against deu' by 'viros ' here. to “ victos adsuefacere vitae pacatae, 857.] *Res Romana' occurs twice in

compel them to cultivate the arts of Enn., Ann. fr. inc. 10, 41. “Subito turpeace.” Henry. Comp. 8. 316, “Quis bante tumultu” 9. 397. "Tumultus' is neque mos neque cultus erat," and see on here used in its technical sense of a Gallic 1. 264, G. 4. 5. This might be the sense war, for which see the celebrated passage with paci, though I am not sure that it Cic. 8 Phil. 1. would be Virgilian to understand “paci’ 858.] •Sistet,' opúser, opposed to the as i.q. "pacatis gentibus.” Perhaps we shaking of the tumultus.'"“Salvam ac might say that peace is curbed by institu- sospitem rempublicam sistere in sua sede tions which prevent it from degenerating liceat ... ut optumi status auctor dicar” into luxury and licence, or that it is re- is quoted from an edict of Augustus by strained by being made lasting. No par. Suet. Aug. 28. Comp. also the phrase allel however occurs to me in Virg. or any nec sisti posse," common in Livy (3. 9, other author, which would clear up the ex. 16, 20 &c.)." So the epithet 'stator,' which pression. •Pacis' on the other hand is was used not only of Jupiter as the stayer further confirmed by “ pacis dicere leges” of flight (Livy 1. 12, comp. by Forb.), but 12. 112, which is parallel in expression of Jupiter and other gods as supporters of (mos' and ‘lex' being similar) rather Rome. Auctor ac stator Romani nomi. than in sense.

nis, Gradive Mars" Vell. 2. 131. It is 853.] of this sentiment Cerda remarks not altogether easy to say whether eques! “ Deficiet me tempus memorantem testes should go with sistet' or with sternet.'


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Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.
Atque hic Aeneas; una namque ire videbat

Egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis,
Sed frons laeta parum, et deiecto lumina voltu:
Quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem ?
Filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum ?
Qui strepitus circa comitum ! quantum instar in ipso !



The combat in which Marcellus gained dened with the presage of death. Comp. the 'spolia opima' was a combat of cavalry v. 866 below. Deiecto lumina volta, a (Dict. B. Marcellus): and though 'sternet, pleonastic variety for “lumina deiecta as Wagn. remarks, goes more naturally *voltus deiectus. with .eques' than sistet,' it does not seem 863.] ‘Sic'

seems merely to mean thus certain that Marcellus' advantages against as we see. To interpret it with Forb. the Carthaginians had any special con- “tam tristi specie” would anticipate v. 866. nexion with cavalry. Gossrau however 864.] De stirpe’ with. nepotum.' refers to Sil. 12. 178 foll., who speaks as if “Praeclare stirpe deorum” G. 4. 322. the sally from Nola, memorable as the first 865.] «Qui,' which was restored by success obtained against Hannibal, were Heins. but removed by Wagn., is found in chiefly one of cavalry: but this does not Pal., fragm. Vat. a m. pr., .quis' in Med., specially appear in the account in Livy 23. Rom. Sense as well as euphony seems to 16. If we take 'eques' with 'sternet,' be in favour of qui,' as it is not an interwe shall do right to connect them closely, rogation that is wanted, but an exclamawith Henry, ride over,' kabiraáteoda.. tion. Comitum,” the shades of young Rom. has .equis.' * Rebellem :' the In- Marcellus' future contemporaries crowd subrian Gauls had sued for peace, but their round him admiring and applauding. overtures were rejected: upon which they Heyne comp. Eur. Phoen. 148, ás oxlos combined with another tribe, the Gaesatae, νιν υστέρω ποδι Πάνοπλος αμφέπει, where took the field in great force, and laid siege Antigone is asking the names of the to Clastidium, where the battle happened. invading generals, and commenting on

859.] There is a difficulty about 'sus. them as she sees them, and the imitation pendet patri Quirino,'as the story was that of Virg. in Sil. 13. 782 (speaking of the Romulus, the author of the custom, dedi. shade of Homer) "multaeque sequuntur cated the first spolia opima’ to Jupiter Mirantes animae, et laeto clamore frequenFeretrius. Serv. explains it by referring tavit.” Henry has a note on instar,' in to a law of Numaʼs, which is said to have which he attempts to prove that the word enjoined that on the first winning of never means any thing but ‘amount.' He spolia opima' they should be offered to appears to be right in regarding it as to Jupiter Feretrius, as had been already some extent parallel with ‘modus,' comdone by Romulus ; on the second to Mars, paring Ammian. 15.1, “ Ambitus terrae ... which was done by Cossus ; on the third ad magnitudinem universitatis instar brevis to Quirinus. Livy however, 3. 20, dis- obtinet puncti,” with Macrob. Somn. Scip. tinctly speaks of the 'spolia opima' of 1. 16, “Physici terram ad magnitudinem Cossus as dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius : circi per quem volvitur sol puncti modum and Prop. 5. 10. 45 talks of “spolia in obtinere docuere,” just as Gell. 2. 6 vir. templo tria condita.” Serv. proposes as tually explains it by 'finis,' “ Inculpatus an alternative to separate 'patri' from autem instar est absolutae virtutis : inlau

Quirino,' taking 'patri' of Jupiter, and datus quoque igitur finis est extremae connecting 'capta Quirino, formerly won malitiae." But the same word may have by Romulus, which is sufficiently unlikely. many shades of meaning, as might be For 'tertia' Rom. has “tristia.'

shown in the case of modus' itself, though 860.] Una,' with Marcellus.

all of course flow from a single notion. In 861.] “Egregii forma” 10. 435. Fragm. the case of 'instar' it seems probable from Vat. has formam.' It matters little the appearance of the word that the original whether 'fulgentibus armis' goes with notion was something like “standard.' egregium’or is taken separately. This will explain all the instances where it

862.] The construction is changed for is used with the gen. in the sense of variety's sake. “Frons laeta parum,' sad- resemblance (comp. ad moduın ”). There



Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra.
Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis :
O gnate, ingentem luctum ne quaere tuorum;
Ostendent terris hunc tantum fata, neque ultra
Esse sinent. Nimium vobis Romana propago
Visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent.
Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem
Campus aget gemitus ! vel quae, Tiberine, videbis
Funera, cum tumulum praeterlabere recentem !
Nec puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos


seems no doubt that in some passages (e.g. “D. Iulius potest videri (Britanniam) osSuet. Caes. 61, "cuius etiam instar pro tendisse posteris, non tradidisse.” For aede Veneris genetricis dedicavit”) it means 'neque' Med. and Rom. give .nec' which a representation, but it does not appear was the reading of Heins. Ultra,' beyond that there is any trace of this earlier than this mere glimpse. Marcellus was in his Livy, so that we need not assume it to be twentieth year when he died. the original notion of the word, at the 870.] “Sit Romana potens Itala virtute same time that we can quite account for propago” 12. 827. The construction it as a meaning that may have been seems to be · Romana propago visa (est) attached to it in subsequent usage. Here nimium potens (futura fuisse). then it might possibly be taken with Serv. 871.] Rom. has 'Superis,' only one of &c. in the sense of similitudo. It is to many errors that occur in it in this part be observed however that Virg. elsewhere of the book. Propria,' note on E. 7. 31. uses the word in connexion with size (2. Had it been allowed to call these gifts all 15., 3. 687., 7. 707), so that I would its own. Taubm. has an unseasonable rather suppose the meaning to be, with reminiscence of logic, “propria, id est, perHeyne, how commanding is his presence,' petua : ... proprium enim numquam avelwhich is besides suggested by the context. litur ab essentia." • Ipso’ is evidently meant to distinguish 872.] ‘Virum' with 'gemitus. Mahim from those about him, so that we vortis seems as if it might go both with should expect some attribute of distinction 'urbem' (comp. “Mavortia moenia” 1. to be predicated of him, not simple similar. 276) and with campus,'a double reference ity to his ancestor. Heyne edited 'ipso which is perhaps less common in Virg. est,' the reading before Heins., but all the than in Horace. Comp. G. 1. 273. best MSS. omit the verb subst.

873.] 'Aget gemitus,' shall send forth 866.] Partially repeated from 2. 360. groans, like "spumas aget ” G. 3. 203, Heyne comp. the words of Theoclymenus comp. by Forb., perhaps with an accessory to the suitors, Od. 20. 351, & deirol, ti notion of celebration (agere triumphum” kakdy tóde adoXETE; VUKTI Mèv ønéwv Elava- &c.), which is Heyne's suggestion. The ται κεφαλαί τε πρόσωπά τε νέρθε τε γούνα, mourning for Marcellus is described by where as here the image is that of ap- Dion 53. 30 foll. proaching death.

874.] “Funera’ for funus' as in 4. 867.] *Ingressus' 4. 107. It matters 500, doubtless to enhance the dignity of little whether it be taken here as a parti- the thought. There were 600 couches in ciple or as a finite verb.

Marcellus' funeral procession. “Tumulum 868.] Wagn. restored ‘gnate' from recentem,' the mausoleum which Augustus Med., agreeably to his opinion that Virg. had erected in the Campus Martius for the prefers the archaic spelling in solemn pas- Julian family five years before. sages, and I have not thought it worth 875.] Latinos avos,' the shades of the while to disturb it, though fragm. Vat., heroes of Latium or Lavinium, who are supPal., Rom., and Gud. have ‘nate. “Tuo- posed either to look forward to the future rum' like “suorum' above v. 681. For glory of one who is now a shade along with the well-known story about these lines see them, or to be conscious while he is on vol. i. p. xx (Life of Virgil).

earth and they themselves in darkness. 869.) Peerlkamp comp. Tac. Agr. 13 The future “tollet' seems in favour of the VOL. II.



In tantum spe tollet avos, nec Romula quondam
Ullo se tantum tellus iactabit alumno.
Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello
Dextera! non illi se quisquam inpune tulisset
Obvius armato, seu cum pedes iret in hostem,
Seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos.
Heu, miserande puer! si qua fata aspera rumpas,
Tu Marcellus eris. Manibus date lilia plenis,
Purpureos spargam flores, animamque nepotis
His saltem adcumulem donis, et fungar inani
Munere.- Sic tota passim regione vagantur


latter. We may suppose them to enquire to Wagner's, who makes 'si qua-rumpas' about him from new comers, as Agamem- a wish. The sense clearly is, if you can non in Od. 11 enquires about Orestes. overcome your destiny, you shall be Mar. Virg. has adroitly varied his expression, so cellus.' * Rumpere fata’ like 'rumpere as to make us think in this sentence of the legem,” foedus' &c. Comp. generally “si ancestors of the Romans, Trojan or Latin, quem Numina laeva sinunt” G. 4. 6. in the next of Rome itself.

883.] «Tu Marcellus eris’ implies, as 876.] With ‘spe tollet' Heyne comp. Henry thinks, that the youth is not Mar. A Tou éralpelv. Spe' might be con- cellus yet but only his promise : but it is ceivably understood as a gen., like 'fide' also meant to include all the glories of the &c., but no instance of the form is quoted. family, as if we were to say You shall be Rom. has 'spes. Romula tellus' like a true Marcellus.' 'Date-spargam' &c. Romulae gentis.” Hor. 4 Od. 5. 1. The See on 4.683. The sense here, as Wagn. form of the noun is used as an adj.: see on remarks, is probably the same as if he had “ cineri Sychaeo” 4. 552.

written "date lilia ut spargam flores," the 878.] «Pietas, gods and men, refer. lilies and the 'purpurei flores' being idenring perhaps specially to his relation to tical. Gossrau makes 'date' parenthetical, Augustus. Prisca fides:' Gossrau comp. taking ‘manibus lilia plenis' with 'sparHor. Carm. Saec. 57, “Iam Fides et Pax gam,' which is of course out of the queset Honos Pudorque Priscus et neglecta tion. “Dant fruges manibus salsas” 12. redire Virtus Audet,” and reminds us from 173, where as here manibus' is abl., not, 1. 292 above that Augustus wished to be as in 1. 701, dative. regarded as the restorer of ancient virtues. 884.] Purpureos' may either be un“ Vivida bello dextra” 10. 609. Virg., derstood generally as bright (see on E. 5. as Henry remarks, is lamenting the bud- 38), or in its strict sense, as Pliny 21. 5 ding virtues which are never to blossom. says, sunt et purpurea lilia.”

« Pur879.] No one would have been his match pureos flores ” 5. 79 (note), which also in fight, had he been destined to live. illustrates the custom. Nepotis' is of “ Obvius ardenti sese obtulit” 10. 552. course used vaguely. Quisquam se' was the order before Heins. 885.] “Acesten Muneribus cumulat”

880. Perhaps from Od. 9. 49, éTuotá- 5. 531. Comp. also 11. 25, “egregias μενοι μεν άφ' ίππων 'Ανδράσι μάρνασθαι, και animas ... decorate supremis Muneribus,” 88. xp) TECôr éóvta. “Pedes ire" 7. 624., and with the feeling expressed in ‘saltem' 10. 453.

ib. 23, “ qui solus honos Acheronte sub 881.] Instead of repeating 'cum,' Virg. imo est,” Hom.'s to gdp yepas dori Barovhas chosen to express himself differently, Twv. Virg. may have thought of Eur. as if the doubt expressed by ‘seu’ were Iph. Aul. 1239, Y and Toûto kat avowo about the fact of Marcellus fighting on éxw gébev Mmuelov. “Munus' of funeral horseback. Comp. Hor. A. P. 63 foll. rites G. 4. 520, &c. “Inani munere’ like "sive receptus Terra Neptunus classis “vano honore 11. 52. Anchises identiAquilonibus arcet” &c. Armos' seems fies himself with Augustus and those who to be used widely for the flank.

are conducting the funeral of Marcellus on 882.] “Miserande puer” 10. 825., 11. earth. 42. Henry rightly prefers the old pointing 886–901.] ‘Anchises explains to Aeneas


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