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810

Aut metus Ausonia prohibet consistere terra ?
Quis procul ille autem ramis insignis olivae
Sacra ferens ? Nosco crinis incanaque menta
Regis Romani, primam qui legibus urbem
Fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra
Missus in inperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit,
Otia qui rumpet patriae residesque movebit
Tullus in arma viros et iam desueta triumphis

reason.

from other passages, as in 5. 843, G. 2. hair was hoary from his youth. Rom. 513 (see also on 1. 364., 4. 564, where the gives 'noscor.' case is not so clear): but Serv. of course 810.] • Primam' is the reading of the has an independent weight. On the whole, great majority of MSS. : 'primus' how. however, I have with Ribbeck preferred ever, though very inferior in authority (it the reading of Rom. and Pal., as I see no is found in one MS. of the 15th century, plausible hypothesis on which its introduc- and in a quotation by Serv. on 1. 1), took tion can be accounted for, an argument possession of the early editions, and was which has similarly determined my judg. recalled by Burm. and Heyne. Primam' ment in the two passages just referred to. is much more in Virg.'s manner : comp.

807.] Consistere terra' 1. 541., 10.75, G. 1. 12, “cui prima frementem Fudit to be distinguished from considere,' with equum tellus." Legibus fundabit' seems which it is sometimes confounded in MSS., virtually to designate Numa as the second the one referring to entrance or invasion, founder of the city, as having been its first the other to subsequent settlement, great lawgiver. *Legibus' then is em

808–835.] The kings of Rome are phatic, as showing in what sense the city seen in order, and the worthies of the com- was founded by Numa. Henry well comp. monwealth, especially Pompey and Caesar, Justin 2.7,“ Sed civitati nullae tunc leges the heroes of the civil war.'

erant, quia libido regum pro legibus habe808.] Ribbeck here inserts vv. 826—835 batur. Legitur itaque Solon ... qui velut without authority, and with no sufficient novam civitatem legibus conderet.

The order has been already dis- 812.) “Mitteret in magnum inperium" turbed in honour of Augustus, and the 11. 47. With “Curibus parvis missus” mention of Caesar after his successor does comp. G. 2. 385, “ Troia gens missa.” For not restore it, while the tone in which the 'cui' Ribbeck restores.quoi,' the reading civil wars are spoken of is very different according to Pier. of some old copies, supfrom that which celebrates the return of ported by 'qui' the first reading of Med. the golden age. With the latter Anchises and quid' Rom. ('d' from deinde') : identifies himself cordially : of the former Pal. however has cui,' and the archaism he speuks with regret, and so naturally is not one which Virg. can be proved to mentions it merely as one of the events of have affected, though there are a few pas. Roman history. Wagn. thought the ques. sages where, as here, it is found in some tion Quis' &c. was put by Aeneas, but it MSS. is evidently no more than a rhetorical 813.] 'Otia rumpere’like ‘silentia rumvariety in the narrative. Anchises sees pere,' somnum rumpere." Resides Numa in the distance (procul '), and joined with desueta' as in 1. 722., 7.693, begins to recognize him (nosco'). Goss. where the expression resembles this, “rerau well remarks that no worse compliment sides populos desuetaque bello Agmina in could have been paid to Augustus than to arma vocat." We might have expected make Aeneas interrupt the praises of his 'vocabit' or 'ciebit' here: but the poet great descendant by a question about a seems to have chosen a word which would figure in the distance.

especially suit ‘resides,' at the same time 809.] Numa, as the great author of the that it might remind a reader of the ex. Roman worship, is naturally represented pression “movere bellum," and so prepare as a sacrificing priest. Incanaque menta' him for in arma.' G. 3. 311. This picture of Numa with 814.] Henry remarks the effective manhoary hair and beard is seen on late mer in which • Tullus' is brought late into coins. Serv. has a story that Numa's the sentence, immediately before 'in arma.'

Agmina. Quem iuxta sequitur iactantior Ancus, 815
Nunc quoque iam nimium gaudens popularibus auris.
Vis et Tarquinios reges, animamque superbam
Ultoris Bruti, fascesque videre receptos ?
Consulis inperium hic primus saevasque secures
Accipiet, natosque pater nova bella moventis.

820
Ad poenam pulchra pro libertate vocabit,
Infelix! Utcumque ferent ea facta minores,
Vincet amor patriae laudumque inmensa cupido.
Quin Decios Drusosque procul saevumque securi

For 'et iam desueta’ Rom. has 'magnum and unexpected (comp. 2. 228., 8. 637), or deinde,' a strange aberration, not ac- renewed, because the object of the sons of counted for by Ribbeck's supposition that Brutus was to bring back the Tarquins. the transcriber thought of " magni mag- 821.] 'Ad poenam vocabit' like “ad num decus esse triumphi,” Elegy to Mes- supplicium reposcunt" 8. 495. sala, v. 3.

822.] Macrob. Sat. 4. 6 and Augustine 815.] The character here given to Ancus De Civitate Dei 3. 16 connect 'utcumque' does not agree with the accounts of the &c. with infelix,' the latter paraphrasing historians, such as Livy and Dionysius : the line “ quomodo libet ea facta posteri Pomponius Sabinus however has preserved ferant, id est, post ferant et extollant, qui a notice which says that Ancus valued filios occidit infelix est.” Heyne's interhimself on his birth as Numa's grandson, pretation however is evidently the right and courted the favour of the people in one, “In quamcunque partem hoc factum the hopes of destroying Tullus.

interpretaturi sint posteri, ipse in sumendo 816.) Nunc quoque,' even in this lower a filiis supplicio sequetur id quod patriae world, the ruling passion being strong amor et gloriae cupiditas suadebunt." He even before birth. Various attempts have remarks that probably Brutus' action was been made to alter this line so as to under condemned by some in Virg.'s time, a very stand it of Servius Tullius," the commons' possible supposition, as the exploit of the king,” but Pomponius is doubtless right in younger Brutus would naturally provoke supposing him to be included in “Tar- animadversion on the character of his supquinios reges.” One inferior and inter- posed ancestor. For the use of 'ferre' polated Ms. gives hunc' • Popularis where praise is not intended comp. 7. 78, aura' is found in Cic., Livy, and Hor. (see Id vero horrendum ac visu mirabile ferri." Freund): the former also has “ventus "Fata’ the reading of some MSS., was the popularis” Cluent. 47. The voice of the

common one before Heins. (see on 4. 596), people is naturally spoken of as breath, as and 'nepotes,' the reading of one MS., is readers of Shakspere's Julius Caesar will supported by Macrob. Voss, with some remember, and this makes the metaphor ingenuity but little probability, understood of a favouring gale at sea more obvious. minores' of the younger generation in

817.] Anchises asks if he shall point out Brutus' own day. to Aeneas the later kings and Brutus. 823.] At first sight there may seem Virg. has not chosen to call Tarquin ‘su- some incongruity between Brutus indiffeperbus,' but has transferred the epithet to rence to the opinion of posterity and his Brutus, the majestic and inflexible founder unmeasured thirst of fame: but the meanof Roman liberty, doubtless intentionally, ing apparently is that he will risk being so that there is no ground to suspect the called cruel by posterity, so long as he text with Peerlkamp and Ribbeck. forces them to acknowledge that he is

818.] ‘Receptos seems to be used like great. “Laudumque arrecta cupido” 5. “recipere ex hoste.” So at the beginning 138. of Livy Book 2 Brutus is made to say 824.] The Drusi are doubtless introduced “libertatem recuperatam esse.”

out of compliment to Livia, as Heyne 819.] “Saevasque secures” Lucr. 3. remarks, though Livius the conqueror of 996., 5. 1234.

Hasdrubal was sufficiently remarkable on 820.] *Nova’ may either mean sudden his own account. Saevum securi' refers

825

Aspice Torquatum et referentem signa Camillum.
Illae autem, paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis,
Concordes animae nunc et dum nocte premuntur,
Heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae
Attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt !
Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monoeci
Descendens, gener adversis instructus Eois.
Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella,
Neu patriae validas in viscera vertite viris ;
Tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo,

830

of course to Torquatus beheading his son. 828.] “Bella cient” 1. 541. Lumina Torquatus is doubtless represented with vitae 7.771, and several times in Lucr. the axe, as Camillus with the recovered Here it is contrasted with ‘nocte.' Some standards.

inferior MSS. give ‘limina,' which Wakef. 825.] 'Signa,' captured by the Gauls adopts. at the battle of the Allia, and recovered by 830.] "• Aggeribus Alpinis:' a muni. Camillus when he conquered the enemy, mentis Alpium : haec enim Italiae muroaccording to the Roman account, on their rum exhibent vicem,” Serv. Socer' is of leaving Rome.

course Caesar, whose daughter Julia 826.] “Agmine partito fulgent paribus. Pompey married. • Monoeci,' the port of que magistris” 5. 562. Paribus armis :' Hercules Monoecus, the modern Monaco, they are represented as armed in the same where was a promontory and a temple, manner, partly to show their natural con- whence 'arx,' as in 3. 531. There is a cord, as mentioned in the next line, partly difficulty in this specification of the place, to point out that the war which they are as this is not otherwise known to have hereafter to wage is a civil war (Cerda been the way by which Caesar entered Italy. comp. G. 1. 489, "paribus telis "). There The most natural supposition seems to be may also be a notion of their equality as that Virg. wrote as a poet, not as a historian. great generals. •Fulgere,' the antique 831.] * Arrayed against him with an third conjugation, found in Lucr. 5. 1095 Eastern army, referring to the composi&c. So“ effulgere” 8. 677.

tion of Pompey's forces. 827.] •Premuntur' Med., Gud., Pal. 832.] Probably from 1. 7. 279, unkétı, a m. S., “prementur’ Rom., Ρal. a m. p. παίδε φίλω, πολεμίζετε, μηδέ μάχεσθον, Either might stand, the sense being virwhere Idaeus is addressing Ajax and tually the same, as 'prementur' would Hector. `Pueri' with reference to the mean “so long as they shall remain in difference in age between them and Andarkness,' during the time that yet re- chises. Animis adsuescite bella,'a variety mains for them to be in darkness.' See for “adsuescite animos bellis”

(“ bellis also on 4. 336. On the whole I have pre- assuetus” 9. 201). Perhaps we may say ferred 'premuntur' with Wagn. and sub- that the inversion calls more attention to sequent editors, as Virg. is likely to have the gentleness of their natures as a positive used his tenses so as to bring out the quality from which war is made to recoil : distinction between the present and the but we must not refine needlessly. immediate future on the one hand, and 833.] Comp. Lucan 1. 2, "populumque the ultimate future (ciebunt') on the potentem In sua victrici conversum viscera other. With ‘nocte premuntur' Gossrau dextra," an imitation of this passage, Hor. comp. Hor. 1 Od. 4. 16, “Iam te premet Epod. 16. 2, “Suis et ipsa Roma viribus nox fabulaeque Manes." Here 'premere' ruit,” which show that 'patriae' goes both

* continere,' restrain from emerging with 'viris' and with 'viscera.' Similarly into the upper world. Serv. refers the Livy, Praef. “iam pridem praevalentis words to the time before Caesar and populi vires se ipsae conficiunt.” By the Pompey were famous, reading 'prementur.' position of patriae' Virg. has avoided the • Nox' is used loosely, as Wagn. remarks, awkwardness of using ‘suas' or 'sua. For as we have been told v. 641 that the the alliteration see on 2. 494. Elysian fields have a sun of their own. 834.] The more illustrious can better

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835

Proüice tela manu, sanguis meus !-
Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho
Victor aget currum, caesis insignis Achivis.
Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas,
Ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli,

afford to forgive. “Unde genus ducis" pleads for Mummius, contending with 5. 801.

considerable ingenuity that Anchises in 835.] Germ. quotes Caesar B. C. 3. 98, the preceding couplet has expressed him“Cum plures arma proiicerent, ac fugae self in Roman imagery, and now repeats his simile iter videretur.” Meus' nom. for meaning in words more intelligible to voc., which perhaps was thought too Aeneas, who knew nothing of Corinth or familiar and colloquial. It gives a slight the Capitol, and would only conceive of difference to the meaning, as Forb. re- the conquest of Greece as a victory over marks, making the words parallel to‘genus the descendants of Achilles or the destrucqui ducis Olympo,' and assigning a reason tion of the empire of Agamemnon. But for forbearance. Rufinianus 265 R, citing Anchises is not elsewhere so considerate to the passage, reads “sanguis pius,' which his son's ignorance, referring as he does Heyne rather approves. One MS., the throughout to Roman exploits in Roman first Hamburg, supplements the line with language: nor is it credible that ‘ipsum the words “esse memento.'

Aeaciden' should have been used not for 836—853.] Other republican heroes an individual but for the descendants of pass in review. Anchises declares the Achilles generally. The argument that if greatness of Rome to lie not in art or ultus' &c. v. 840 be referred to any one science, but in war and the practice of but Mummius, Virg. virtually denies that government.'

Mummius did execute this revenge, needs 836.] The conquerors of Greece are now no refutation. So far as the language is introiluced, that being naturally one of concerned, it would certainly seem that the chief achievements of Rome in the eye the second ‘ille' denotes a different person of a Trojan. Comp. 1. 283 foll. The vic. from the first. The most probable canditor of Corinth is of course L. Mummius date for this honour appears to be L. (Dict. Biog.), who had the surname of Aemilius Paullus, the conqueror of MaceAchaicus. • Triumphata Corintho’like don, v. 839 being understood of his victory “ triumphatas gentes” G. 3. 33. The use over Perseus, who is said by Prop. 5. 11. of the past participle is not strictly con- 39, Sil. 15. 291 (speaking of his father sistent with the order of time, the expres. Philip) to have been a descendant of sion being in fact a mixture of devicta Achilles ; though there still remains a diffiCorintho aget currum,' and 'triumphans culty, as Paullus was not the destroyer of de Corintho aget currum.' The triumph Argos and Mycenae. We must suppose of Mummius was peculiarly famous for the then that Virg. has written loosely, perhaps splendour of the booty carried in proces. conceiving that the indefinite ille—ille' sion. Horace uses it as a synonym for a exempted him from the need of strict stage pageant, 2 Ep. 1. 193, “Captivum accuracy. Heyne suggests that ipsum portatur ebur, captiva Corinthus.”

Aeaciden’ may refer to Paullus' cruel 837.] With the expression ‘victor aget destruction of the Epirots, supposed to be currum'comp. G. 3. 17.

represented by their ancestor Pyrrhus 838.] This second ille' has been va- (agreeably to the well-known line of riously identified. Hyginus, quoted by Ennius, “ Aio te, Aeacida, Romanos vincere Gell. 10. 16, assumed that Mummius was posse,” Ann. 6. fr. 7): but this is far less still intended, and accused Virg, of con- likely. Others have suggested that the founding two distinct events, Mummius' person meant by 'ille’ may be Q. Caecilius campaign and the war with Pyrrhus, Metellus, surnamed Macedonicus, who conwhom he supposes to be intended by quered the pseudo-Philip, and began the * Aeaciden,' his conclusion being that Virg. war with the Achaeans which Mummius would doubtless have altered the passage finished. had he lived, and that if v. 839 were 839.] .Eruet' is transferred in a modi. excluded, all would be right. Gossrau still fied sense to · Aeaciden.'

840

Últus avos Troiae, templa et temerata Minervae.
Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum, aut te, Cosse, relinquat ?
Quis Gracchi genus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli,
Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque potentem
Fabricium, vel te sulco, Serrane, serentem ?
Quo fessum rapitis, Fabii ? tu Maxumus ille es,
Unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem.

845

840.] *Templa et temerata Minervae' 844.] “Serranus was originally an ag. refers to the sacrilege of Ajax (1. 41, &c.), nomen of C. Atilius Regulus, consul B.c. and probably to the seizure of the Palla- 257, but afterwards became the name of a dium also. Comp. Eur. Tro. 69, 85, our distinct family of the Atilia gens. The οισθ' υβρισθεϊσάν με και ναούς έμούς. .. origin of the name is uncertain. Most of “Ως αν το λοιπόν ταμανάκτορ' ευσεβείν the ancient writers derive it from serere, Ειδώσ' 'Αχαιοί.

and relate that Regulus received the sur841.] Cato,' the censor. Cosse,' A. name of Serranus because he was engaged Cornelius Cossus, the winner of the ‘spolia in sowing when the news was brought him opima.'. • Tacitum’ is used in its strict of his elevation to the consulship (“serenparticipial sense, 'qui tacetur.' So Cic. tem invenerunt dati honores Serranum, Ep. 3.8, "Prima duo capita epistolae tuae unde cognomen,” Pliny 18. 3, Cic. pro tacita mihi quodammodo relinquenda sunt.” Sext. Rosc. 18, Val. Max. 4. 4, § 5). "It

842.) Gracchi genus' probably refers appears however from coins that Saranus not only to the two brothers, but to their is the proper form of the name, and Periancestor who distinguished himself in the zonius (Animadv. Hist. c. 1) thinks that Spanish wars. "Geminos Scipiadas' is it is derived from Saranum, a town of explained by Serv. of the two Scipios Umbria.” Dict. Biog. Serranus. We may who fell in Spain, an interpretation sup- wonder that Virg. did not rather think of ported, as Cerda remarks, by Cic. pro Cincinnatus, who seems to have been the Balbo 15, “ Cum duo fulmina nostri in- more famous of these heroes of the plough. perii subito in Hispania, Cn. et P. Sci- 'Sulco serentem' like “conducta tellure piones, exstincti occidissent,” though there serebat” 12. 520,-words immediately fol. * lumina' would seem a more probable lowing the use of potens' cited in the reading (comp. 11. 349, “Lumina tot ceci. last note, and noticeable as showing how disse ducum"). Cerda himself however Virg. in reproducing himself or others is and the later commentators have rightly apt to take words from the same context, seen that the reference must be to the even when they have no special connexion. elder and younger Africanus, who alone See on 1. 375, &c. For the rhyme comp. could be called cladem Libyae. The 4. 189, 190, 256, 257. elder Africanus is evidently referred to by 845.] Alluding to the numbers and exLucr. 3. 1034, whom Virg. imitated, — ploits of the Fabii (Dict. B. “Vibulanus '),

Scipiades, belli fulmen, Carthaginis hor. which tire the narrator who tries to count ror, Ossa dedit terrae, proinde ac famul them. Comp. Johnson's celebrated line, infimus esset.”

“And panting Time toiled after him in 843.] Scipiadas' G. 2. 170 note. vain." Rom. has

gressum rapitis,” • Parvo potentem' is rightly taken by which, as Pierius remarked, might be unForb. as virtually = "parvo opulentum, derstood as an address to the Fabii, sup-a sense of potens' for which he refers posed to be seen by Anchises in the act of to Hor. 2 Od. 18. 12“ nec potentem undertaking their ill-omened expedition to amicum Largiora flagito,” Phaed. 1. 24. 1 the Cremera. Maxumus :' Virg. follows

Inops potentem dum vult imitari, perit.” the story which made Q. Fabius surnamed Comp. 12. 519. Cerda well refers to the Cunctator, the dictator in the second Punic language of Valerius Maximus 4. 3 about war, the first to bear the name Maxumus. Fabricius, “ Continentiae suae beneficio Others said that it was originally given to sine pecunia praedives, sine usu familiae his great-grandfather, the general in the abunde comitatus ; quia locupletem illum Samnite war. See Dict. B. “Maximus.' faciebat non multa possidere sed modica 'You are the true Maxumus, greatest of desiderare.” For the construction comp. your race.' 7. 56, “ Turnus avis atavisque potens." 846.] Taken almost verbally from the

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