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Silvius Aeneas, pariter pietate vel armis
ported from 1. 20., 287, in which passages, necting the line with what follows and as in Enn. Alex. fr. 11 Vahlen, “Nam supposing a difference to be made between maxumo saltu superabit gravidus armatis those who are famed in war and those who equus, Qui suo partu perdat Pergama are famed in peace. But this interpretaardua,” the subj. has perhaps something tion ignores the nature of the corona of its future sense.
civilis which was given for preserving the 769.] Aeneas Silvius, whom Ov. 1. c. life of a citizen in war and slaying an and F. 4. 31 foll. omits in his list of the enemy, so that this line contains no conAlban kings, appears in other lists next or trast to the preceding, but only a specifinext but one to the first Silvius. The cation and a climax (see Dict. A. Corona'). words si umquam regnandam acceperit Gerunt :' see on 1. 567. The expression Albam' might seem merely to refer to the was doubtless originally a piece of mere general contingency to which all these simplicity, a person being supposed to potential personages are subject : comp. v. carry his limbs or at least the upper parts 828, and see on v. 780: Serv. however ex. of his body as he might carry any thing plains it by saying that Aeneas Silvius was separate from him : but in using it here kept out of his kingdom for fifty-three Virg. may have thought of carrying the years by an usurping guardian. Sir G. umbrageous wreath on the forehead, as Lewis rightly remarks that Serv.'s story conceivably Lucr. 6. 1145 may have inis inconsistent with Dionysius and others, tended to indicate the feeling of weight who assign to this king a reign of thirty- and oppression in the head and eyes. 'Umone years: but it is not clear why he brata like" populus umbra velavit comas" should assume that Virg.'s expression can- 8. 276. The civic wreath was originally not be reconciled with the supposition of a given only to those who distinguished long reign, as the uncertainty affects his themselves in hand to hand combat : like coming to the throne at all, and apparently other ancient honours however it was voted ceases after his accession, and the words by the senate to Augustus, who had oaken
pariter pietate vel armis egregius' in wreaths hung before his doors as being the effect imply that his reign was a glorious perpetual preserver of the citizens. Goss
• Pariter' is generally found with rau, from whom this is taken, refers to Ov. et :' here it is naturally enough used F. 1. 614., 4. 953. This doubtless sug. with 'vel,' which, as Madv. § 436 remarks, gested the image to Virg., who is glad to “denotes a distinction which is of no im- show that Augustus is only the heir to the portance," . Whether you look at his honours of his ancestors. piety or his valour, it does not signify: 773.] For the various lists of the Latin he is equally distinguished.' “ Pietate in colonies, which were called the towns of signis et armis” above v. 403. • Reg. the Prisci Latini, see Lewis p. 362 foll. nandam’3. 14.
For the names here see Dict. Geogr. 771.] It matters little whether a note 774.] “Tot congesta manu praeruptis of exclamation be put after iuvenes' or oppida saxis” G. 2. 156 of the cities of not, as long as it is understood that qui' Italy. “ Arces montibus inpositas” Hor. is not a relative but an exclamatory inter 2 Ep. 1. 252, of the fortifications of Augusrogative. Ostentant viris' seems merely tus. After this line many editions, even to refer to the martial bearing of the young in modern times, give another, “ Laude heroes, not, as might be supposed from the pudicitiae celebres, addentque superbos ;" at line, to any marks of distinction in but it has no MS. authority whatever, which they wear.
and is said to be the work of an Italian !2.] Heyne, following many of the old lawyer, Fabricio Lampugnani. ions and one MS., read 'at qui, con
Haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae.
776.] *These will then be names'-i.e. helmet was distinctive of Mars is, as Henry places bearing names. For 'terrae' the says, made probable by Val. Max. 1. 8, § 6, first reading of Med. is 'gentes,' which taken in conjunction with this passage, Heins. prefers.
“cognitum pariter atque creditum est, 777.] Avo comitem sese addet' seems Martem patrem tunc populo suo adfuisse. to mean merely, shall appear on earth to Inter cetera huiusce rei manifesta indicia join his grandfather, Romulus being na- galea quoque duabus distincta pinnis, qua turally associated with Numitor, whom ac- caeleste caput tectum fuerat, argumentum cording to the story he restored to his praebuit.” Heyne remarks that Romulus rights. Heyne prefers addit' in this is constantly represented with a helmet. sense, after one MS. ; but though the "Suo' can only refer to “pater,' as 'ipse' change would be easy enough (Med. has shows. The only difficulty is in the use “surgit' v. 762, 'educit' v. 765), it is not of superum' in the singular in the sense necessary, as Anchises may speak of his which, as we have seen, it bears in the descendants indifferently as they will here- plural; but this is not invincible (comp. after appear on earth and as he now sees its application to things vv. 128, 680), and them in the shades. Other interpretations certainly need not lead us to construct
- he will reign along with his grand- 'superum’ as gen. pl. with either ‘pater? father' (Serv.) — he will lead a colony like or honore,' to the detriment of the general his grandfather? (Wagn., who has however sense, though it may make us see some since changed his opinion)— he will emu- plausibility in Peerlkamp's conj. 'puerum,' late the renown of his grandfather' (Thiel) which in an author less well supported by are far less likely. 'Mavortius ' 1. 276. MSS. authority might itself be confused
778.] Comp. 1. 274. · Sanguinis,' an with superum,' especially with 'suo' preattributive gen. There seems no reason ceding. There is however great propriety for taking 'Assaraci'as an adj. with Wagn. in the sense of superum, as explained and Forb., though the form might perhaps above, while 'puerum' would add nothing be justified by the analogy, not of "Pompi. which is not already contained in the line. lius sanguis" Hor. A. P. 292, which they 781.] ‘Auspiciis' is used not vaguely, compare, but of Romulus' and · Darda- as in 4. 103, 341, but strictly, referring to See on 4. 552.
the augury of the twelve vultures and the 779.] Educet' v. 765 note. Some in- greatness promised thereby. Romulus ferior MSS. give 'stent-signet: see on takes the auspices, which are the cause of E. 4. 52.
the future glories of his city. Thus we 780.] The right meaning of this verse, do not need Burmann's 'nata. The aposI have little doubt, has been substantially trophe to Aeneas agrees with ‘en,' and is given by Peerlkamp and Henry, after Serv. in keeping with the feeling of the passage, Romulus is already marked as a child of the grandeur of Rome being represented upper air (comp. “apud superos" v. 568 as the culmination of all a Trojan's hopes. above) by his father's token, the two. Isidorus Orig. 18. 1 speaks of the verse as crested helmet. The reference apparently Ennius': but this is supposed to be a misis to the contingency which more or less take, the name of Ennius having arisen overshadows all who are in this state of from En huius.' potential existence (note on v. 769), and 782.] “Inperium Oceano, famam qui which Romulus by favour of his future terminet astris” 1. 287. • Animos,' her father Mars has in fact already overcome. greatness of soul. Comp. with Forb. “reHenry's objection that “pater ipse' in Virg. gum aequabat opes animis” G. 4. 132, is restricted to Jupiter is met by observing where the sense is parallel, though the that “ipse? here belongs not so much to construction is not the same.
pater" as to suo.' That the two-crested sion may perhaps be regarded as an ex.
The expres 785
Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces,
pansion of the common Virgilian phrase comp. υπέρτατα δώματ' έχοντες. «Supera #tollere animos " G. 3. 207 &c.
ardua” 7. 562. Ribbeck adopts 'super 783.] See on G. 2. 535, where it should alta’ from Rom., Pal., and Med. a m. p., have been remarked that 'muro' is abl., which have ‘superalta :' but the corruption sibi' an ethical dat., as against Peerl. is obvious. kamp, who constructs sibi’ with ‘circum- 788–807.] · Anchises points out the dabit,' understanding 'muro'" by way of Julian family, and especially Augustus, the a wall."
destined conqueror of realms wider than 784.] Felix prole virum' doubtless re- were ever traversed by Bacchusor Hercules.' fers to the great Roman families, such as 788.] 'Huc geminas nunc flecte acies' those mentioned G. 2. 169 foll., a passage in an ordinary passage would be thought to some extent parallel. Rome is not only either archaic or grandiloquent: but it the parent of men, but of heroes, as Cy- suits the solemn prophetic enthusiasm of bele is the mother of gods. Henry's at Anchises, as in the well-known passage in tempt to understand the passage of Rome the Tempest "the fringed curtains of thine as the mother of great nations,
with which eye advance” suits the quaint seriousness he aptly compares Byron’s parallel of Rome, of Prospero. "Gentem,' the gens Iulia. * lone mother of dead empires,' to Niobe 789.) •Tuos' seems to be emphatic(Childe Harold 4. 78, 79), is ingenious, but Romans of your own stock. “Iulius, a seems alien to Virg.'s thought, as in that magno demissum nomen Iulo” 1. 288. case we should have had “felix prole gen- 790.] Caeli axem’ merely i.q. caetium," or something similar. “ Deum lum,' the light of the upper world. genetrix Berecyntia” 9. 82.
792.] “ Divom genus” was once the 785.) This description of the progress of reading, but it is found only in inferior Cybele's statue is from Lucr. 2. 606 foll. : MSS. *Aurea saecula :' comp. E. 4. 9.
“ Condere saecla” occurs Lucr. 3. 1090, “Muralique caput summum cinxere co
in the sense of living through ages, seeing Eximiis munita locis quia sustinet urbes: them to their end, as in E. 9. 52. Here it Quo nunc insigni per magnas praedita urbem » &c., though the analogy is not
can only mean to establish, like “condere terras Horrifice fertur divinae matris imago.
793.] Saturn was the god of the golden
age, 7. 324, G. 2. 538, Oy. M. 1. 113, as magnas invecta per urbes
also the first ruler of Latium 7. 349. Munificat tacita mortalis muta salute.”
Virg. makes the two periods synchronize, 786.] Virg. can hardly mean that the which does not agree with Ov.1.c. “Regfigures of the other gods appear along with nata Lycurgo” 3. 14. Rom. reads 'per Cybele in her car, though that is what his annos,' which would make a kind of sense, words would seem to suggest : we must regnata' being taken with saecula ;' but suppose then that she is represented with it is evidently no more than a slip. the mien of a proud and happy mother. 794.] 'Super' seems best taken in its
787.] With 'supera alta tenentis' Germ. ordinary sense of 'beyond,' though Wagn.
Proferet inperium; iacet extra sidera tellus,
wishes here and in Lucan 4. 333., 8. 164 running of Ethiopia by C. Petronius A.U.C. to give it the meaning of reaching to a 732, Heyne. distant spot, as if it were “ usque ad lon- 796.] "Maxumus Atlas ” 4. 481, a better ginquos Garamantas”-a view which har epithet, as "caelifer' anticipates the next monizes with his interpretation of "super line. Perhaps it may suggest a doubt alta Cythera” 1.680 note, and is certainly whether that line is not an interpolation plausible : Peerlkamp however, cited by from Book 4: it seems however to be conForb., justly remarks that the glory of tained in all MSS., and is noticed by Serv. Augustus is enhanced by representing him 798.] The MSS. vary between advenas having conquered nations beyond the tum' and adventu: the former however furthest known. “Extremi Garamantes” is read by all the first class MSS., though E. 8. 44. The Garamantes were conquered in Pal. and Gud. the last letter is erased. by L. Cornelius Balbus, who triumphed •In adventum' with horrent,' a peculiar A.U.c. 735 : they sent an embassy to Au- construction, the meaning being shudder gustus and made a treaty, which in the at the prospect of his approach, which language of Roman vanity is described as would not have been expressed by "hormaking submission. This passage then, as rere' with acc. Comp. 'in futurum.' Heyne remarks, would be written in the 799.] Responsis,' instr. abl., the prelast years of Virg.'s life. Indos' G. 2. dictions of Augustus' coming being the 171 note. The reference may be, as Heyne cause of their dread. Maeotia,' the read. remarks, to the restoration of the Roman ing of the first class MSS., was restored standards by the Parthians and the Indian by Heins. after Pierius for · Maeotica.' embassy to Augustus while in Syria A.U.c. 800.] Turbant’intransitively, as Lucr. 734. It seems best to change the comma 2.126, “Corpora quae in solis radiis turbare after 'quondam’ into a longer stop, with videntur," comp. by Germ. Other inthe earlier editors, so as to make 'et-et' stances are given by Freund. “Septemgemean • both—and. The sentence then minus Nilus” Catull. 11.7. For the comwill be independent, like that which follows pound see on v. 287. in the next line, of which Heyne says 801.] Comp. v. 392.“ Vagus Hercules” “inversio facta enthusiasmum adiuvat." Hor.30d.3.9. Heyne and Schrader remark
795.] The meaning of course is beyond that Virg. has shown want of judgment Garamantes and Indians and beyond the in mentioning those only of Hercules' territory of Atlas ;' but Anchises seems to labours which were connected with Arcadia, point to the land as if he saw it in vision. as of course they could afford no measure The land seems to be that spoken of less of the hero's travels. Wagn. thinks the hyperbolically 4. 480 foll., where v. 797 mention of the brazen-footed stag admissihas already occurred, that of Ethiopia, ble, as it appears from Pind. 01.
3. 26 foll. though here Virg. seems to be speaking of that Hercules' chase after it led him into the whole country, there only of the west- the Hyperborean country : the remainder ern extremity of it. 'Extra sidera,' like he has no doubt Virg. would have corrected .extra anni solisque vias,' refers to the if he had lived. The truth seems to be Zodiac, called by Arat. Phaen. 321, herloto that Virg. conceives of Hercules generally Kélevdos. Serv. comp. Lucan 3. 253, where as a hero who put down the various monthe image is characteristically amplified : sters in various parts of the world (comp. « Aethiopumque solum, quod non preme- κατά τε δρία πάντα καθαίρων Ωλεκόμαν
Soph. Trach. 1011, πολλά μέν εν πόντω retur ab ulla Signiferi regione poli, nisi poplite lapso rádas), and so compares him to August Ultima curvati procederet ungula tauri.” of the various barbaric nations, the
who in his progress received the subm: The reference is probably to the over- ence being to that expedition throug
Fixerit aeripedem cervam licet, aut Erymanthi
provinces, which occupied the emperor rore repleta est Per nemora ac montes during the last four years of Virg.'s life, magnos silvasque profundas." • Arcu :' and from which he was returning when Virg. implies that the Hydra was shot to the dying poet met him. Comp. generally death, contrary to the common account, the depreciation of Hercules' exploits as which represents the heads as crushed by contrasted with those of Epicurus, Lucr. Hercules' club. 5. 22 foll., where one of the points dwelt 804.] Alluding to Bacchus famous Inon is the distance of the monsters destroyed dian expedition. Comp. Hor. 3 Od. 3. 13 from the abodes of civilized man.
foll., where Bacchus is mentioned in the 802.] The MSS. vary much in these next stanza to Hercules. Bacchus was tenses, Rom. having "fixerat' and 'treme- represented as driving a car of tigers or fecerat,' Rom. and Med. ‘pacaret' or 'pla- lynxes with reins of vine or ivy branches, caret,' while Pal., Rom., and the first “Lyncem Maenas flexura corymbis,” Pers. reading of Med. and Gud. have obibit. l. 101. 'luga flectit,' like "carrum,” There is of course no real question about the true readings: but the varieties are 805.] From Catull. 62 (64). 390, “ Saepe worth mentioning as showing how little vagus Liber Parnassi vertice summo Thyeven first class MŠ. evidence may be worth iadas effusis euantis crinibus egit.” Nysa, in such matters. A similar warning against the legendary mountain on which Bacchus absolute confidence in the authority, con- was brought up, was identified with various siderable as it is, of the ancient gram- places in Europe, Asia, and Africa (Dict. marians is afforded by the epithet ‘aeripe- M. ` Dionysus :' Dict. G. 'Nysa'). dem,' which Serv., Charisius p. 249 P, 806.] Comp. G. 2. 433, “Et dubitant Diomedes p. 437 P, and others all explain as homines serere atque inpendere curam ?" a contracted form of‘aëripedem,' Todhveuor, where Virg. has pointed out what nature an impossibility not only in metre but in offers, and asks whether man will not do language, as aer' is not the wind. Brazen his part. So here Anchises, after showing feet are attributed to horses by Hom., Il. 8. the glorious culmination of the Trojan 41, and other poets, the notion being that fortunes in Augustus, asks whether Aeneas of strength and endurance, and, as a conse- hesitates to take his place as a link in that quence, swiftness. Fixerit:' the common vast chain of destiny. The reading of the story was that Hercules had to bring the concluding words is doubtful. Med. has Cerynitian stay alive to Eurystheus, so 'virtutem extendere factis,' which is supServ. thinks fixerit'=statuerit : Eur. ported by Serv., and is parallel to the exH. F. 378 however represents him as kill. pression afterwards used 10. 468, “ famam
· Figere cervos ” E. 2. 29. For extendere factis," except that while there aut' Markland wished to read “atque,' the main thought is that of spreading and or else “aut' for 'et' in the next line; perpetuating fame by gallant deeds, here but Virg, as elsewhere (see v. 609), prefers it is rather that of putting out inborn variety. The force of 'aut' is, 'whether valour and making it felt in the world. we think of his killing of the stag or' &c. But Rom., Pal., and two other of Ribbeck's In Erymanthi' the reference is to the MSS. have “virtute extendere viris," boar which Hercules slew.
which is confirmed by Diomedes p. 411, 803.] Some MSS. read 'placarit' (pla- whose MSS. have “virtutem extendere caret' Med.), a common confusion. Goss. viris," an ungrammatical reading, found rau comp. Ov. M. 7. 405 “Qui virtute sua nevertheless in Gud. a m. p. The sense bimarem pacaverat Isthmon," of Theseus would be nearly the same, to extend our slaying the robbers. Not unlike is Hor. 1 power by our bravery, to commence the Ep. 2. 45, "incultae pacantur vomere sil- career of conquest : but it is not altogether vae,” where the notion is that of wildness easy to see how the variation can have disappearing before cultivation. Contrast arisen. If Med. stood alone as the chief nr. 5. 39 foll. “ita ad satiatem terra authority for “factis,' there would be no arum Nunc etiam scatit et trepido ter. difficulty, as elsewhere it repeats words