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Turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
Aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat arenam.
Portitor has horrendus


et flumina servat
Terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento
Canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,
Sordidus ex humeris nodo dependet amictus.



Κωκυτός θ', ός δη Στυγός ύδατός έστιν 569., 9. 105., 10. 114. απορρώξ:

297.] Disgorges into Cocytus,' into πέτρη τε, ξύνεσίς τε δύω ποταμών έριδού- which Virg. evidently supposed Acheron

to empty itself. Hom., as we have seen,

makes Cocytus an droppót or arm of Styx. but he does not mention them at all when 298.] 'Portitor,' properly a person who he comes to the actual journey of his hero. collects the portoria, duties on exports and Virg. conducts Aeneas over the water cir- imports, or tolls (Dict. A. • Portorium'); cumstantially, but from his description we hence a person who receives toll for carry. should infer that there is only one river, ing passengers or goods, and so, as here, a which, after being called Acheron or Cocy- ferryman, a sense which it bears Sen. De tus here, turns out eventually to be Styx, Benef. 6. 18, and in various passages of v. 385. Heyne remarks with justice (Ex. the poets, where, as here, it is applied cursus 9) that the poet would have found to Charon. In later Latin it came to be it awkward to have to describe the passage used for a porter : see Forc. We have of all three, especially as Styx alone is had the word used of Charon G. 4. 502. said to surround the lower world nine 299.] · Terribili squalore' is not to be times, v. 439. Generally we may say that taken with “horrendus,' but forms in fact a Virg. found the notion of a single river of second epithet. Charon is later than Hom., death most convenient for poetical pur who employs only the agency of Hermes poses, but that he wished as usual to in- for transporting the dead to the shades troduce the various points of the legends (Od. 24), while the living cross the Ocean he followed, and so he employed the names river in ships: he appears however in Acheron, Cocytus, and Styx, whenever the Aristoph. Frogs 180 &c., and was repreriver was to be spoken of, with a dim con- sented by Polygnotus in his paintings in ception of Acheron as emptying itself into the Lesche of the Cnidians at Delphi. Cocytus, and perhaps of Styx, as the most 300.] Canities' for 'cani,' as in 9. inward of the three, and a clear one of 612., 10. 844., 12. 611. “Stant lumina Phlegethon as specially surrounding Tar- flamma’like “pulvere caelum Stare vident” tarus. Plato gives a much more definite 12. 407, comp. by Turn. V. L. 28. 32. description in his Phaedo, pp. 112, 113, 'Stant’expresses the fixedness of the eyes speaking of four rivers, Ocean, Acheron, (Donatus), and the mass of the flame Pyriphlegethon, and Styx, the last of (Henry)." His eyes are fixed orbs of fire.' which disappears under the earth and re- The comparison of eyes to fire occurs more appears as Cocytus—an attempt apparently than once in Hom., e.g. Il. 1. 104, doce to realize the picture in Ηom.-and later δε οι πυρί λαμπετόωντι είκτην. • FlamRoman poets, as Heyne observes, Exc. 9, mae' is read by many MSS., including Med. have introduced varieties of their own. (originally), Rom., and Pal. from a correc

296.] Acheron has here the Platonic tion ; but the attributive gen. would be characteristics of a marshy slough, com- harsh. Some copies have 'flammea,' which bined with those of a rapid river. 'Cae. is approved by Heins., and might be scanned num' and ' arena' are doubtless the same, by synizesis (comp. 7. 448, * flammea toras Heyne thinks. Comp. the description quens lumina"). of the muddy pool in Catull. 17. 10, 301.] Charon apparently wears a scarf totius ut lacus putidaeque paludis Livi. or chlamys, which is twisted round the dissima maxumeque est profunda vorago," shoulder (Dict. Ant. 'Chlamys,' 'Nodus '). ib. 25, “Et supinum animum in gravi Cerda shows that this was a pilot's cosderelinquere caeno, Ferream ut soleam tume from Plaut. Mil. 4. 4. 41 foll.: tenaci in voragine mula.” Vorago’ is applied to the infernal rivers in the only “Facito uti venias ornatu ornatus huc nther passage where it occurs in Virg., 7. nauclerico,


Ipse ratem conto subigit, velisque ministrat,
Et ferruginea subvectat corpora cymba,
Iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,
Matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita
Magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
Inpositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum :
Quam multa in silvis autumni frigore primo

be left open.

same as

which the commentators have collected, Palliolum habeas ferrugineum, nam is seems to be that the question must still

colos thalassicu'st : Id connexum in humero laevo, expapil. 303.] ‘Ferruginea' (see note on G. 1. lato brachio;

467) seems to denote the murky hue of adsimulato quasi gubernator the infernal boat. It may however merely sies."

indicate the ordinary colour of ships (comp.

veds Kvavou pápoio Il. 15. 693), as Plaut. reNodus' is to be taken strictly, not as im- ferred to on v. 301 says as a reason for plying a 'fibula' or brooch, which would wearing the 'ferrugineum pallium' “is hardly be in keeping with the rest of colos thalassicu'st." At any rate it is Charon's trim. Some early correctors read evidently the same with “ caeruleam pup'nudo,' which Pier. rightly rejects. pim” v. 410 below. “Subvectat' used

302.] ‘Ipse, without assistance, old as like “subvectus" 8.58, perhaps to express he was. 'Subigit' G. 1. 202, apparently the difficulty of the exertion. Corpora :' expressing the motion of the pole or oar, see on G. 4. 475, and comp. v. 391 below. pushing up from beneath. Conto' 5. Cymba' G. 4. 506. 208. “Velisque ministrat” 10. 218. It 304.] “lam senior” 5. 179. 'Senior has been a question since the time of Serv. with Virg., as Forb. remarks, is not the whether "velis' is dat. or abl.

« Minis

senex. In its technical sense trare” is used intransitively with a dat. of among the Romans it was applied to those the person or thing served, and it also who were between forty-five and sixty, takes an abl. of the instrument of the ser- Gell. 10. 28, referred to by Forb. "Cruda vice-two constructions which are exem- senectus' is a translation of Wudy yñpas, plied in “Claudius Vinio fictilibus minis- which occurs Od. 15. 357, Hes. Works trari iussit,” Tac. H. 1. 48. Ministrat 705, though apparently in a different sense velis' then might either be 'attends to the of untimely (or perhaps cruel) old age. sails,' or 'manages the ship (understanding There is however a compound wuoyépwr ‘rati'or .ratem ') by means of the sails.' applied to Ulysses Il. 23. 791, and this is Either construction would suit the present doubtless what Virg. meant to represent passage: 10. 218 is in favour of the dat., here, 'crudus' meaning fresh, with the as there is nothing to suggest rati? or blood still in the veins, opposed to dried ‘ratem, unless we consider “velis minis- up and withered-i. q. viridis' in short. trat' to have become an elliptical phrase. Viridis' is elsewhere applied to youth, as On the other hand Tac. Germ. 44 has in 5. 295, so that its connexion with se“naves velis ministrantur,” which makes nectus' is a kind of oxymoron. Serv. restrongly for the abl., and Val. F. 3. 38 has marks of deo ' "od attiov: ideo cruda et "ipse ratem vento stellisque ministrat,” evi. viridis, quia in deo.” dently imitating either this passage or that 305.) 'Huc' may be explained by ad in A. 10. Stat. Theb. 7.752, “ Ipse sedens ripas' (see on E. 1. 54), or it may refer to telis pariterque ministrat habenis ” (of the boat. Effusa' qualifies "ruebat.' Apollo sitting in the car with Amphiaraus, 306.] This and the two next lines are like Pallas with Diomed in Il. 5), also an repeated from G. 4. 475-477, where see evident imitation of Virg., is rather in notes. For 'magnanimum' see on 3. 70 favour of the dat., as it could not so well 309.] “Quam multa ” G. 4. 473, whi be said that Apollo was ministering either the simile resembles the second of the t to the car or to Amphiaraus. The re- now before us. The comparison to fall sult of our examination of these passages, leaves is apparently from Apoll. R.


Lapsa cadunt folia, aut ad terram gurgite ab alto
Quam multae glomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus
Trans pontum fugat et terris inmittit apricis.
Stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum,
Tendebantque manus ripae ulterioris amore.
Navita sed tristis nunc hos nunc accipit illos,
Ast alios longe submotos arcet arena.
Aeneas miratus enim motusque tumultu
Dic, ait, o virgo, quid volt concursus ad amnem ?


ή όσα φύλλα χαμάζε περικλαδέος πέσεν correlative is terris,' not any equivalent ύλης, Φυλλοχόω ένα μήνι, where the thing of Nilo. compared is an ordinary concourse of people. 312.] • Terris' is awkward after 'ter. Hom. compares a multitude to leaves on ram,' but such repetitions are found elsethe trees, Il. 2. 467. Putting the similes where in Virg. (e. g. 2. 632, 633), so that side by side, we may see that there is a we need not prefer et campis’ from one delicate propriety in Virg.'s which is want- MS., or 'atque oris' from another. ing to Apollonius', the pale ghosts being


Primi transmittere' figura compared to the withered leaves. The Graeca est, ut primi transirent," Serv. well-known reversal of the comparison in Transmittere' takes an acc. of the thing Shelley's Ode to the West Wind, where sent across (“ transmissae classes.” 3. 403), the leaves dead' are compared to 'ghosts and so here of the passage, though in from the enchanter fleeing, and designated Greek we should distinguish them as the as "yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic acc. of the object and the cognate. In 4. red, Pestilence-stricken multitudes,' will 154 the acc. is of the space passed over, illustrate what was in Virg.'s mind. the passage being put into the instrumental “ Prima auctumni sub frigora ” G. 2. 321. abl. Scaliger, Poetics 4. 48, observes

310.] “ Lapsa cadunt' fere idem quod “Ecce cum tractu morae videtur ipse verdecussa cadunt:' vide Döderlein Synon. sus stare." vol. 1, p. 128,” Wagn. 'Ad terram gur- 314.] “Magno telluris amore” 1. 171 gite ab alto :' the birds are apparently sup- note. posed to have accomplished their voyage 315.] Accipit’v. 412. “Nunc hos, nunc over the sea, and to be just alighting in a illos : each longs to be first, but he takes mass in the warmer clime that is to re- some early, some late, some not at all. ceive them. Mr. Long however remarks, 316.) Submotos arcet' like “submersas that the flocking together of the birds be- obrue" 1. 69. “Arena,' the earth at the fore departure would be a fitter and more water's edge, as in 1.540, 541 it is synony. natural comparison. The simile of birds mous with prima terra.' is probably from Il. 3. 3 foll., where the 317–336.] · Aeneas inquires the meanTrojans are compared to cranes migrating ing of what he sees, and is told by the for the winter, έπει ούν χειμώνα φύγων και Sibyl that only those who have been buried ådéopatov ÕuBpov. “Gurgite ab alto” 7. are ferried over, the rest having to wait a 704, which resembles this passage, "nubem hundred years. He grieves over the fate volucrum urgueri ad litora” corresponding of the unburied, recognizing among them to ad terram glomerantur.'

his comrades lost in the wreck between 311.] ‘Frigidus annus,' the cold part of Sicily and Africa.' the year, as “pomifer annus” Hor. 3 Od. 317.] •Enim' may either have its ordi23. 8 is the fruit-bearing part of the year, nary sense for,' 'miratus' and 'motus'

annus hibernus” Id. Epod. 2. 29 the being taken as principal verbs, and the wintry part of the year (both comp. by clause made parenthetical (comp. 4. 105, Forb.). So “ formosissimus annus

E. 3.

“Olli (sensit enim simulata mente locutam) 57. Burm. reads 'amnis' from a few in. . . . Sic contra est ingressa Venus,” Ov. F. ferior MSS., interpreting it of the Strymon, 1. 659, “ Cum mihi (sensit enim), Lux as in Lucan 3. 199 we have “Strymon haec indicitur, inquit Musa ”), or be untepido committere Nilo Bistonias consuetus derstood as a strengthening particle, as in aves,” but, as Heyne remarks, 'amnis' 10. 874, “Aeneas adgnovit enim laetosque alone would be obscure, especially as the precatur.” Perhaps the latter is better;

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Quidve petunt animae ? vel quo discrimine ripas
Hae linquunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt?
Olli sic breviter fata est longaeva sacerdos :
Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles,
Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque paludem,
Di cuius iurare timent et fallere numen.
Haec omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba est ;

but it is very doubtful. “Mota tumultu ” same category with the present line, and 8. 371.

must be ruled by the interpretation given 319.] Quo discrimine :' what consti- to it. "Certissima,' because there were tutes the distinction, according to which pretenders to the honour, as even mythosome are rejected, others admitted. logy itself admitted, doubts about parent.

320.] “. Hae linquunt: repulsae scilicet, age forming the staple of some of the non transeuntes," Serv. Remis verrunt mythological stories, such as that of Phae3. 668. Here they are said to do what thon. So Aristaeus in the passage referred Charon does for them. “Livida' of turbid to above, G. 4. 322, affects to doubt his water Catull. 17. 11, quoted on v. 296 own descent when in trouble. Thus Herabove. Pal. has 'vertunt:' comp. 3. 668., cules 8. 301 is called “vera Iovis proles,” 5. 141 note.


justified himself by his actions. 321.] Comp. v. 398. Longaeva :' the 323.] This that you see is the pool of legend was that the Sibyl obtained from Cocytus.' So 1. 338, “Punica regna vides, Apollo the boon of as many years of life Tyrios et Agenoris urbem.” Cocytus and as the grains of sand she happened to be Styx are mentioned almost as if they were holding in her hand.

the same river : see on v. 296 above. The 322.] Some have supposed a contrast infernal rivers were supposed to form or between 'Anchisa generate and deum flow into lakes or marshes (v. 107, Plato certissima proles :' but vv. 125, 126 above Phaedo, pp. 112, 113), so they are spoken are rather against this. 'Deum certissima of as if lakes or marshes themselves, being proles' like “ cara deum suboles ” E. 4. 49, turbid and sluggish. So “Stygios lacus” where 'deum'appears to be used generally, v. 134 above. as we should say offspring of heaven.' 324.] ‘Cuius,' of Styx. Kal Td katelThis interpretation has been questioned in βόμενον Στυγός ύδωρ, ός τε μέγιστος Ορκος both passages by Mr. Munro (Journal of δεινότατός τε πέλει μακάρεσσι θεοίσιν ΙΙ. Classical and Sacred Philology, vol. 4, pp. 15. 37, Od. 5. 185 : comp. I. 2. 755., 14. 290 foll.), who prefers explaining the words 271. So Jupiter swears by the Styx 9. as equivalent to “divina proles” or “sub. 104., 10. 113. Iurare' with acc. v. 351 oles" (as in Lucr. 4. 1232, where “ virum below. * Iurare et fallere' to be taken suboles” must =“ virilis "), the genitive closely together, i. q. “iuratum numen indicating the quality of the issue, not its fallere or "peierare.” Comp. the wellparentage. In the present passage the known passage of St. Paul, Rom. 6. 17, sense strongly favours, if it does not abso- χάρις δε τω Θεώ ότι ήτε δούλοι της αμαρlutely require the ordinary interpretation, τίας, υπηκούσατε δε εκ καρδίας εις δν παρas the point seems to be that Aeneas is one εδόθητε τύπον διδαχής. of the class of “Dis geniti” vv. 131, 394 325.] The belief that only those who (comp. v. 123), rather than that his own had been buried could be received among quality is godlike. Ascanius is called the shades is as old as Hom., Il. 23. 71 “Dis genite et geniture deos” 9. 642: foll. : comp. the story of Elpenor Od. 11, Aeneas is called “sate gente deum ” 8. 36, who however does not appear to have been where "gente deum ” apparently must = prevented, like Patroclus, from crossing “dis.” Aeneas was in fact sprung from the river, though he is the first to meet more gods than one, from Venus, and hence Ulysses. Patroclus is kept off, not by from Jupiter, not to mention Saturn and Charon, who, as has been remarked above, Caelus. So Soph. Ant. 986 has de maîs was unknown to Hom., but by the other of Cleopatra the daughter of Boreas. ghosts. Heyne remarks on the humane “Genus deorum” 4. 12, “deum gens” character of the superstition, which was 10. 228, both said of Aeneas, are in the likely to have its effect on savage tribes.




Portitor ille Charon ; hi, quos vehit unda, sepulti.
Nec ripas datur horrendas et rauca fluenta
Transportare prius, quam sedibus ossa quierunt.
Centum errant annos volitantque haec litora circum;
Tum demum admissi stagna exoptata revisunt.
Constitit Anchisa satus et vestigia pressit,
Multa putans, sortemque animi miseratus iniquam.
Cernit ibi maestos et mortis honore carentis
Leucaspim et Lyciae ductorem classis Oronten,
Quos simul a Troia ventosa per aequora vectos


Serv. has a strange notion that 'inops' has been the case in the inferior copies means unburied, 'Ops' being taken mytho- there. Animi’ really = 'animo,' whether logically for the earth-goddess. " Inhu. it is to be explained as a genitive proper mata infletaque turba” 11. 372.

(see on G. 4. 491), or as an old forin of the 327.] Datur,' Charonti. A prose dative with Key, who remarks that the writer would probably have said 'trans- expression in the plural would not be 'aniportari,' as the prohibition really touches morum' but “animis. See further on 2. the dead rather than Charon. 'Ripas hor- 120. rendas transportare' seems to mean to 333.] Mortis honore' like “honos tucarry from one side of the dreadful river muli” 10. 493. Comp. the Homeric to to another. * Transportare' is used with ydp yépas dori Davóvtwv 11. 16. 457. two accusatives (see Forc.), and the more 334.] Leucaspis is not mentioned elseordinary one of the object is here to be where in Virg. The name is a Greek one, supplied from the context. With ‘ripas as are many of those assigned by Virg., horrendas' we may comp. Soph. (Polyx.) and even by Hom., to the inferior Trojans. fr. 478:

In Hom. it is an epithet of Deiphobus Il.

22. 294. The death of Orontes and his ακτάς απαιωνάς τε και μελαμβαθείς Lycians has been mentioned 1. 113. Oron. λιπούσα λίμνης ήλθον, άρσενας χοάς ten' Pal., Orontem' Med., Rom., Gud., 'Αχέροντος οξυπλήγας ηχούσας γόους. &c. : Heyne restored the former, which

some copies have in l. 113: and Wagn. 328.] 'Sedibus :' see on v. 152 above. supports it there by the remark that in 1. Here it must mean the grave.

220 the best MSS. have · Oronti,' the 329.] It is not known whether this Latin form of the Greek gen. of proper specification of 100 years is due to any names in es,' not Orontis. In A. 1 we earlier authority or to Virg.'s invention. hear only of one ship : but the words here

Errant :' år attws åráanuar Il. 23. 74, do not imply that the whole of the Lycian of the unburied Patroclus.

part of the fleet perished with its general. 330.] *Revisunt,' because they had been 335.] 'Simul' may either be taken with driven away to a distance v. 316. At any obruit,' meaning that Leucaspis and rate we may say that having visited the Orontes died together, or with vectos,' river once with the hope of crossing and meaning that they were fellow-voyagers of been disappointed, they now visit it again Aeneas. Wagn. thinks the latter sense with a hope that has become a certainty. weak; but surely it has peculiar force, *Stagna'v. 323.

showing what passed through Aeneas' mind 331.) “Satus Anchisa” 5. 244, 424. and drew his tears, the thought that these • Vestigia pressit v. 195.

men had been with him throughout his 332.] Multa putans' 8. 522. I have seven years' wanderings. With the other restored animi? for 'animo,' though sense it would be possible to take vectos' found only in Med. “ Animi miserata” is as = ‘navigantis,' as Wagn. wishes (see supported by the whole weight of the on G. 1. 206, where “ventosa per aequora better MSS. in 10.686, and the expression vectis” has occurred already), so as to reis just one of those which are likely to fer the words to the circumstances of the have been repeated by Virg. and altered storm in which they met their death : but by transcribers not understanding it, as in that case we should rather have had a

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