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Vana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus haerent.
Multaque praeterea variarum monstra ferarum
Centauri in foribus stabulant Scyllaeque biformes
Et centumgeminus Briareus ac belua Lernae,
Horrendum stridens, flammisque armata Chimaera,
Gorgones Harpyiaeque et forma tricorporis umbrae.

notion of dreams perched like birds on a Scyllae’ may be meant to include the tree Heyne traces to Il. 14. 286 foll., where two Scyllas, as the daughter of Nisus was Sleep, taking the form of a bird, perches turned into a monster according to one on one of the trees of Ida, before coming legend (see on E. 6. 74), or the plural may down upon Zeus. Virg. may mean that be rhetorical, like Milton's “Hydras and the dreams are actually in the form of birds, Chimaeras dire.” It would almost seem as Henry thinks, comp. Sil. 13. 595 foll., as if Virg. wished them to be conceived who, imitating this passage, represents a of as a monstrous race, like the Centaurs. yew on the banks of Cocytus as peopled Lucr., whom Virg. doubtless had in view, by noisome birds. Volgo' may go either speaking philosophically, treats them as a with ‘ferunt' or with "tenere: but the class, « Centauros itaque et Scyllarum latter seems more forcible. Wagn. comp. membra videmus, Cerbereasque canum 3. 643,“ habitant ad litora volgo.” In facies,” 4. 732, and again “Centauros, Od. 24. 12 the oņuos 'Ovelpw is reached Scyllas et cetera de genere horum” 5. before the shades.

891 foll. 284.] · Vana' seems to mean fallacious 287.] ‘Centumgeminus'='centuplex,' as well as unsubstantial. Comp. the dis- as 'tergeminus' 4. 510 = 'triplex,' septinction between “ verae umbrae” and temgeminus' v. 801 below = ‘septemplex.' “falsa insomnia” below vv. 894 foll. “Ne The latter part of the compound has no vana putes haec fingere somnum” 8. 42. very precise force, as is frequently the case * Haerent’sc. 'somnia.' The parallels to in compounds in Greek, though the notion this change of construction quoted by probably is that as 'geminus' indicates Wagn. Q. V. 34. 4 are mostly instances repetition, 'tergeminus' &c. may indicate like 4. 263, where the subject of the a thing repeated three &c. times. •Tersecond verb is the same as that of the geminus' is applied by Lucr. 5. 28 to first, but the first verb is constructed with Gorgon, who had three bodies. Briareus a relative clause which is dropped in the had not a hundred bodies, but a hundred second. One however comes tolerably near, hands (I). 1. 402 foll.), so that the ex9. 593, “Cui Remulo cognomen erat, Tur- pression is far from exact. Possibly hownique minorem Germanam nuper thalamo ever as Virg. (following Apollodorus) gives sociatus habebat." Serv. and the older him fifty heads 10. 565 foli., he may have commentators suppose Virg. to refer to a given him a hundred here. In Hom. notion that dreams become false at the there seems no reason for supposing him fall of the leaf.

to have had more than one. The word is 285.] Praeterea' may be beside the said to occur only in Val. F. 6. 118, where dream-laded elm, which we must then sup- it is applied to the hundred-gated Thebes. pose to be in the middle of the vestibule, “Belua Lernae,' the Hydra, called “Leror besides the shapes mentioned vv. 274 naeus anguis " 8. 300,“ Lernaea pestis foll. “Monstra ferarum' =“monstruosae Lucr. 5. 26. ferae,” as “monstra deum” 8. 698 = 288.] •Stridens' of the Hydra, as else“monstruosi Di.” The figures here are where of serpents. The Chimaera is called not personifications, but mythological mon- • flammis armata,' as the Parthian arrow sters.

Hom. knows nothing of them, is called “armata felle veneni” 12. 857. though he makes Ulysses afraid lest Perse- Wakef., thinking the expression common. phone should send the Gorgon's head from place, ingeniously proposed * animata,' Hades against him Od. 11. 634: but which would produce a translation, though Aristoph. Frogs 143, 277 speaks of wild not perhaps a very Virgilian one, of Hom.'s beasts which have to be encountered im- δεινόν αποπνείουσα πυρός μένος αιθομένοιο, , mediately on crossing the infernal lake. 11. 6.182. The Chimaera is one of Turnus'

286.] Stabulant neuter, G. 3. 224. cognizances, 7. 785 foll. The word is appropriate to the Centaurs. 289.] The 'forma tricorporis umbrae' is 290

Corripit hic subita trepidus formidine ferrum
Aeneas, strictamque aciem venientibus offert,
Et, ni docta comes tenuis sine corpore vitas
Admoneat volitare cava sub imagine formae,
Inruat, et frustra ferro diverberet umbras.

Hinc via, Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.


Geryon, mentioned again 7. 662., 8. 202. pidus' with formidine,' as in 9. 169. Aesch. Ag. 870 calls him Tplo buatos, and 291.] 'Strictam aciem' 2. 333. To Lucr. 5. 28 talks of “tripectora tergemini offer a weapon at a person is a common vis Geryonai.” Sil. uses the word “tri. expression in our own older writers. corpor'twice, each time of Geryon. The 292.] • Docta’ instructed, perhaps by words 'forma umbrae' (for 'formae' see Hecate, v. 565 below. But the word on 3. 591) sufficiently indicate the spectral often means little more than wise or skiland unsubstantial nature of the appear. ful: see Forc. •Tenuis vitas' G. 4. 224. ances, pointed out by the Sibyl in the fol- 'Sine corpore : see on G. 4. 475, where, lowing lines. Some of these monsters had as in v. 303 below, Virg. is not quite conbeen actually killed, so that it was natural sistent with his language here. that they should appear spectrally in 293.] Virg.'s words are a paraphrase of Hades; others, like the Harpies, were to sé Trial àtorovo Od. 10. 495, transproducts of the infernal world (comp. 3. lated by Cic. De Div. 1. 40, “ceteros um214), and though when appearing on earth brarum vagari modo.” The kind of motion they may have had bodies, they may be is connected with the want of substance supposed to be divested of them in the and stability. Cava imagine' means more shades, where spirit acts upon spirit. The than “ nube cava" 1. 516,

cava umbra ” train of thought may be the same as that 2.360 note, expressing not merely that the in Hom. (Od. 11. 602), where though spirits are enclosed by the visible shape, Hercules himself is among the gods, his but that the shape is essentially hollow, είδωλον is in the shades (comp. Shelley's ψυχή και είδωλον, ατάρ φρένες ουκ ένι • Phantasm of Jupiter' in the Prometheus adunay (1l. 23. 105 : comp. Od. 10. 493). Unbound): or Virg. may have been in- 'Admoneat-inruat : see on 5. 325. fluenced more or less by a philosophical 294.] In Hom. Ulysses' sword operates motive, intending to hint at the unreality as a real terror to the ghosts (see on v. of these terrible shapes. The words of 260 above). The legend was that Her. Serv. may be worth quoting, “ Harpyiae. cules drew his sword on the Gorgon when que :' aut iam mortuas intellige, aut se- he went down to the shades, and was recundum Platonem et alios simulacra licet assured by Hermes as Aeneas here is by vivarum illic fuisse. Nam dicunt esse the Sibyl (Apollodorus 2. 5. 12: Schol, on omnium rerum ideas quasdam, i.e. ima- 11. 8. 368). • Diverberet' 5. 503 note. gines, ad quarum similitudinem procrean- 295–316.] · Next they see the way to tur universa." Serv. also tells us that Acheron. Charon is there with his ferryafter these lines four others were inserted boat, old and squalid, but vigorous. Ghosts by some, who believed them to have been keep crowding to the boat : some of them left by Virg., but omitted by those who are admitted, others rejected.' revised his work. It will be seen that 295.] .Hinc' seems to mean that it is they are of the same quality as those quoted only after passing the gate of Orcus that on 3. 204:

they see the way to Acheron. Acheron is

called Tartareus' from its dismal associa“Gorgonis in medio portentum inmane tions, though it is not, like Phlegethon v. Medusae,

551, a river specially surrounding Tartarus, Vipereae circum ora comae cui sibila but apparently encompasses the whole of torquent,

the lower world. But Virg.'s conception Infamesque (qu. informesque ?) rigent of the four infernal rivers, as given by oculi, mentoque sub imo

Hom., is very confused. Hom. says briefly, Serpentum extremis nodantur vincula Od. 10. 513 foll. : caudis."

ένθα μεν εις 'Αχέροντα Πυριφλεγέθων και 290.] *Hic' of time, 2. 122 &c. "Tre


Turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
Aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat arenam.
Portitor has horrendus


et flumina servat
Terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento
Canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,
Sordidus ex humeris nodo dependet amictus.



Κωκυτός θ', ός δη Στυγός ύδατός έστιν 569., 9. 105., 10. 114. απορρώξ:

297.] Disgorges into Cocytus,' into πέτρη τε, ξύνεσίς τε δύω ποταμών έριδού- which Virg. evidently supposed Acheron

to empty itself. Hom., as we have seen,

makes Cocytus an droppót or arm of Styx. but he does not mention them at all when 298.] 'Portitor,' properly a person who he comes to the actual journey of his hero. collects the portoria, duties on exports and Virg. conducts Aeneas over the water cir- imports, or tolls (Dict. A. • Portorium'); cumstantially, but from his description we hence a person who receives toll for carry. should infer that there is only one river, ing passengers or goods, and so, as here, a which, after being called Acheron or Cocy- ferryman, a sense which it bears Sen. De tus here, turns out eventually to be Styx, Benef. 6. 18, and in various passages of v. 385. Heyne remarks with justice (Ex. the poets, where, as here, it is applied cursus 9) that the poet would have found to Charon. In later Latin it came to be it awkward to have to describe the passage used for a porter : see Forc. We have of all three, especially as Styx alone is had the word used of Charon G. 4. 502. said to surround the lower world nine 299.] · Terribili squalore' is not to be times, v. 439. Generally we may say that taken with “horrendus,' but forms in fact a Virg. found the notion of a single river of second epithet. Charon is later than Hom., death most convenient for poetical pur who employs only the agency of Hermes poses, but that he wished as usual to in- for transporting the dead to the shades troduce the various points of the legends (Od. 24), while the living cross the Ocean he followed, and so he employed the names river in ships: he appears however in Acheron, Cocytus, and Styx, whenever the Aristoph. Frogs 180 &c., and was repreriver was to be spoken of, with a dim con- sented by Polygnotus in his paintings in ception of Acheron as emptying itself into the Lesche of the Cnidians at Delphi. Cocytus, and perhaps of Styx, as the most 300.] Canities' for 'cani,' as in 9. inward of the three, and a clear one of 612., 10. 844., 12. 611. “Stant lumina Phlegethon as specially surrounding Tar- flamma’like “pulvere caelum Stare vident” tarus. Plato gives a much more definite 12. 407, comp. by Turn. V. L. 28. 32. description in his Phaedo, pp. 112, 113, 'Stant’expresses the fixedness of the eyes speaking of four rivers, Ocean, Acheron, (Donatus), and the mass of the flame Pyriphlegethon, and Styx, the last of (Henry)." His eyes are fixed orbs of fire.' which disappears under the earth and re- The comparison of eyes to fire occurs more appears as Cocytus—an attempt apparently than once in Hom., e.g. Il. 1. 104, doce to realize the picture in Ηom.-and later δε οι πυρί λαμπετόωντι είκτην. • FlamRoman poets, as Heyne observes, Exc. 9, mae' is read by many MSS., including Med. have introduced varieties of their own. (originally), Rom., and Pal. from a correc

296.] Acheron has here the Platonic tion ; but the attributive gen. would be characteristics of a marshy slough, com- harsh. Some copies have 'flammea,' which bined with those of a rapid river. 'Cae. is approved by Heins., and might be scanned num' and ' arena' are doubtless the same, by synizesis (comp. 7. 448, * flammea toras Heyne thinks. Comp. the description quens lumina"). of the muddy pool in Catull. 17. 10, 301.] Charon apparently wears a scarf totius ut lacus putidaeque paludis Livi. or chlamys, which is twisted round the dissima maxumeque est profunda vorago," shoulder (Dict. Ant. 'Chlamys,' 'Nodus '). ib. 25, “Et supinum animum in gravi Cerda shows that this was a pilot's cosderelinquere caeno, Ferream ut soleam tume from Plaut. Mil. 4. 4. 41 foll.: tenaci in voragine mula.” Vorago’ is applied to the infernal rivers in the only “Facito uti venias ornatu ornatus huc nther passage where it occurs in Virg., 7. nauclerico,


Ipse ratem conto subigit, velisque ministrat,
Et ferruginea subvectat corpora cymba,
Iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,
Matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita
Magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
Inpositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum :
Quam multa in silvis autumni frigore primo

be left open.

same as

which the commentators have collected, Palliolum habeas ferrugineum, nam is seems to be that the question must still

colos thalassicu'st : Id connexum in humero laevo, expapil. 303.] ‘Ferruginea' (see note on G. 1. lato brachio;

467) seems to denote the murky hue of adsimulato quasi gubernator the infernal boat. It may however merely sies."

indicate the ordinary colour of ships (comp.

veds Kvavou pápoio Il. 15. 693), as Plaut. reNodus' is to be taken strictly, not as im- ferred to on v. 301 says as a reason for plying a 'fibula' or brooch, which would wearing the 'ferrugineum pallium' “is hardly be in keeping with the rest of colos thalassicu'st." At any rate it is Charon's trim. Some early correctors read evidently the same with “ caeruleam pup'nudo,' which Pier. rightly rejects. pim” v. 410 below. “Subvectat' used

302.] ‘Ipse, without assistance, old as like “subvectus" 8.58, perhaps to express he was. 'Subigit' G. 1. 202, apparently the difficulty of the exertion. Corpora :' expressing the motion of the pole or oar, see on G. 4. 475, and comp. v. 391 below. pushing up from beneath. Conto' 5. Cymba' G. 4. 506. 208. “Velisque ministrat” 10. 218. It 304.] “lam senior” 5. 179. 'Senior has been a question since the time of Serv. with Virg., as Forb. remarks, is not the whether "velis' is dat. or abl.

« Minis

senex. In its technical sense trare” is used intransitively with a dat. of among the Romans it was applied to those the person or thing served, and it also who were between forty-five and sixty, takes an abl. of the instrument of the ser- Gell. 10. 28, referred to by Forb. "Cruda vice-two constructions which are exem- senectus' is a translation of Wudy yñpas, plied in “Claudius Vinio fictilibus minis- which occurs Od. 15. 357, Hes. Works trari iussit,” Tac. H. 1. 48. Ministrat 705, though apparently in a different sense velis' then might either be 'attends to the of untimely (or perhaps cruel) old age. sails,' or 'manages the ship (understanding There is however a compound wuoyépwr ‘rati'or .ratem ') by means of the sails.' applied to Ulysses Il. 23. 791, and this is Either construction would suit the present doubtless what Virg. meant to represent passage: 10. 218 is in favour of the dat., here, 'crudus' meaning fresh, with the as there is nothing to suggest rati? or blood still in the veins, opposed to dried ‘ratem, unless we consider “velis minis- up and withered-i. q. viridis' in short. trat' to have become an elliptical phrase. Viridis' is elsewhere applied to youth, as On the other hand Tac. Germ. 44 has in 5. 295, so that its connexion with se“naves velis ministrantur,” which makes nectus' is a kind of oxymoron. Serv. restrongly for the abl., and Val. F. 3. 38 has marks of deo ' "od attiov: ideo cruda et "ipse ratem vento stellisque ministrat,” evi. viridis, quia in deo.” dently imitating either this passage or that 305.) 'Huc' may be explained by ad in A. 10. Stat. Theb. 7.752, “ Ipse sedens ripas' (see on E. 1. 54), or it may refer to telis pariterque ministrat habenis ” (of the boat. Effusa' qualifies "ruebat.' Apollo sitting in the car with Amphiaraus, 306.] This and the two next lines are like Pallas with Diomed in Il. 5), also an repeated from G. 4. 475-477, where see evident imitation of Virg., is rather in notes. For 'magnanimum' see on 3. 70 favour of the dat., as it could not so well 309.] “Quam multa ” G. 4. 473, whi be said that Apollo was ministering either the simile resembles the second of the t to the car or to Amphiaraus. The re- now before us. The comparison to fall sult of our examination of these passages, leaves is apparently from Apoll. R.


Lapsa cadunt folia, aut ad terram gurgite ab alto
Quam multae glomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus
Trans pontum fugat et terris inmittit apricis.
Stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum,
Tendebantque manus ripae ulterioris amore.
Navita sed tristis nunc hos nunc accipit illos,
Ast alios longe submotos arcet arena.
Aeneas miratus enim motusque tumultu
Dic, ait, o virgo, quid volt concursus ad amnem ?


ή όσα φύλλα χαμάζε περικλαδέος πέσεν correlative is terris,' not any equivalent ύλης, Φυλλοχόω ένα μήνι, where the thing of Nilo. compared is an ordinary concourse of people. 312.] • Terris' is awkward after 'ter. Hom. compares a multitude to leaves on ram,' but such repetitions are found elsethe trees, Il. 2. 467. Putting the similes where in Virg. (e. g. 2. 632, 633), so that side by side, we may see that there is a we need not prefer et campis’ from one delicate propriety in Virg.'s which is want- MS., or 'atque oris' from another. ing to Apollonius', the pale ghosts being


Primi transmittere' figura compared to the withered leaves. The Graeca est, ut primi transirent," Serv. well-known reversal of the comparison in Transmittere' takes an acc. of the thing Shelley's Ode to the West Wind, where sent across (“ transmissae classes.” 3. 403), the leaves dead' are compared to 'ghosts and so here of the passage, though in from the enchanter fleeing, and designated Greek we should distinguish them as the as "yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic acc. of the object and the cognate. In 4. red, Pestilence-stricken multitudes,' will 154 the acc. is of the space passed over, illustrate what was in Virg.'s mind. the passage being put into the instrumental “ Prima auctumni sub frigora ” G. 2. 321. abl. Scaliger, Poetics 4. 48, observes

310.] “ Lapsa cadunt' fere idem quod “Ecce cum tractu morae videtur ipse verdecussa cadunt:' vide Döderlein Synon. sus stare." vol. 1, p. 128,” Wagn. 'Ad terram gur- 314.] “Magno telluris amore” 1. 171 gite ab alto :' the birds are apparently sup- note. posed to have accomplished their voyage 315.] Accipit’v. 412. “Nunc hos, nunc over the sea, and to be just alighting in a illos : each longs to be first, but he takes mass in the warmer clime that is to re- some early, some late, some not at all. ceive them. Mr. Long however remarks, 316.) Submotos arcet' like “submersas that the flocking together of the birds be- obrue" 1. 69. “Arena,' the earth at the fore departure would be a fitter and more water's edge, as in 1.540, 541 it is synony. natural comparison. The simile of birds mous with prima terra.' is probably from Il. 3. 3 foll., where the 317–336.] · Aeneas inquires the meanTrojans are compared to cranes migrating ing of what he sees, and is told by the for the winter, έπει ούν χειμώνα φύγων και Sibyl that only those who have been buried ådéopatov ÕuBpov. “Gurgite ab alto” 7. are ferried over, the rest having to wait a 704, which resembles this passage, "nubem hundred years. He grieves over the fate volucrum urgueri ad litora” corresponding of the unburied, recognizing among them to ad terram glomerantur.'

his comrades lost in the wreck between 311.] ‘Frigidus annus,' the cold part of Sicily and Africa.' the year, as “pomifer annus” Hor. 3 Od. 317.] •Enim' may either have its ordi23. 8 is the fruit-bearing part of the year, nary sense for,' 'miratus' and 'motus'

annus hibernus” Id. Epod. 2. 29 the being taken as principal verbs, and the wintry part of the year (both comp. by clause made parenthetical (comp. 4. 105, Forb.). So “ formosissimus annus

E. 3.

“Olli (sensit enim simulata mente locutam) 57. Burm. reads 'amnis' from a few in. . . . Sic contra est ingressa Venus,” Ov. F. ferior MSS., interpreting it of the Strymon, 1. 659, “ Cum mihi (sensit enim), Lux as in Lucan 3. 199 we have “Strymon haec indicitur, inquit Musa ”), or be untepido committere Nilo Bistonias consuetus derstood as a strengthening particle, as in aves,” but, as Heyne remarks, 'amnis' 10. 874, “Aeneas adgnovit enim laetosque alone would be obscure, especially as the precatur.” Perhaps the latter is better;

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