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Turea dona, dapes, fuso crateres olivo.
Postquam conlapsi cineres et flamma quievit,
Reliquias vino et bibulam lavere favillam,
Ossaque lecta cado texit Corynaeus aeno.
Idem ter socios pura circumtulit unda,

words need not be pressed. Comp. G. 4. 228.] ‘Lecta,' collected from the pile, 167 note. Pal. and Gud. seem to have Néyeu or éyerda. in Hom. ll. cc. The had another reading, subiectas faces.' process was called dotoroyla : Aesch. wrote

225.] Lersch, $ 86, comp. Arnob. 7. 51, à play named 'Ortodo. Cadus' is “Pulticulae, tura cum carnibus, rapacium doubtless an urn, as ráðos is used for a alimenta sunt ignium et parentalibus con- balloting urn. In Hom. the vessels differ: iunctissima mortuorum,” Tac. A. 3. 2, Patroclus' bones are placed in a golden “Pro opibus loci vestem, odores, aliaque pidan, Hector's in a golden λάρναξ, funerum sollemnia cremabant." The first Achilles' in a golden åuqipopeús, the work passage explains dapes, which doubtless of Hephaestus and gift of Dionysus. refers to the victims, not as some have Brazen urns are common among Italian thought, to the spices and oil. So perhaps remains. Corynaeus is specified, as Heyne 3. 301, where see note. In 5. 92 the re- remarks, merely for specification's sake. ference is doubtful. For the application The name occurs again 9. 571., 12. 298. of .dapes' to sacrifices see Forc. Victims This man may be identified with either, as are also mentioned 11. 197 foll., after 11. both are probably Trojans. The name is 23. 166, Od. 24. 65, none of which passages variously spelt in the MSS.; but Heyne however speak of spices or oil. Libations remarks that it must be Kopuvaios from of oil were made in the subsequent offer. Kopúrn. ings to the grave (E. 5. 68 note : see other 229.] Corynaeus also performs the luspassages quoted by Lersch, $ 68, “De tration, that the crews might be purified Libationibus”), which seem to have had from the pollution contracted by the dead much in common with the actual funeral body, v. 150 above. It does not appear solemnities. See also Od. 24. 73, referred whether lustration formed a regular part to on y. 227 below. Fuso crateres olivo' of a Roman funeral, as of course we can. is doubtless the abl. of description, cups of not argue from this passage that it did : poured out oil. Really of course it is not but there was a lustration in the month of the cup that is burnt, but its contents, so February, the month of special solemnities that crateres' is used somewhat like in honour of the Di Manes. Macrob. Sat. “pocula” E. 8. 28.

“ lustrari eo mense civitatem 226.] The line, as Heyne remarks, is necesse erat, quo statuit ut iusta dis Manimodelled on Il. 9. 212, aŭtdp étel Kard bus solverentur.” “Ter:' comp. E. 8. 73, TÜP ékán kal pads fuapávon, compared with 75 notes. Serv. says “Circumtulit: II. 23. 228, tñuos trupkatn euapalveto, taú- purgavit. Antiquum verbum est. Plautus : gato pabt. «Conlapsi cineres' is from Pro larvato te circumferam,' i.e. purgaΙΙ. 23. 251, βαθεία δε κάππεσε τέφρη. bo." This passage is not in the extant

227.] In Il. 23. 250., 24. 791 the flame works of Plautus: but there is a similar is quenched with wine and then the bones one in Amph. 2. 2. 143, “quin tu istane are collected : but in Od. 24. 72, the bones iubes Pro cerrita circumferri ?" It is to are collected after the body is consumed be explained on the analogy of the double and are placed in (a vessel containing ?) structure of circundare &c. 'aliquam wine and oil. (In 11. 23. 253 a double rem alicui' and 'aliquem aliqua re,' cir. layer of fat is spread over the bones.) cumtulit socios pura unda' being a variety Virg. seems to follow the Od., probably for 'circumtulit socios puram undam.' See understanding éyouev ev olvą kal år elpation G. 4. 337. If not originally Virg.'s of something which took place before the own expression, it is at any rate precisely bones were placed in the vessel. In the such a one as we should expect him to three passages of Hom. the fire is allowed affect, so that we need not be tempted by to burn all night and is quenched or varieties like 'puram undam,' the reading quenches itself the next morning: and of one MS., circumvenit,' found in Virg.'s account in Book 11 (vv. 201, 210) another, or "circumluit,' which is found in is somewhat similar.

the margin of a MS. of Macrob. Sat. 3. 1.

1. 13 says


Spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae,
Lustravitque viros, dixitque novissima verba.
At pius Aeneas ingenti mole sepulchrum
Inponit, suaque arma viro remumque tubamque,
Monte sub aerio, qui nunc Misenus ab illo
Dicitur, aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen.

His actis propere exsequitur praecepta Sibyllae.
Spelunca alta fuit vastoque inmanis hiatu,



Sophocles, whose inversions of language but such things cannot be pressed in Virg. are very like Virg.'s, has a similar ex. The setting up of a tomb in Hom. follows pression El. 709, όθ' αυτούς οι τεταγμένοι similarly at once upon the burning and Bpaßis Kahpois éanlay, which has been the collecting of the bones, Il. 23. 255 foll., similarly altered by reading κλήρους. 24. 797 foll., Od. 12. 14., 24. 80 foll. The

230.] The manner of the lustration is first and last of these passages will illusdescribed, sprinkling with a wetted branch. trate ingenti mole,' the size of the barrow, Bay was used as well as olive, Juv. 2. 158. of earth and stones, being greater accord Serv. quotes Donatus as saying that Virg. ing to the honour intended. So Aesch. substituted the olive for the bay out of com- Cho. 351, TONÓXwOTO &v elxes Tápov pliment to Augustus, whose birthday was διαποντίου γάς, Δώμασιν ευφόρητον. marked by the springing up of a bay on the 233.] 'Arma' seems to refer to rePalatine, and that it was not thought well mumque tubamque,' like “ Cerealia arma that the triumphal associations of the tree 1. 177 &c., as his arms in the strict sense should be mixed up with funeral reminis- appear to have been burnt with him, v.

Lersch shows that the olive was 217. Serv., who felt the difficulty, took connected with funerals from Pliny 35. the meaning to be that the arms were 46, “Quin et defunctos sese multi fictilibus sculptured on the tomb. “Viro' explains soliis condi maluere, sicut M. Varro, Py- 'sua,' which would naturally refer to thagorico modo, in myrti et oleae et populi Aeneas himself. The oar Misenus has in nigrae foliis.” Cerda shows the same con- common with Elpenor, Od. 11. 77., 12. 15, nexion from Demosth. and Artemidorus. who has his fixed åkpotátu Túußu : the

Rore et ramo' is a good instance of ev trumpet is his own. dià dvoîv : see on G. 2. 192. “Felici comp- 234.] The ' aerial promontory' still tus oliva” 7. 751, distinguished from the bears the name 'Punta di Miseno. oleaster.

235.] Comp. the promise to Palinurus 231.) For viros’ Rom., Pal. a m. p., below v. 381. “Et nunc magnum tenet and others give 'domos,' apparently in. Ardea nomen” 7. 412. troduced by some one who thought of the 236—263.] · Aeneas then begins the lustration of houses at Rome. Pierius preliminaries of his descent. Black cattle thought it might be explained of the camp. are sacrificed to the infernal powers at Another MS. has choros,' which Heins. the mouth of a mephitic cave. As the preferred,' but Heyne rightly rejects. day dawns, the approach of Hecate is ** Dixitque novissima verba " 4. 650. The perceived, and Aeneas and his guide dereference seems to be to the vale' with scend.' which they took leave of the dead, not to 236.] • His actis ' 12. 843. the "ilicet, with which the assembly was 237.) This grotto is not the same as dismissed. Serv. objects to the former that mentioned v. 11 above. Heyne idenview that the vale' was not said till after tifies it with one now called Baian, as the burial : but 11. 97 seems to show that looking towards Baiae. With the latter it might come even before the burning. part of the line comp. Lucr. 5. 376, "sed In v. 506 below, 3. 68 we may remember patet inmani (inmane' Wakef.) et vasto that the erection of the tomb stood in respectat hiatu." The description seems place of a proper burial.

partially taken from that of the onlos 232.] The mention Aeneas may be 'Atsao (in the [Asiatic] Acherusian prointended to intimate that it was at this montory) in Apoll. R. 2. 735 foll., though point that he returned (see v. 212 above); the vapour there is not mephitic, but icy.


Scrupea, tuta lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris,
Quam super haud ullae poterant inpune volantes
Tendere iter pennis : talis sese halitus atris
Faucibus effundens

supera ad convexa ferebat:
[Unde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Avernum.]
Quattuor hic primum nigrantis terga iuvencos
Constituit frontique invergit vina sacerdos,
Et summas carpens

media inter cornua saetas


238.] • Scrupes' is found in Enn. νεκά μιν και φωτες επικλείουσιν 'Αορνον, Androm. fr. 8, and Pacuvius Nipt. fr. 6 rendered by Priscian, Perieg. 1056, “Unde speaks of "scruposam specum.” “Tuta' locis Graii posuerunt nomen Aornin.” participle, sheltered, as in 1. 571 &c. The Heyne thinks it a gloss, and Wagn. and ineaning seems to be that the darkness Ribbeck remove it from the text. There appears to afford it a protection.

is nothing un-Virgilian about it: Virg. is 239.] Translated from Apoll. R. 4. 601, fond of talking of the names of places, as oudé tis Yowp Keivo (the lake of the Erida- Henry remarks (comp. e. g. 3. 693): he nus) did trepà koupa ravúooas Olwrds refers to a Greek name G. 3. 148 (a comdúvatal Baréerv ÚTEp. With the whole mon habit with his master Lucr.) : and passage comp. Lucr. 6. 740 foll. :

the expression 'nomine dicere,' to which

Wagn. objects, is found v. 441 below, as is * Principio, quod Averna vocantur nomine, observed by Forb. On the other hand id ab re

the external evidence is such as to leave Inpositumst, quia sunt avibus contraria the question doubtful, so I have placed the cunctis,

line in brackets. There is a further quesE regione ea quod loca cum venere vo- tion whether • Aornon' or 'Avernum' lantes,

ought to be read. The MSS. which retain Remigii oblitae pennarum vela remit- the line would seem generally in favour of tunt,

this latter, which I have adopted : but it Praecipitesque cadunt molli cervice pro- would seem more likely that Virg. would fusae

use the Greek word than the Latin transIn terram, si forte ita fert natura lo- formation of it, which hides the etymology. corum,

Is it certain that Lucr. in talking of the Aut in aquam, si forte lacus substratus etymology of 'Avernus' did not mean to Avernist.

derive it from 'avis ?' Possibly however Is locus est Cumas apud, acri sulfure Virg. may have so far complied with the montes

Latin form as to give 'Aornum,' the readOppleti calidis ubi fumant fontibus ing of Gud. and others, adopted by Heins. aucti.”

243.] Comp. G. 4. 538 foll., where four

bulls and four heifers are sacrificed to the See also ib. 818 foll. Volantes' used Manes of Orpheus and Eurydice. “Ni. substantively, as in v. 728 below, Lucr. 2. grantis terga iuvencos” 5. 97. Black was 1083. So volitans' G. 3. 147.

the colour of the victims sacrificed to the 240.] “Tendit iter velis” 7.7.

shades, v. 153 above, Od. 10. 523–527. 241.j Comp. Lucr. 6. 819; “Mortiferam 244.] ‘Constituit’ 5. 237. Frontique vim, de terra quae surgit in auras. invergit vina :' comp. 4. 61 note. Plaut. “Supera convexa v. 750 below. Ribbeck Curc. 1. 2. 12 has “Invergere in me lireads 'super' from Pal. and Med. a m. p., quores tuos sino ductim.” Serv. draws a and Rom.; but the cause of the mistake distinction between 'fundere' and `ver. is obvious.

gere’ in sacrifices : “Fundere' est supina 242.] This line is wanting in fragm. manu libare, quod fit in sacris supernis ; Vat. and others, and is added in Med. by 'vergere' autem est conversa in sinistram a later hand. Rom. however has it. Serv. partem manu ita fundere ut patera condoes not explain it, nor does Non. quote it vertatur: quod in infernis sacris fit." s. v. 'Avernus,' as he might have been ex- Invergo' however is used by Val. Fl. 2. pected to do. There is a similar line in 611 of pouring sacrificial wine into the sea. the Periegesis of Dionysius, v. 1151, Toő. 245.) The plucking of hairs from the


Ignibus inponit sacris, libamina prima,
Voce vocans Hecaten, Caeloque Ereboque potentem.
Supponunt alii cultros, tepidumque cruorem
Succipiunt pateris. Ipse atri velleris agnam
Aeneas matri Eumenidum magnaeque sorori


head of the victim and the throwing of Cerda in the same note, that of first strikthem into the fire as årapxal is a Homeric ing the victims down with an axe or club, custom, Od. 3. 415, round 8' 'Adhvn Eớxet' afterwards cutting their throats, a process απαρχόμενος, κεφαλής τρίχας εν πυρί βάλ. which seems to have required two persons, Awv, from which we see also that prayers according to a passage from Dionys. Hal. were made during the process, as in v. 247. 7. 72, quoted by Cerda, QÚEiv TÕTE Tois • Saetae' of the hair of oxen 7. 790. υπηρέταις αυτά εκέλευον. των δε οι μεν,

246.] · Libamina prima, åtapxal, as εστώτος έτι του θύματος, σκυτάλη τους • libare' is used of pouring out or taking κροτάφους έπαιον: οι δε πίπτοντος υπετί. away the first part of any thing. Gell. in desav ras opayloas. Serv. says that suphis preface says, “ Primitias quasdam et ponere' was a sacrificial word, being of neuquasi libamenta ingenuarum artium dedi. tral signification and consequently avoiding mus." Stat. Theb. 6. 224 has“ raptumque a bad omen : and the three last words in suis libamen ab armis Quisque iacit,” of the passage of Dionys. confirm the stateofferings on a funeral pile, each one giving ment, as they would hardly have been as it were a taste or specimen of his wea- translated from an expression found only pons. Inponit' is frequently used of in the poets. "Tepidum cruorem' 8. 106. offerings 1. 49., 4. 453.

249.) The form succipiunt' is sup247.] See on v. 245. The line is imi. ported by Pal. and fragm. Vat., Gud. a m. tated from Apoll. R. 3. 1209, én dè pryádas s. &c., and expressly recognized by Serv., χέε λοιβάς Βριμώ κικλήσκων Εκάτην επαρ- who says “antique : nam modo susciwydr åéorwv. Voce vocans ' 4. 680 note. piunt' dicunt:" it has accordingly been For Hecate's attributes see on 4. 510. restored by Wagn. in later edd., here and *Caelo potentem' less strong than ‘Caeli 1. 175. It was evidently read by Pompotentem,' implying not sovereignty over ponius Sabinus, whose note "antiquum a place, but power in it. 'Caeloque Ere- verbum est ” is wrongly explained by boque' 7. 140.

Heyne as if the meaning were that the 248.] Cerda, followed by Heyne and more ordinary word would be excipiunt.' Forb., explains “supponunt cultros' of The object of catching the blood is said the custom of sacrificing victims to the by Donatus to be “ne iam sacratus in gods below with their heads downwards, terram cadat.” The Greek feeling would those devoted to the gods above being seem to have been just the reverse, as what sacrificed with their heads upturned, the was poured on the earth was supposed to að épvoar of Homer. For this he quotes reach the powers below. So Od. 11. 35 Myrsilus De Rebus Lesbiacis 2 (? the Ulysses cuts the throats of the sheep into passage does not occur in the remains a trench, that the shades may flock round of Myrsilus in Müller's Fragmenta Histo- it. Virg. however seems to mean that the ricorum Graecorum), eiúlaoi oi jepeis td blood is caught in bowls that it may be έντομα τους κάτω θεοίς εναγιζόμενα εν τη afterwards poured out, apparently on the γη αποτέμνεσθαι τας κεφαλάς: ούτω γαρ ground (3.67., 5. 78). Perhaps we may say θύουσι τοις υποχθονίοις τοις δε ουρανίοις then that this mode of offering was adopted άνω αναστρέφουσι των ιερείων τον τράχηλον as giving more solemnity to the act, and opácortes. The same words however have involving as it were a separate consecration already met us in G. 3. 492, where we of the blood apart from that of the victims. cannot suppose that a sacrifice to the in- 'Ipse:' Aeneas also acts as sacrificer, in fernal gods is specially meant. All that the Homeric fashion. Stat. Theb. 4. 445 is said is that the throat is cut from be- has “Velleris obscuri pecudes.” neath, and this might be done equally well 250.] The mother of the Eumenides was whether the victims' heads were turned Night (7. 331., 12. 846, Aesch. Eum. 416 up or down--more easily indeed in the &c.), her great sister Earth, both being former case. It is more probable that the daughters of Chaos. Comp. Hes. Theog. special reference, if any, is to another 116 foll., where however the birth of Gaea (Roman ?) sacrificial custom mentioned by from Chaos is not expressly stated.



Ense ferit, sterilemque tibi, Proserpina, vaccam.
Tum Stygio regi nocturnas inchoat aras,
Et solida inponit taurorum viscera flammis,
Pingue super oleum fundens ardentibus extis.
Ecce autem, primi sub lumina solis et ortus
Sub pedibus mugire solum, et iuga coepta moveri
Silvarum, visaeque canes ululare per umbram,
Adventante dea. Procul o, procul este, profani,


251.] So Od. 11. 30 Ulysses vows that from viscera.' Comp. Aesch. Ag. 1221, on his return to Ithaca he will sacrifice oùy évtépous te ondáyxu'. Oil was one of to the shades, oreipav Bow $tis åplotn. the offerings to the dead (see on v. 225), Lersch quotes from Arnob. 7. 21, “Bos si but it may have been intended merely to sterilis (caedatur] Unxiae, quam Proser- feed the fire. Emmen. refers to Schedius pinae tribuitis.” Ense ferit' may possi. de Dis German. c. 29 for the statement bly be referred to striking down the vic- that oil was used for wine in sacrifices to tim, according to the distinction taken on Pluto. v. 248. Serv. has a notion that the sword 255.] ‘Primi sub lumina solis et ortus,' was used rather than any other weaponê did doiv. "Primi' = 'prima,' and because, having been consecrated by the ' prima lumina' = ortus.' “ Lumina act, it became available for keeping the solis” 8. 69, Lucr. 1. 5. Comp. also 7. shades at a distance. •Ense ferit' 12.458. 130,“ primo cum lumine solis." Med. and

252.] ‘Stygio regi' of Pluto, like "Iovi some others have ‘limina,' an impossible Stygio 4. 638. *Nocturnas sacrifices reading here, as Burm. remarks, though to the infernal gods were performed by it might stand in a passage where place, night, which is now going on, as we see not time, was spoken of. The description from v. 255. Cerda refers to Turnebus V. here, like parts of that which has preceded, L. 28. 44. Inchoat' is said by Serv. to is modelled on Jason's invocation of Hecate be a sacrificial word: but the only instance Apoll. R. 3. 1191–1223, where the time the commentators adduce is “delubrum in- and circumstances of the approach of the choare” Cic. (?) De Domo 51. 132. Comp. goddess are the same as here. however instauro '4. 63 note.

256.] Comp. 4. 490, “mugire videbis 253.] Solida' =“integra,” as in 2. Sub pedibus terram, et descendere monti. 639: see Forc., where this sense is abun bus ornos." See also on E. 4. 50. nioea dantly illustrated. Holocausts were offered s'étpeme návra natà oríbov Apoll. R. 3. to the infernal gods, Apoll. R. 3. 1033. 1217. Iuga silvarum :' the ridges are reFor 'viscera' see on G. 3. 559., 4. 302. garded as belonging to the woods which It is on this line that Serv. gives the ex. grow on them rather than vice versa. So planation there cited. Inponere' above “iuga nemorum"11.545, "dorso nemoris" v. 246.

G. 3. 436, comp. by Forb. Seneca Nat. 254.] Modelled on Il. 11. 775, on évowv Q. 6. 13 quotes the words with "iuga αιθοπα οίνον επ' αιθομένοις ιεροίσιν. All celsa,” which might stand, ‘visa' being Ribbeck's MSS. give 'superque:'super' understood from the next line. is found in a few copies mentioned by 257.] αμφί δε την γε (Hecate) Οξείη Heyne, and in the Canon. and Balliol MSS. útarý obviou kúves épéyouto, Apoll. R. The 'que' seems to have been added as a 3. 1216, which shows that the dogs here support to the verse, as apparently in 1. are infernal hounds accompanying Hecate. 668, where it is similarly found in the best Many MSS. have visi ; but the fem. is MSS. Between 'infundens' (Med.) and more usual in a context like this: comp. fundens' (fragm. Vat., Pal., Rom., Gud., G. 1. 470. “Ululare' of dogs, as of wolves &c.) there is little or nothing to choose, 7, 18, G. 1. 486. Comp. údokw. So except on external grounds. Both 'super possibly 4, 609 (note), "Nocturnisque fundo' and 'superinfundo' are found in Hecate triviis ululata per urbes." composition, though the latter appears to 258.] Procul 0, procul este, profani' is have no higher authority than Celsus. perhaps a translation of Callim. Hymn to Comp. however “superinponere. Exta' Apollo v. 2, ékás, éxás, 80tis åritpos. The are the entrails proper, as distinguished uninitiated were warned off at the com,

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