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Nec non Aeneas opera inter talia primus
as the sense shows : but the ambiguity is prefers ‘ore’ to‘voce,' but without saying harsh. Advolvunt,' 'litori' or 'pyrae,' why. What follows, as Cerda remarks, is like “advolvere focis ulmos ” G. 3. 378. rather a wish than a prayer: ei gép how
183.] . Primus' not with opera inter ever is used in Hom. in addresses to deities. talia,' which would be more modern than 187.] 'Arbore' on the tree, as in G. 3. classical. Primus' is like 'praecipue' 353. The sense is, Would that the first above v. 176. Media inter talia” 4. 663. part of the Sibyl's words may prove as
184.] He takes up an axe like the rest. true as the second has done. • Accingitur' here is metaphorical, like 189.] Omnia vere locuta est,' the
armis?' but the word is sometimes used Homeric zárta bed vnuepréa elnev. Heu loosely : see on v. 570 below.
nimium' like Aesch. Ag. 1241, dyay g' 185.) Comp. above v. 157, “volutat åndbuavtiv oikTelpas épeis.
“ Multaque dura suo tristi cum 190.] Forte' denotes the coincidence. corde putabant” 8.522. See on G. 2. 147. 191.] •Sub ora' like sub oculos :' see
Haec' seems to mean the things which Forc. -sub. Serv. says that in augury he eventually utters : but in that case certain distances were fixed, within which sic' follows rather awkwardly. Heins. the omen was held to pertain to the person restored 'cum' for 'tum,' the old reading, seeing it. which is found in only one MS. in the 193.] ‘Adgnovit' is found in Med. (acparallel passage in Book 8.
cording to Foggini : Heins. reports ‘ag. 186.] The reading is exceedingly doubt- noscat') and one or two others. ful, Med., Pal., Gud., &c. giving forte,' 194.] Virtually = “este duces viae, si Rom. ‘voce,' the Longobardic of Pierius, qua est." Cursum, your flight, not our and others ore.' •Forte,' though pre- course (which would be possible, per ferred by Wagn., can scarcely be right, as auras' being taken i.g. 'volando'). Cur. it is not likely that Virg. meant to repre. sus' for 'volatus' seems to occur nowhere sent Aeneas' exclamation as fortuitous. in Virg., unless E. 6. 80 (where see note) An unexpected exclamation could hardly be an exception: it is found however elsebe intended to prepare us for any unex. where, as in Ov. Amor. 2. 6. 11, “Omnes pected event, as the point lies in the un. quae liquido libratis in aere cursus," quoted uttered prayer rather than in its expres. by Forb., who refers to a note of Heins. sion. The word may easily have come there. from v. 190. Serv., who gives 'forte,' re- 195.] •In lucos, ubi' = ‘in eam partem gards it merely as a prop to the verse. lucorum ubi.' Pinguem' seems to refer *Voce' on the other hand would have real to the richness of the soil which could force, praying aloud being contrasted with produce a tree so gifted. Forc. gives thinking silently. It does not appear, as various instances of dives' more or less Wagn. contends, that in 9. 403., 11. 784, resembling the present, among others where the words recur, any thing more Lucan 9. 658 of the cloud which yielded than simple utterance is intended. Henry Danae's golden shower. Trapp questioned
Ramus humum. Tuque, o, dubiis ne defice rebus,
the applicability of opacat," for which he takes it: but it would seem from the conwould have preferred'inaurat :' but the text that though Aeneas stopped at first, he poet's words are not to be so closely pressed, afterwards went on as they went on, so that and we may say that 'opacat’is qualified the word may have its more ordinary sense. by the juxtaposition of dives. Scaliger, We hear nothing later of Aeneas movePoet. 4. 16, referred to by Taubm., com- ments till v. 210, where the expression mends the word as “rarum et dignitatis shows that he did not remain standing for plenum.”
the whole previous time. 196.] • Deficere' of forsaking a cause : 201.] Graveolentis' is explained by see Forc. "Rebus' is of course the dat. vv. 240 foll. below.
For the word comp. Forsake not our cause at this crisis.' G. 4. 270.
197.] The old editions had alma parens,' 202.] Tollunt se celeres' may possibly which Pierius says is found in Rom. and refer, as Serv. explains it, to their desire some others. Ribbeck however mentions to escape the stench, so fatal to birds ; no other reading than “diva.' Vestigia but the meaning is sufficiently clear withpressit:' see above on v. 159. Pressit' out. might = 'inpressit,' as in 11. 787, where 203.] 'Sedibus optatis' seems to mean however ‘per ignem' and 'multa pruna having chosen their place to settle' define the sense : but every thing here is (comp. 1. 425., 3. 109, 132), as Heyne exin favour of the sense of repressit,' as plains it. The birds are said to mark the Forb. admits. “ Attoniti pressere gra- spot before finally alighting there. Wagn.'s dum,” is quoted by Forc. from Val. Fl. objection that 'optare' is used of choosing 2. 454. So "comprime gressum" below v. the site of a permanent abode tells for 389,“ pedem repressit” 2. 378. Premere little in a passage where the term is evi. vestigia' is also found, as Forb. remarks, dently used metaphorically, being applied of treading in the steps of another (see to the birds simply in virtue of their being Forc.); but this is not likely to be meant about to settle, no matter for how long. here.
At the same time it is quite possible to 198.] 'Quae signa ferant' “quid take it ‘wished for' with Wagn., as though significent,” as "ea signa dedit” 2. 171 Aeneas wished for no definite spot, he
“id significavit.” •Signum’ is used of wished for the spot where the golden branch omens : see on 4. 167.
grew, wherever that might be. "Gemina' 199.] The meaning seems to be that is the reading of Med. and most MSS., they keep flying on and alighting to feed and also of Priscian, p. 1001 ; I agree with alternately-in other words that in their Henry however that it cannot be made to feeding they fly on from spot to spot. yield a natural sense, though the word
200.]. Possent' is rightly explained by sometimes = 'biformis,' and is applied in Forb. as indicating the object of the doves this sense in poetry to Triton and Chiron : in flying onward, as against Wagn., who see Forc. 'Geminae,' the reading of Rom. thinks it implies repeated action as far and the Longobardic MS., as quoted by as at each given time' &c. “Acies' is Pierius, and a few others, was adopted by used strictly of the pupil of the eye as the Burm. and Heyne, and gives, as Henry organ of vision.
“Acies ipsa, qua cerni- remarks, a vivid and natural pieture. We mus, quae pupula vocatur Cic. D. 2. do not care to know whether they flew 57. Servare' of observing or keeping in precisely together ; but that they settled view, as in v.338 below &c. 'Sequentum' at the same moment in the same spot is a may mean following with the eye, as Forb. pleasing circumstance. A Greek writer in
Discolor unde auri per ramos aura refulsit.
speaking of it might change from the see Forc. plural to the dual. "Super :' they alight 207.] ‘Croceo fetu: Pliny 24. 4 says at the top of the tree.
of the mistletoe “Optumum est ... extra 204.] · Aura auri' is explained splen- fulvum, intus porraceum.” The colour is dor auri' by Serv., who may be right in of course a prominent feature in the comapplying the same doctrine to Hor. 2 Od. parison. Truncos' the trunks, as in G. 8. 21, but goes too far in making 'aura 3. 233 : see Forc. Some MSS. mentioned in this sense the root of 'aurum. The by Pierius have 'ramos.' account of this use of the word is appa- 208.] *Auri frondentis :' comp. v. 144 rently to be sought in the connexion be- above. Opaca' v. 136. The dark shade tween the notions of light and air (see on of course gives the contrast. G. 2. 340, and comp. v. 747 below, “aurai 209.] Ilice:' the particular kind of tree simplicis ignem ”), and also between those has not hitherto been specified by Virg., a of light and motion, as in aióros, &c., the proof that he attaches no importance to gleaming light being naturally identified the specification. •Leni vento ' 3. 70. with the flickering breeze. The jingle is ‘Crepitabat' is not strictly speaking a of course intended: see on 2. 494 &c. point in the comparison. Virg.only means “• Discolor,' nam per arborem viridem *the leaf looked thus as it rustled tinkling fulsit color aureus," Donatus. *Refulsit'l. in the wind.' • Bractea’ is thin foil, 402 note. Rom. and another give ‘auro.' thinner than ‘lamina,' a metallic plate.
205.] Viscum’ G. 1. 139 of the bird. It is classed with cobweb for its thinness lime collected from the mistletoe, here of by Lucr. 4. 727. The leaf is called bracthe plant itself. Brumali frigore: the tea’ here, as the 'bractea'is called 'folium' mistletoe flourishes in the winter, and the in Latin, in Greek métalov, and in English time is naturally chosen for the sake of foil or leaf. Lachm. on Lucr. 1. c. prefers contrast between its leaves and the bare. the spelling 'brattea,' which is found here ness of the tree on which it grows, though in Med. and Rom. and supported by Pal. the circumstance really makes it less like 'brattia. As usual, I have followed Wagn. that with which it is compared, as there Some MSS. (including Gud. originally) the golden bough was seen among green have crepitabant,' which Heins. adopted,
strangely regarding bractea’ as a noun 206.] Quod non sua seminat arbos' of multitude, whereas the fact would seem might refer to the growth of the plant to be, as Heyne remarks, that "bractea' from a tree which is not really its parent, was mistaken for a neuter plural. 'non sua' being joined as in G. 2. 82: but 210.] “Corripit: ne prolixior esset it more probably alludes to the opinion of narratio, non dixit quomodo ad ipsam the ancients that it was really an animal arborem Aeneas venerit,” Donatus. The product, the excrement of birds (Pliny old reading before Heins. was “extemplo 16. 44., 24. 4), not, as later research Aeneas." Rom. has exemplo.' has proved it to be, a parasitic plant, the 211.] 'Cunctantem’is not to be pressed, seeds of which are deposited by birds on as we know from vv. 147 foll. that it canother trees. “Sua' then refers to natural not really have offered any resistance, so production, as “sopor suus” G. 4. 190 that it must be taken as a correlative to seems to mean natural or kindly sleep. 'аvidus,' Aeneas' eagerness being too great • Seminat' seems to be used vaguely in the even for the willingness of the branch. sense of producing. Comp. the use of Even thus however the choice of the word 'semina' for plants in G. 2. 268, 356 &c. seems a little unfortunate. Heyne comp. The word is prosaic rather than poetical: “lento vimine” above v. 137. For the
Nec minus interea Misenum in litore Teucri
application of the word to things inanimate ral trees like the yew. comp. G. 2. 236, “glaebas cunctantis." 216, 217.] “Sectaque intexunt abiete * Tecta Sibyllae' seems to be the temple. costas ” 2. 16. Cerda distinguishes 'fron
212—235.] • Meantime the Trojans were dibus atris intexunt latera' from 'feralis conducting Misenus' funeral through all ante cupressos constituunt,' making the its details. Aeneas raises a tomb over his latter refer to the custom of planting remains.'
cypresses at Rome before the doors of the 212.] “Nec minus interea” 1. 633 &c., dead (Pliny 16. 33). This however does a common form of transition in Virg. not prove that cypresses were planted beHom. generally draws the contrast between fore funeral piles, while we know on two contemporaneous actions by repeating other authority that they were used in the first in a summary form before pro- making or dressing the piles. Serv. tells ceeding to the second-ως ο μεν ... αυτάρ: us from Varro that piles were surrounded and so does Virg. sometimes, as in 1. 656 with cypresses that the smell of the burnfoll. The meaning here is that while ing wood might overpower that of the Aeneas is plucking the bough and carrying burning body, and Stat. 9. 460., 5. 54, in it to the temple, the Trojans, having passages apparently imitated from the finished hewing wood, are constructing the present, makes the cypress used in the
composition of the pile. (Sil. 10. 535 has 213.] Flebant' of funeral lamentation “maestas ad busta cupressos,” which may E. 5. 21. “ Ingrato :' tristi, ut gratum possibly support Cerda's view, as the cylaetum aliquid dicimus. Alii 'ingrato' presses are distinguished from other trees dicunt gratiam non sentienti,”Serv. Heyne, which would form a part of the pile : but after Taubm., rightly prefers the latter. the passage is too brief to build upon.) So in the Copa (attributed to Virg.) v. 35, 'Ante constituunt' will then refer to the 'Quid cineri ingrato servas bene olentia laying down or perhaps setting upright of serta ?” Heyne comp. kwohv yalay of the cypress trees or branches before the probody of Hector, Il. 24. 54. The dead cess indicated by intexunt' takes place. body is called cinis' by anticipation, as Or Heyne may be right in taking ante! Donatus remarks. Forc. quotes no in- locally, the pile being faced with trunks of stance of suprema’ for obsequies earlier cypresses. These he supposes to be used than Virg., after whose time it is frequent. for trophies, like the oak in 11. 4, in which Supremis muneribus 11. 25, “
supre- sense of course he understands the next mum honorem” ib. 61. Ferre' of offer. clause decorantque' &c.; but Forb. seems ings 3. 19 &c.
right in arguing from 11. 193 foll. that 214.] With the description of the pile the arms (whether of Misenus himself, II. comp. that of the pile of Patroclus II. 23. 6. 418, Od. 12. 13, or of enemies despoiled 163 foll. On the whole I agree with by him) are thrown on the pile. See on Wakef. and Henry in connecting 'taedis' 4. 496. with pinguem,' robore secto' with in- 218.) The washing and anointing of gentem : see on 4. 505, where taedis' Patroclus' body are described more miand • robore secto’ are also explained. nutely Il. 18. 343 foll. Undantia' with
215.] Ingentem: comp. v. 178 above. 'flammis,' as it is the process of boiling The greater the pile, the greater the honour. that is going on. Comp. Virg.'s own Patroclus' pile measured a hundred feet simile 7. 462 foll. both ways, Il. l. c.; there however many 219.) •Expediunt' 1. 178. The meanbodies of men and horses were burnt. ing is simply that they get the pots boiled, * Frondibus atris,' leafy boughs from fune. or get ready boiling water. The remainder
Fit gemitus. Tum membra toro defleta reponunt,
of the line is from Enn. A. 3. fr. 8, “Tar- found as a variety. Forc. quotes among cuini corpus bona femina lavit et unxit,” others Cic. Div. Verr. 14, “Poterisne eius as Serv. remarks.‘Frigentis corpus' is orationis subire invidiae ?” the reading of more poetical than ‘mortui corpus' or Asconius, who comments on it, “Quasi than ‘frigidum corpus.'
Latine dixit, ut 'magno ponderi subire.' 220.] Forb. comp. Ter. And. 1. 1. 101, But the MSS. of Cic. give 'invidiam. To "ad sepulcrum venimus : In ignem inpo- carry the bier was esteemed an honour to sita est : fletur.” “Fit gemitus’ like fit the deceased among the Romans, as to strepitus” 1. 725, “ fit sonitus” 2. 209. bear the pall with us : Taubm. comp. Tac. • Defleta' like “fleti” v. 481, “deflere A. 1. 8, “ Conclamant patres, corpus having the additional force of weeping (Augusti) ad rogum humeris senatorum one's fill, as in 11.59. Toro' = ‘feretro, ferendum.” the bier being laid on the pile and burnt 223.] *Triste ministerium' is not, as with it. Comp. 4. 507, 659, where it is Heyne thought, an interjection, but a used of the lectus iugalis' which Dido cognate acc., or acc. in apposition to the has spread on the top of the pile.
action of the verb. The construction is 221.] Purple robes were used for wrap- infinitely rarer in Latin than in Greek ping the dead at great Roman funerals. (see on G. 3. 41): Forb. however comp. See among a number of testimonies in 9. 53., 10. 311., 11. 383, to which add 8. Cerda's note Livy 34. 7, “ Purpura viri 487. “Subiectam'&c. = subiecere et teutemur magistratibus in coloniis mu- nuere.'
“Subiicere' of setting fire to a nicipiisque ... togae praetextae habendae thing 2. 37., 11. 186. Cerda comp. Lucr. jus permittemus, nec id ut vivi solum 6. 1285, “subdebantque faces," of burning habeant tantum insigne, sed etiam ut cum the dead during the plague of Athens. It eo crementur mortui.” There is also some would seem from 11. 185, “huc corpora Homeric analogy for the custom. In Od. quisque suorum More tulere patrum,” that 24. 59 the ocean nymphs put immortal.more parentum' here refers to the whole garments round the dead Achilles, who is action, probably indeed to the whole proapparently burned in them: in Il. 24. 795 cess of the funeral. If it has any special foli., when Hector has been burned, his reference, it would probably be to aversi, relations collect his bones and put them in as Lersch understands it Antiqg. 9. § 86. a basket, tropoupéous méTMOLOı karbyartes Serv. however says “. More parentum :' μαλακoίσιν. . Virg. makes Aeneas wrap propinquioribus enim virilis sexus hoc Pallas in the same manner 11. 72 foll. dabatur officium,” an explanation which * Velamina nota,' as Heyne remarks, can may either mean that Virg. implies that hardly be understood except of the gar- the nearest male relatives officiated, or ments Misenus had worn when alive. The that Misenus' comrades took the part other alternative would be to refer nota' which would naturally have devolved on to the customariness of thus covering the his parents. This latter view is taken by dead. There is the same sort of doubt Erythraeus, who comp. Lucan 6. 530 foli. about “munera nota” 11. 195.
(of the witch Erichtho): 222.] 'Subire' in the sense of supporting generally takes an acc., sometimes, “Fumantis iuvenum cineres ardentiaque though rarely, the dat. or abl. It is not easy to distinguish these two last cases : E mediis rapit ipsa rogis ipsamque pain sense they would appear to differ, the rentes one being equivalent to the acc. (movo Quam tenuere facem.” towards a thing, place one's self under), the other denoting motion when placed But the sense of more parentum' is fixed under. In the few instances where the by “more patrum ” 11, 1. c. Virg. perconstruction occurs the reading is not haps means that the same who carried the always certain, the acc. being generallybier afterwards applied the torch : but his