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165

Aere ciere viros, Martemque accendere cantu.
Hectoris hic magni fuerat comes, Hectora circum
Et lituo pugnas insignis obibat et hasta.
Postquam illum vita victor spoliavit Achilles,
Dardanio Aeneae sese fortissimus heros
Addiderat socium, non inferiora secutus.
Sed tum, forte cava dum personat aequora concha,
Demens, et cantu vocat in certamina divos,

170

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cedent for making him the son of a god, and Cerda comp.

« Proelia obire” occurs Lucr. some propriety in ascribing the birth of an 4. 967, also comp. by Cerda. illustrious trumpeter to the god of the 168.] Vita spoliavit' like “ corpus winds. "Quo non praestantior alter' &c. spoliatum lumine" 12. 935. may be taken, as Cerda suggests, from Il. 169.] “Dardanio Aeneae” 1. 494. 2. 553, τώ δ' ούπω τις ομοίος επιχθονίων 170.j .Addiderat sese socium' 2. 339, γένετ' ανήρ, Κοσμήσαι ίππους τε και ανέρας Ε. 6. 20. “Inferiora' is rightly explained ασπιδιώτας.

by Heyne as a Grecism, τα ήττω for τον 165.] Praestantior ciere' like “boni óttova. Virg.'s doctrine of the equality inflare” E.5.1 note. Misenus has already of Aeneas to Hector appears again 11. 291. appeared 3. 239 as a trumpeter, an officer, 171.] •Concha' is probably the same as as has often been remarked, unknown to the lituus' or 'tuba,' being substituted Hom., who however mentions a trumpet for it as more appropriate to a performance in a simile II. 18. 219. Serv. tells the on the water, and more likely to rouse story that “Martemque accendere cantu” the jealousy of Triton, whose instrument was added by the poet during the fervour it was, 10. 209. Comp. Ov. M. 1. 333 of recitation, the line having been pre. foll. (too long to quote), where Triton viously a hemistich. It is at any rate a is made by Neptune to sound on his shell good specimen of an effective and poetical a retreat for the waters of Deucalion's tautology. The story as told in Virg.'s flood, the shell being afterwards spoken life says further that the previous line of as cava buccina.” Emm., to whom ended at • Aeoliden,' and that the re- this citation is due, also quotes Hesych. mainder was similarly improvised, which s. v. κόχλος, κόχλοις τοις θαλασσίοις is to the last degree unlikely, as 'aere ciere éxpârto Tpò tñs twv oalriyywv eupéoews, viros' postulates the existence of the pre- a natural supposition enough. It is in vious words. Cerda thinks · Martem ac- fact the rationale of the myth which attricendere cantu' is imitated from Aristoph. butes the shell to Triton. It is possible Peace 310, rdv Dón euov ék(wauphoet' 'ěv- however, as Peerlkamp and Forb. think, δοθεν κεκραγάτες.

that Misenus is meant really to have taken 166.] * Hectoris magni' like Hom.'s up a shell on the shore and tried his powers. "Ektopa Giov. «Circum’ is like the use of 'Personat aequora concha’ like “personat αμφί or περί in Greek to express com- regna latratu” v. 417 below.

Here as panionship.

elsewhere dum' is followed by the pre167.] The lituus' differed from the sent when the rest of the sentence would *tuba,' which appears below v. 233 as have led us to expect some other tense : Misenus' instrument, in being slightly see on E. 7. 6, G. 4.560. Here there may bent: but the two are used as synonymous be a rhetorical propriety in the discrepancy, by Virg., just as he uses the names of the suddenness of the retribution being various trees indifferently for the wood of expressed by the intimation that it was which the Trojan horse is made.' Heyne over while the provocation was still going refers to Stat. Theb. 6. 120, 128 for a similar confusion of lituus' and 'tuba :' 172.] Demens' is used like sharios Il. but the two words do not occur there, 2. 37 and elsewhere. Strictly speaking it though in the former line the tibia' is belongs to the second clause here rather said cornu mugire adunco.' 'Insignis' than to the first; but the act of defiance probably with lituo' and 'hasta, like is implied in the first clause, so that Forb. * insignis equis 10. 354 &c., and the is wrong in pointing it with the second. Homeric kautds yxeï Soupé &c., which contrary to the Homeric parallels. Vo

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175

Aemulus exceptum Triton, si credere dignum est,
Inter saxa virum spumosa inmerserat unda.
Ergo omnes magno circum clamore fremebant,
Praecipue pius Aeneas. Tum iussa Sibyllae,
Haud mora, festinant flentes, aramque sepulchri
Congerere arboribus caeloque educere certant.
Itur in antiquam silvam, stabula alta ferarum,
Procumbunt piceae, sonat icta securibus ilex,
Fraxineaeque trabes cuneis et fissile robur
Scinditur, advolvunt ingentis montibus ornos.

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care' in the sense of 'provocare' is found, stood him in this way. Val. Fl. 5. 10,
though not very commonly: see Forc. also quoted by Heyne, is somewhat doubt-
* Vocare in’ is very common in Virg., the ful: much more Ov. M. 8. 479, whom Forb.
general sense being apparently the same in cites. Bwuós is used in Hom. of any raised
all, that of calling to a place (e.g. “vocare place, and in later Greek actually of a
in vota,” to invoke the presence of the tomb : see Lidd. and Scott.
gods at a vow), though the particular ap- 178.] •Congerere arboribus' uevoelkéA
plications are very different. “Provocare veov ởanu Il. 23. 139. Apoll. R. 1. 403
in aleam' occurs Plaut. Curc. 2. 3. 76 has rheor aút 60. Bwuby, which may have
(Forc.), but ‘provocare ad' is more usual. been in Virg.'s mind. “Caelo educere "
Heyne, Excursus 7, remarks that in mythi- 2. 186.
cal language men who excel in any thing 179—211.] “They go into the wood for
are said either to have received it from fuel for the pile. Aeneas prays that he
some god or to have provoked the jealousy may see the golden bough. Two doves
of some god by it. Misenus is in fact like guide him to it. He plucks and carries it
Thamyris, Arachne, &c.

off.'
173.] · Exceptum inmerserat' = 'ex- 179.] The description is imitated from
ceperat et inmerserat,' 'excipere' being II. 23. 114 foll., and also from Enn. A. 6.
used of surprise, as in 3. 332, E. 3. 18. fr. 11, preserved by Macrob. Sat. 6. 2. The
“ Si credere dignum est ” G. 3. 391. latter, as the rarer author, may be quoted :
Virg. represents the cause of Misenus'
death as mythical, as Forb. remarks.

“Incedunt arbusta per alta : securibus

caedunt:
174.] • Inter saxa implies that the
provocation and its punishment took place

Percellunt magnas quercus : exciditur

ilex:
on the coast, and ‘spumosa ' perhaps points
the same way.

Fraxinus frangitur, atque abies con

sternitur alta : 175.] ‘Fremere' of lamentation 4. 668.

Pinus proceras pervortunt : omne sona176.] “ Praecipue pius Aeneas " 1. 220.

bat 177.] Festinare with acc. 4. 575.

Arbustum fremitu silvai frondosai.” *Sepulchri’Med., Rom., ‘sepulchro’ Pal., Gud., which Ribbeck adopts. But Sil. 15. Comp. also 11. 135 foll. “Stabula alta" 387 has “alta sepulchri Protinus exstruitur 9. 388., 10. 723, which show that “alta' caeloque educitur ara," where Drakenborch here means high, not deep. For the sense notes no various reading. Aram sepul- comp. note on v. 8 above. chri' seems rightly understood by Serv. not 180.] Pitch-trees were used in funeral of the altars to the • Di Manes' (3. 63 piles, “picea ... rogis virens," Pliny 16. note), but of the pyre piled up like an 10, referred to by Heyne. With ‘sonat' altar. “Congerere arboribus' might be comp. II. I. c. tal de regard ATUT ÉOVO AI said of heaping the altar with boughs for πίπτον. fuel, but caelo educere' points to a more 181.] It signifies comparatively little considerable structure, and the gen. “se- whether ‘fraxineaeque trabes' be conpulchri' would be somewhat harsh for ‘se- nected with what precedes or with what pulchralis, though 'sepulchro’ might be follows. With the rest of the line comp. more tractable. Sil. I. c. follows Virg. G. 1. 144. closely, evidently showing that he under. 182.] ‘Montibus,' from the mountains,

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185

Nec non Aeneas opera inter talia primus
Hortatur socios, paribusque accingitur armis.
Atque haec ipse suo tristi cum corde volutat,
Adspectans silvam inmensam, et sic voce precatur :
Si nunc se nobis ille aureus arbore ramus
Ostendat nemore in tanto quando omnia vere
Heu nimium de te vates, Misene, locuta est.
Vix ea fatus erat, geminae cum forte columbae
Ipsa sub ora viri caelo venere volantes,
Et viridi sedere solo. Tum maxumus heros
Maternas adgnoscit aves, laetusque precatur :
Este duces, o, si qua via est, cursumque per auras
Dirigite in lucos, ubi pinguem dives opacat

190

195

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as the sense shows : but the ambiguity is prefers 'ore' to 'voce, but without saying harsh. Advolvunt, litori' or 'pyrae,' why. What follows, as Cerda remarks, is like “advolvere focis ulmos " G. 3. 378. rather a wish than a prayer : ei yáp how

183.] • Primus' not with 'opera inter ever is used in Hom. in addresses to deities. talia,' which would be more modern than 187.] *Arbore' on the tree, as in G. 3. classical. Primus' is like 'praecipue' 353. The sense is, Would that the first above v. 176. “Media inter talia" 4. 663. part of the Sibyl's words may prove as

184.] He takes up an axe like the rest. true as the second has done. • Accingitur' here is metaphorical, like 189.} Omnia vere locuta est,' the armis :' but the word is sometimes used Homeric právra deà vnuepréa eltev. “Heu loosely : see on v. 570 below.

nimium' like Aesch. Ag. 1241, éyay 185.] Comp. above v. 157, “volutat åandbyartıv oikTelpas èpeis. secum.”

Multaque dura suo tristi cum 190.7 Forte' denotes the coincidence. corde putabant” 8.522. See on G. 2. 147. 191.j 'Sub ora’ like 'sub oculos :' see * Haec ' seems to mean the things which Forc.sub.' Serv. says that in augury he eventually utters: but in that case certain distances were fixed, within which sic' follows rather awkwardly. Heins. the omen was held to pertain to the person restored 'cum' for 'tum,' the old reading, seeing it. which is found in only one MS. in the 193.] 'Adgnovit’ is found in Med. (acparallel passage in Book 8.

cording to Foggini : Heins. reports .ag186.] The reading is exceedingly doubt. noscat') and one or two others. ful, Med., Pal., Gud., &c. giving 'forte,' 194.] Virtually = “este duces viae, si Rom. 'voce,' the Longobardic of Pierius, qua est.”. Cursum, your flight, not our and others ore.' • Forte, though pre- course (which would be possible, per ferred by Wagn., can scarcely be right, as auras' being taken i.g. 'volando'). Cur. it is not likely that Virg. meant to repre- sus' for 'volatus' seems to occur nowhere sent Aeneas' exclamation as fortuitous. in Virg., unless E. 6. 80 (where see note) An unexpected exclamation could hardly be an exception: it is found however elsebe intended to prepare us for any unex. where, as in Ov. Amor. 2. 6. 11, “Omnes pected event, as the point lies in the un. quae liquido libratis in aere cursus,"quoted uttered prayer rather than in its expres. by Forb., who refers to a note of Heins. sion. The word may easily have come there. from v. 190. Serv., who gives · forte, re- 195.] •In lucos, ubi’ = 'in eam partem gards it merely as a prop to the verse. lucorum ubi.' ‘Pinguem' seems to refer Voce' on the other hand would have real to the richness of the soil which could force, praying aloud being contrasted with produce a tree so gifted. Forc. gives thinking silently. It does not appear, as various instances of dives' more or less Wagn. contends, that in 9. 403., 11. 784, resembling the present, among others where the words recur, any thing more Lucan 9. 658 of the cloud which yielded than simple utterance is intended. Henry Danae's golden shower. Trapp questioned

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Ramus humum. Tuque, o, dubiis ne defice rebus,
Diva parens. Sic effatus vestigia pressit,
Observans, quae signa ferant, quo tendere pergant.
Pascentes illae tantum prodire volando,
Quantum acie possent oculi servare sequentum.
Inde ubi venere ad fauces graveolentis Averni,
Tollunt se celeres, liquidumque per aera lapsae
Sedibus optatis geminae super arbore sidunt,

200

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the applicability of 'opacat,' for which he takes it: but it would seem from the conwould have preferred · inaurat :' but the text that though Aeneas stopped at first, he poet's words are not to be so closely pressed, afterwards went on as they went on, so that and we may say that 'opacat’is qualified the word may have its more ordinary sense. by the juxtaposition of dives. Scaliger, We hear nothing later of Aeneas' movePoet. 4. 16, referred to by Taubm., com- ments till v. 210, where the expression mends the word as “rarum et dignitatis shows that he did not remain standing for plenum.”

the whole previous time.
196.] · Deficere' of forsaking a cause : 201.] Graveolentis' is explained by
see Forc. Rebus' is of course the dat. vv. 240 foll. below. For the word comp.
Forsake not our cause at this crisis.' G. 4. 270.

197.] The old editions had 'alma parens, 202.] Tollunt se celeres' may possibly
which Pierius says is found in Rom. and refer, as Serv. explains it, to their desire
some others. Ribbeck however mentions to escape the stench, so fatal to birds ;
no other reading than 'diva. Vestigia but the meaning is sufficiently clear with-
pressit:' see above on v. 159. 'Pressit' out.
might = ‘inpressit,' as in 11. 787, where 203.] 'Sedibus optatis' seems to mean
however “ per ignem' and 'multa pruna' having chosen their place to settle'
define the sense : but every thing here is (comp. 1. 425., 3. 109, 132), as Heyne ex-
in favour of the sense of repressit,' as plains it. The birds are said to mark the
Forb. admits. “Attoniti pressere gra- spot before finally alighting there. Wagn.'s
dum,” is quoted by Forc. from Val. Fl. objection that optare' is used of choosing
2. 454. So “comprime gressum" below v. the site of a permanent abode tells for
389,“ pedem repressit” 2. 378. Premere little in a passage where the term is evi.
vestigia' is also found, as Forb. remarks, dently used metaphorically, being applied
of treading in the steps of another (see to the birds simply in virtue of their being
Forc.); but this is not likely to be meant about to settle, no matter for how long.
here.

At the same time it is quite possible to 198.] 'Quae signa ferant' "quid take it 'wished for ' with Wagn., as though significent,” as “ea signa dedit” 2. 171 Aeneas wished for no definite spot, he =“id significavit.” Signum' is used of wished for the spot where the golden branch omens : see on 4. 167.

grew, wherever that might be. "Gemina' 199.] The meaning seems to be that is the reading of Med. and most MSS., they keep flying on and alighting to feed and also of Priscian, p. 1001; I agree with alternately-in other words that in their Henry however that it cannot be made to feeding they fly on from spot to spot. yield a natural sense, though the word

200.] • Possent’ is rightly explained by sometimes = 'biformis,' and is applied in Forb. as indicating the object of the doves this sense in poetry to Triton and Chiron : in flying onward, as against Wagn., who see Forc. 'Geminae,' the reading of Rom. thinks it implies repeated action—' as far and the Longobardic MS., as quoted by as at each given time' &c. · Acies' is Pierius, and a few others, was adopted by used strictly of the pupil of the eye as the Burm. and Heyne, and gives, as Henry organ of vision.

“Acies ipsa, qua cerni- remarks, a vivid and natural picture. We mus, quae pupula vocatur” Cic. N. D. 2. do not care to know whether they flew 57. Servare' of observing or keeping in precisely together ; but that they settled view, as in v. 338 below &c. 'Sequentum' at the same moment in the same spot is a may mean following with the eye, as Forb. pleasing circumstance. A Greek writer in

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205

Discolor unde auri

per ramos aura refulsit.
Quale solet silvis brumali frigore viscum
Fronde virere nova, quod non sua seminat arbos,
Et croceo fetu teretis circumdare truncos :
Talis erat species auri frondentis opaca
Ilice, sic leni crepitabat bractea vento.
Corripit Aeneas extemplo avidusque refringit
Cunctantem, et vatis portat sub tecta Sibyllae.

210

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speaking of it might change from the

see Forc. plural to the dual. Super :' they alight 207.] ‘Croceo fetu:'Pliny 24. 4 says at the top of the tree.

of the mistletoe “Optumum est ... extra 204.] . Aura auri’ is explained 'splen. fulvum, intus porraceum.” The colour is dor auri' by Serv., who may be right in of course a prominent feature in the comapplying the same doctrine to Hor. 2 Od. parison. • Truncos' the trunks, as in G. 8. 21, but goes too far in making 'aura 3. 233 : see Forc. Some SS. mentioned in this sense the root of .aurum.' The by Pierius have ‘ramos.' account of this use of the word is appa- 208.] · Auri frondentis :' comp. v. 144 rently to be sought in the connexion be- above. Opaca' v. 136. The dark shade tween the notions of light and air (see on of course gives the contrast. G. 2. 340, and comp. v. 747 below, "aurai 209.] llice: the particular kind of tree simplicis ignem”), and also between those has not hitherto been specified by Virg., a of light and motion, as in aióros, &c., the proof that he attaches no importance to gleaming light being naturally identified the specification. • Leni vento ' 3. 70. with the flickering breeze. The jingle is Crepitabat' is not strictly speaking a of course intended: see on 2. 494 &c. point in the comparison. Virg.only means “ • Discolor,' nam per arborem viridem 'the leaf looked thus as it rustled tinkling fulsit color aureus,” Donatus. *Refulsit'l. in the wind.' • Bractea' is thin foil, 402 note. Rom. and another give 'auro.' thinner than lamina,' a metallic plate.

205.] “Viscum’ G. 1. 139 of the bird. It is classed with cobweb for its thinness lime collected from the mistletoe, here of by Lucr. 4. 727. The leaf is called 'bracthe plant itself. • Brumali frigore :' the tea’ here, as the “bractea’ is called 'folium' mistletoe flourishes in the winter, and the in Latin, in Greek nrétalov, and in English time is naturally chosen for the sake of foil or leaf. Lachm. on Lucr. 1. c. prefers contrast between its leaves and the bare. the spelling 'brattea,' which is found here ness of the tree on which it grows, though in Med. and Rom. and supported by Pal. the circumstance really makes it less like brattia. As usual, I have followed Wagn. that with which it is compared, as there Some MSS. (including Gud. originally) the golden bough was seen among green have crepitabant,' which Heins. adopted,

strangely regarding bractea' as a noun 206.] Quod non sua seminat arbos' of multitude, whereas the fact would seem might refer to the growth of the plant to be, as Heyne remarks, that 'bractea' from a tree which is not really its parent, was mistaken for a neuter plural. non sua’ being joined as in G. 2. 82: but 210.] “Corripit :' ne prolixior esset it more probably alludes to the opinion of narratio, non dixit quomodo ad ipsam the ancients that it was really an animal arborem Aeneas venerit,” Donatus. The product, the excrement of birds (Pliny old reading before Heins. was “extemplo 16. 44., 24. 4), not, as later research Aeneas.” Rom. has ‘ exemplo.' has proved it to be, a parasitic plant, the 211.] ‘Cunctantem’is not to be pressed, seeds of which are deposited by birds on as we know from vv. 147 foll. that it canother trees. “Sua' then refers to natural not really have offered any resistance, so production, as "sopor suus G. 4. 190 that it must be taken as a correlative to seems to mean natural or kindly sleep. ‘avidus,' Aeneas' eagerness being too great • Seminat’seems to be used vaguely in the even for the willingness of the branch sense of producing. Comp. the use of Even thus however the choice of the wi * semina' for plants in G. 2. 268, 356 &c. seems a little unfortunate. Heyne con The word is prosaic rather than poetical: “lento vimine” above v. 137. Fort

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