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Si fratrem Pollux alterna morte redemit,
Itque reditque viam totiens-quid Thesea magnum,
Quid memorem Aleiden ? et mi genus ab Iove summo.

Talibus orabat dictis, arasque tenebat,
Cum sic orsa loqui vates : Sate sanguine divom,
Tros Anchisiade, facilis descensus Averno;
Noctes atque dies patet atri ianua Ditis ;

125

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121.] The story was that Pollux was 124.] 4. 219 note. allowed to impart his immortality to Castor 125.] “Sate gente deum ” 8. 36. See and share his brother's mortality in return, on v. 322 below. Serv. rather ingeniously the two dying according to one account on remarks, “Unde Aeneas desiit, inde haec alternate days, according to another for sumpsit exordia." alternate periods of six months. In Hom. 126.] ‘Anchisiade' Med. (first reading), (II. 3. 243) both are mortal.

Pal., Řom., * Anchisiada' Med. (second 122.] ‘Ire viam’ 4. 468. Gell. 10. 16 reading). For the reasons for preferring tells us that Hyginus censured Virg. for the former, see on 3. 475. 'Averno' Med., introducing Theseus, who was detained in Pal. a m. p., 'Averni’ Pal. a m. s., Rom., the shades, as we shall see below v. 618. Gud. Serv. mentions both. The dat. (see on Serv. meets the objection in a good note: E. 2.30) is more likely to have been altered “Durum exemplum. Unde nec immoratus into the gen. than vice versa, as the con. est in eo. Dicit autem inferos debere pa- struction of a local case with a verbal noun tere pietati, qui patuerunt infanda cu- might create a difficulty. It is paralleled pienti :” and Heyne remarks that the however by a passage given in Forc. •Depoint of the appeal lies simply in the fact scensus' from Hirt. B. G. 8. 40, “Erat opthat Theseus was one of those who were pidanis difficilis et praeruptus eo descensus." allowed to go down to the shades alive. Some MSS., including a correction in Med., Theseus and Hercules are referred to below have 'est' after 'Averno' or 'Averni.' The v. 392.

It is difficult to say whether sentiment apparently is the common one magnum' belongs to “Thesea,' as Wagn. that the path to death is easily trodden, thinks, following the old editors, or to and in fact must be trodden by all, but * Alciden,' as Heins. and Heyne take it. can rarely if ever be retraced. Aesch. ex. There is more point in giving the epithet presses it in his way, Pers. 689, where the to the person named last : Hercules, who shade of Darius says oi kata xoovos Deol returned in triumph, seems to deserve it Λαβείν αμείνους εισίν η μεθιέναι. Cerda better than Theseus, who was kept below quotes a Greek epigram, eis 'Atonv návTECO and the epithet is bestowed on Hercules karaíbasis. Virg. makes use of the thought elsewhere in Virg., 5, 414, “magnum Al- for his purpose here, though it does not seem ciden,” 8.103, " Amphitryoniadae magno.' very suitable. The difficulty is for a living On the other hand Thesea magnum' is man to make the journey; this, as we find supported by “Cissea durum,” which ends afterwards, can only be surmounted by oba verse similarly 10. 317; and we must taining a passport of a particular kind (vv. remember that in an ancient poet punc- 136 foil., 391 foll.): but when it has once tuation is regulated rather by the ear than been surmounted, the return does not apby the eye. On the whole then it seems pear to be less easy than any other part of safest to follow Wagn.

the journey: at least we do not find that 123.] “ Genus ab Iove summo” 1. 380. Aeneas had any obstacle to overcome (v.

124—155.] . The Sibyl tells him in reply 898). Seneca, as his manner is, enforces that for a living man to go down to the the same truth in the same way, apropos shades and return is difficult, but that it of Hercules' descent, Herc. F. 675 foll. may be done by those who succeed in 127.] The expression may remind us, plucking a golden branch from a tree in whether it was intended to do so or not, the neighbouring forest, to be presented of the Greek notion of Hades as a landlord as an offering to Proserpine. Meantime who entertained all comers, as shown by she informs him that one of his comrades such epithets as to účevos Aesch. Supp. is lying unburied, and bids him look to the 157 &c. Heyne compares a passage from funeral.'

Varro quoted by Macr. Sat. 1. 16, from

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130

Sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras,
Hoc opus, hic labor est. Pauci, quos aequus amavit
Iuppiter, aut ardens evexit ad aethera virtus,
Dis geniti potuere. Tenent media omnia silvae,
Cocytusque sinu labens circumvenit atro.
Quod si tantus amor menti, si tanta cupido est,
Bis Stygios innare lacus, bis nigra videre
Tartara, et insano iuvat indulgere labori,

135

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which it appears that on days when funeral the river Cocytus intervene. Possibly, as offerings were made it was said that “ mun- Peerlkamp thinks, he may have intended dus patet,” which Varro explains “ deorum to make the forest easier of entrance than tristium atque inferum quasi ianua patet." of exit : but in the subsequent description The infernal gods were conceived of as the forest is not made an obstacle at all : dark: thus Ov. M. 4. 438 (quoted by Forb.) Aeneas goes through it under the guidance has “ nigri Ditis," Hor. 2 Od. 13. 21 “fur- of the Sibyl without a hint of difficulty, vae Proserpinae.”

and the only real bar is the passage of the 128.] Revocare gradum' like “revocat river, which the possession of the bough pedem 9. 125. With the whole line enables him to overcome. But Virg. was comp. G. 4. 485, “Iamque pedem referens thinking of Hom.'s lines about the diffi. casus evaserat omnis, Redditaque Eurydice culty of approaching his Hades, Od. 11. superas veniebat ad auras.” •Evadere ad' 1577 2. 458. 129.] 'Aequus' here implies kindness

μέσσω γάρ μεγάλοι ποταμοί και δεινά rather than justice, the feeling spoken of

ρέεθρα,

'Ωκεανός μεν πρώτα, τον ούπως έστι being expressly one of partiality. Serv., who is mystical in his interpretation of the

περήσαι, whole of this passage, says that three

πεζον εόντ', ήν μή τις έχη ευεργέα νηα. classes of men are here pointed out as ex. 132.] The form Cocytos' is restored ceptions to the general rule that none can by Wagn. from Med. ; with Ribbeck howreturn from the shades, those who are ever I prefer the Latin form from Rom., born under a propitious star, those who Pal., &c. See on G. 2. 487. “Sinu' ex: are prudent, and those who are religious, presses the winding of the stream that the last being indicated by · Dis geniti.' surrounds the shades. •Circumvenit,' the

130.] · Evexit ad aethera virtus’ seems reading of all Ribbeck’s MSS., was restored to denote actual or potential beatification, by Heins. for "circumfluit.' It is used not mere renown, in spite of the distinc. similarly in Tac. A. 2. 6, “Rhenus uno tion between “ad' and 'in' laid down by alveo continuus aut modicas insulas cir, Wagn. Q. V. 10. So “sublimemque feres cumveniens." ad sidera caeli Magnanimum Aenean” 1. 133.] Comp. 2. 10, 349, and for the con. 259, which Wagn. admits to refer to dei. struction 'cupido innare, note on G. 1, fication. With the general thought comp. 213. Wagn. and Ribb. omit ‘est' after Hor. 3 Od. 3. 9 foll., ib. 2. 21 foll., though 'cupido,' from Pal. and a correction in Med, perhaps the last, to which Forb. refers, 134,] From Circe's exclamation Od. 12. belongs rather to Wagn.'s view of the 21, oxéTA101, of (ovteS ÚTÝidete dwu passage. A Roman poet however, it should 'Aΐδαο, Δισθανέες, ότε τ’ άλλοι άπαξ θνήσ. be recollected, would not discriminate the KOVO áv@pwrot. 'Innare' of sailing on, v. literal and metaphorical senses as sharply 369 below. Lacus :' see on v, 323. as we do.

135.] Insano' seems to express that 131.] “Dis geniti” v. 394 below. In the toil is excessive and objectless--the the spirit of the heroic time Virg. restricts same feeling which is indicated by Circe's the privilege to demigods, as even where it oxét 10.. “Quid tantum insano iuvat in. is earned by virtue, only demigods are sup- dulgere dolori P” 2. 776. Possibly here posed to be capable of virtue so exalted. we may be meant to understand tantum' * Tenent' &c. : Virg.'s meaning is that be- from v. 133 ; but there is no necessity, as tween the place where they are now stand- the feeling it would convoy is expressed by ing and the shades a pathless forest and 'insano.'

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140

Accipe, quae peragenda prius. Latet arbore opaca
Aureus et foliis et lento vimine ramus,
Iunoni infernae dictus sacer; hunc tegit omnis
Lucus et obscuris claudunt convallibus umbrae.
Sed non ante datur telluris operta subire,
Auricomos quam qui decerpserit arbore fetus.
Hoc sibi pulchra suum ferri Proserpina munus
Instituit. Primo avolso non deficit alter
Aureus, et simili frondescit virga metallo.
Ergo alte vestiga oculis, et rite repertum

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136.] Whether this notion of propitiating but qui' is the more likely to have been Proserpine by a golden bough is Virg.'s altered. The construction is 'non ante own invention we cannot tell. Heyne datur quam ei qui decerpserit,' a natural acutely argues from v. 409 below that it confusion between the hour and the man, probably was a feature in some other 'nulli nisi qui decerpserit ’and' non ante legend. The commentators have col. quam aliquis decerpserit.' 'Auricomus' is lected many things which might have perhaps a coinage of Virg.'s own, on the suggested the invention to Virgil—the use analogy of xpuo ókojos. Val. Fl. and Sil. of a bough in supplication, and also in lus- have followed him: see Forc. “Fetus' of tration, the golden rod of Hermes, the the bough as the produce of the tree, v. gilded branch in the mysteries of Isis; 207 below. In G. 1. 189 it signifies fruit while the appearance of the golden bough opposed to leaves. in the wood may conceivably have been 142.] Pulchra' need be no more than suggested, as Heyne thinks, by the golden an ornamental epithet: but its position fleece hanging from the beech in the sacred seems to show that the beauty of the gift grove of Hecate, Apoll. R. 4. 123 foll. Ov. is considered to be appropriate to the M. 14. 113 follows Virg.

beauty of the goddess. “Suum munus' 137.] The bough is altogether golden, like "Phoebo sua semper apud me Munestem as well as leaves.

ra" E. 3. 62, though there is not the 138.] Proserpina is Iuno inferna, as notion here of restoring to the goddess her Pluto is Zeùs xõóvios, “Iuppiter Stygius,' own. • Ferre instituit' like “mandat 4. 638. The same, or a similar title is fieri sibi talia Daphnis” E. 5. 41. given to her by Ovid, Statius, and Silius. 143.] ‘Primo' has the force of 'primo Dictus' is here used almost in the sense quoque,' the first in each case, and alter' of dicatus' or 'addictus,' naming or pro- of course is its correlative. nouncing being a way of setting a thing 144.] Wagn. and Forb. think aureus' apart and appropriating it. So Serv. here feeble; but surely it has considerable force and on 1. 73 (which see), and Bentley on here, the meaning being that a golder Hor. 2 S. 2. 134. Omnis,' as if the whole bough is never wanting-no sooner is one forest conspired to hide it. Comp. Aeneas' plucked than another as golden comes in prayer below v. 186 foll.

its place. “Simili’ is virtually = 'eodem ;' 139.] The sense is virtually the same as but it need hardly be pointed out as a if Virg. had said “claudunt convalles um- special use of the word, as the truth seems bris,” the glades being looked upon as the to be that the two thoughts are generally instruments by which the trees close up convertible. It is doubtful whether Med. the golden bough.

has ‘similis' or simili :' Foggini's volume 140.] ‘Sed,' still, in spite of the diffi- gives ‘simili,' Heyne and Ribbeck's collaculty of finding the bough, it is the only tion ‘similis.' · Frondescit metallo' like passport. Opertum’ is used substantively “auri frondentis” v. 208. more than once in Cic.: see Forc.

145.] *Ergo,' its importance being such, 141.] Wagn. restores qui' from Med. v. 140. ‘Alte vestiga oculis' is explained and one or two other MSS. for quis,' by v. 136. Serv. says, “rite carpe,' id which is read by Pal., Rom., Gud., &c. est, cum observatione; non 'rite reper. Either would stand, as Wagn.'s objections tum,'” and later editors follow him. I to the indetinite 'quis’ seem untenable : am by no means sure however that Virg.

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Carpe manu ; namque ipse volens facilisque sequetur,
Si te fata vocant; aliter non viribus ullis
Vincere, nec duro poteris convellere ferro.
Praeterea iacet exanimum tibi corpus amici -
Heu nescis - totamque incestat funere classem,
Dum consulta petis nostroque in limine pendes.
Sedibus hunc refer ante suis et conde sepulchro.
Duc nigras pecudes; ea prima piacula sunto.
Sic demum lucos Stygis et regna invia vivis

150

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did not intend to join ‘rite repertum,' decrees of the gods or of destiny, so that successfully, or, as we might say, duly “ consulta petere”

poscere fata.” found. At any rate, there does not appear Pendere' of delay, as in Flor. 1. 13, “ Sex to be any notion such as Forb. supposes, mensibus barbari circa montem unum that the bough is to be plucked by the pependerunt.” hand, not separated by the knife. What 152.] Some difficulty has been made follows merely means that if the seeker about sedibus suis ;' the choice however is favoured, no force will be necessary; if lies between taking it of the grave, as the not, no force will be sufficient. “Manu' natural resting-place of the dead, and the then will be, as it often is in Virg., semi- shades, as the natural abode of the spirit. pleonastic, though it has not, as elsewhere. The former might be supported by v. 328, a notion of force or personal agency, but the latter by v. 371. The difficulty is forms a kind of contrast with oculis. further increased by the apparent incon

146.] ‘Ipse' strengthened by volens,' sistency of Virg.'s language or belief (see as in G. 2. 500. “Sequetur' may be illus- on 3. 68., 4. 34), the spirit and the body trated by 12. 423, “ Iamque secuta manum, being elsewhere confused. “Refer’hownullo cogente, sagitta Excidit.”

ever is in favour of supposing the grave to 147.] •Fata vocant' in a good sense : be meant, in spite of the tautology with in 10. 472 in a bad one. Aliter' has the rest of the line, as the agency of sometimes the force of 'alioquin :' see Aeneas in transferring the spirit to its Forc. With ‘non viribus ullis' comp. 12. home would be only indirect. In any case 782.

refer' is explained by 'suis,' meaning to 148.] ‘Vincere' of overcoming resist- pay a due (comp. 2. 543 note). •Conde ance, there being a contest between the sepulchro’3. 68. man and the branch. •Convellere' 3. 153.] The sacrifice had no reference to 24, 31.

Misenus (comp. below vv. 236, 243 foll.), 149.] · Praeterea,' as a further thing to but was intended to propitiate the shades be done before approaching the shades, towards their living visitor.

• Nigras pewho would be offended by the neglect of cudes' is more fully explained by vv. 243 the rites due to the dead. The notion of foll. • Prima' seems rightly taken by being unburied is contained in iacet,' the Heyne as previous or preliminary. So body being left to lie where it fell, instead nearly 1. 24, “Prima quod ad Troiam pro of being taken up and burnt. So 2. 557 caris gesserat Argis.” (note), 5. 871., 9. 486., 11. 102, in which 154.] Med. a m. p. and Rom. have passages however other words are added to *Stygiis,' a corruption which seems to have bring out the notion more clearly. “Tibi' led to a false correction 'Stygios' (Pal. to show how the obstacle affected Aeneas. a m. s. &c.), and hence to the omission of

150.] ‘Incestat funere' like “patrios 'et,' which is supported by one of Rib. foedasti funere voltus” 2. 539, comp. by beck's cursives. Wagn. rightly restored Forb. The whole fleet partakes in the 'Stygis et,' which is apparently the original pollution, so that it would be hopeless for reading of Pal. “Lucos Stygis :' it matthe commander to approach the shades till ters little whether the woods are supposed the pollution has been removed. Comp. to overshadow the Styx, which may natuthe language in Soph. Ant. 1016 foll. about rally be regarded as giving its name to the the unburied body of Polynices and the whole infernal territory. * Regna invia extent of pollution caused by it.

vivis' tells plainly what the Sibyl hitherto 151.] - Consulta’ are apparently the had only asserted indirectly. See on v. 126.

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155

Aspicies. Dixit, pressoque obmutuit ore.

Aeneas maesto defixus lumina voltu
Ingreditur, linquens antrum, caecosque volutat
Eventus animo secum. Cui fidus Achates
It comes, et paribus curis vestigia figit.
Multa inter sese vario sermone serebant,

160
Quem socium exanimem vates, quod corpus humandum
Diceret : atque illi Misenum in litore sicco,
Ut venere, vident indigna morte peremptum,
Misenum Aeoliden, quo non praestantior alter

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► 9. 324.

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155.] ‘Presso ore' like “premere vo- doubtless to be explained by giving serere'

the sense of connecting,' setting in order,' 156—178.] ‘On reaching the shore they though Stat. Achill. 2. 35 has a strange find the body of Misenus, who had been expression, campumque patentem drowned by a jealous sea-god. They la- Alterno sermone serunt," apparently taking ment, and set about the funeral.'

it, if the reading is right, from 'sero, sevi.' 156.] Comp. 8. 520, where as here the It is possible, as Serv. hints, that Virg: downcast eye indicates both sorrow and means to indicate that sermo' and 'serere thoughtfulness.

are cognate words, according to Varro's 157.] 'Ingreditur' seems to mean “en- explanation (L. L. 6. § 64), “sermo non ters on his journey to the shore,' or per- potest in uno homine esse solo, sed ubi haps merely goes on :' comp. 8. 309. A oratio cum altero coniuncta,” though such correction in Med. gives progreditur.' a grammatical spirit belongs rather to the *Caecos eventus' probably includes the early Latin poets, who never forgot that various things he had heard from the Sibyl they were literary teachers. The next --the prediction of vv. 83 foll., the doubt line seems to show that Wagn. is right about the golden bough, and the mysterious in understanding 'vario sermone? not of death.

various topics, but of various conjectures 158.] Achates was with him, v. 34. on one topic.

159.] • Figere' is so often used as a 161.] Heyne rightly remarks that it is synonyme of ponere' that it would be strange they should not at once have most natural to take ‘vestigia figit’ like thought of Palinurus, or rather strange that vestigia ponat" G. 3. 195, or the more Virg. should not have perceived that Palicommon "vestigium facere:" the meaning nurus would at once be thought of as the merely being that he walks along moodily. lost comrade. As Forb. observes, it is proForb. however, who contends against this, bably one of those confusions which Virg. may be so far right that the use of “figere' would have rectified had he lived to finish may be intended to show that the tread is his Aeneid. With the construction comp. slow, the foot being as it were driven into 2. 121. Humandum' 10.493., 11. 2. the earth each time, though he is certainly •Exanimum' Pal., Rom., Gud., “exaniwrong in making it equivalent to “vestigia mem’ Med., which is more euphonious. pressit #vv. 197, 331 below, where the 162.] ‘Atque:' see on E. 7. 7. notion is that of stopping. Comp. Lucr. 164.) It was one of the legends about 3. 3, “inque tuis nunc Fixa pedum pono the landing of Aeneas that he lost a compressis vestigia signis,” where curiously rade called Misenus at that time, and enough all three verbs are used, though called that part of the coast after him the use of “pressis ” does not really sup. (comp. v. 234 note). See Heyne, Excursus port Forb.'s view. Serv. gives both ex- 4 and 7 to this book. One of the stories planations of figit,' stepping and stopping. seems to have made him Aeneas' pilot,

160.] “Vario sermone” 1. 748., 8. 309. which might tend further to make Virg. • Ferebant' was an old reading : but 'sere. waver between him and Palinurus. "Aeo. bant' is foun in all the best MSS., liden' probably means, as Heyne thinks, and recognized by Serv. "Serere ser- the son of Aeolus, a Trojan of age and monem' is as old as Plaut., and serere rank, killed afterwards 12.542 foll. There colloquia' occurs in Livy (see Forc.): it is would however be plenty of Homeric pre

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