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805

Unde genus ducis. Merui quoque ; saepe furores
Compressi et rabiem tantam caelique marisque.
Nec minor in terris, Xanthum Simoentaque testor,
Aeneae mihi cura tui. Cum Troia Achilles
Exanimata sequens inpingeret agmina muris,
Milia multa daret leto, gemerentque repleti
Amnes, nec reperire viam atque evolvere posset
In mare se Xanthus, Pelidae tunc ego forti
Congressum Aenean nec dis nec viribus aequis
Nube cava rapui, cuperem cum vertere ab imo

810

801.] ‘Merui quoque' ut fideres. Be- phrase was a common one at Rome, it side the general ground for Venus' confi- being the custom to announce a public dence, Neptune had given her further funeral (hence called 'funus indictivum ') reason by his personal interference in by the herald in the words “Ollus Quiris Aeneas' behalf.

leto datus est” (Festus s. v. •Quiris,' 802.] “Tantam' seems emphatic, as if Varro L. L. 7. 42 Müller). 'Gemerent' he had said “tantos furores rabiemque &c. is again from Il. 21.218, where Xanthus compressi," substantiating the assertion says-merui quoque.' The reason why he does not give tantam’ its natural place may πλήθει γαρ δή μοι νεκύων ερατεινά ρέεθρα, , be that he wished to bring 'saepe’ into ουδέ τί πη δύναμαι προχέειν ρόον είς άλα prominence. “So many have been his de- διαν, liverances from dangers so great. Some στεινόμενος νεκύεσσι· συ δε κτείνεις difficulty has been felt about saepe,' as αϊδήλως. . the only interference recorded is that in Book 1. It is answered by Heyne that Virg. perhaps alludes to the connexion of we may assume Neptune's protection to the two senses of otévw. have been exerted on such occasions as vy. 807.] Amnes,' as Scamander invokes 8 foll. above, 3. 192 foll. This may have Simois against Achilles, Il. 21. 307 foll. been what Virg. refers to: but it is per- •Evolvere' is used in post-Augustan prose haps more satisfactory with Burm. to say of rivers emptying themselves : see Forc. simply that he refers to occasions not For ' atque’ Pal. has ' neque,' which might mentioned (expressly at least) in the stand if .volvere' were read. Aeneid.

808.] Another reference to Homer's 803.] “Xanthum Simoentaque testor'is words, Il. 20. 334, where Poseidon blames explained by what follows. The combat of Aeneas for encountering Achilles, 8s oeu Aeneas with Achilles (11. 20. 158 foll.) άμα κρείσσων και φίλτερος αθανάτοισιν. happened before the páxn raparotduios of Nec dis aequis' does not express the same 11. 21, but both took place on the same thing as the words just quoted, but it occasion, the return of Achilles to battle, agrees with the Homeric narrative, where so that it is scarcely inaccurate to speak the Greek gods generally show themselves of them as contemporaneous.

stronger than the Trojan, as in the wound805.] The expression seems to be taken ing of Aphrodite and Ares Il. 5, and the from ΙΙ. 21. 295, κατά Ιλιόφι κλυτά τείχεα θεομαχία II. 20. Comp. the words of Hera rady déroai Tpwikóv, ós ke púynoi, words II. 20. 122 foll. Viribus aequis' occurs used by Poseidon himself to Achilles, again in a similar connexion 10. 357, 431., though they had been previously used by 12. 218. With the sense comp. generally Achilles himself (v. 225) in speaking to v. 466 above. Scamander. For the fact see the latter 810.] Nube cava' 1. 516. The depart of Il. 20 and 21. A similar expres. scription is not quite the same as that in sion occurs in Tac. H. 2. 41 (cited by Forc. Il. 20. 321, where Poseidon puts a mist s. v. 'impingo'), “a paucioribus Othonia- before the eyes of Achilles and then takes nis quo minus in vallum inpingerentur.” Aeneas away, but Virg. was doubtless Fragm. Vat. originally had inmitteret.' thinking of other instances where Homeric

806.] *Daret leto G. 3. 480 note. The gods carry off warriors in clouds, as in Il.

Structa meis manibus periurae moenia Troiae.
Nunc quoque mens eadem perstat mihi; pelle timorem.
Tutus, quos optas, portus accedet Averni.
Unus erit tantum, amissum quem gurgite quaeres ;
Unum pro multis dabitur caput.
His ubi laeta deae permulsit pectora dictis,
Iungit equos auro Genitor, spumantiaque addit

815

20. 444., 21. 597. Eripui,' a former read- would gladly be identified with him in his ing, is supported by a correction in fragm. care for the fleet. The latter is less obVat. There is some awkwardness in 'cum vious, without being at the same time less inpingeret’ followed by cum cuperem:' but Virgilian, and external authority is, I agree we should lose rather than gain if we were with Henry and Ribbeck, decisive in its to remove it according to Wagn.'s sugges- favour. Comp. Venus' language 1. 250 tion by placing a full stop after • Xanthus' foll., “ Nos ... Navibus . . . . amissis .... v. 808, and connecting cum Troia' &c. Prodimur," and the assurance she afterwith the previous sentence, as Xanthum wards gives Aeneas of the safety of his Simoentaque testor' would then produce fleet ib. 390 foll. (see also ib. 584, 585.) an awkward tautology with what follows. ‘Amissum quaeres' is like “sublatam ex “Ex imo verti Neptunia Troia” 2. 625. oculis quaerimus” Hor. 3 Od. 24. 32, comp.

811.] The building of Troy by Poseidon by Forb. So 1. 217, “amissos ... requiand the perjury of Laomedon are suffi- runt.” The person referred to is of course ciently known. Periturae' is read for Palinurus, not, as Serv. thinks, Misenus, ‘periurae' in fragm. Vat. and Med. a m. curiously fancying v. 814 to point to the pr., perhaps as Wagn. suggests, from a latter, v. 815 to the former. recollection of 2. 660; but the two words 816.] Here, as in 1. 147, 156, Neptune are easily confounded, and there is the mounts his car and rides over the waves to same variety in the Virgilian Catalecta smooth them. The description however is 11.51.

from Il. 13. 23 foll., where his object is to 812.] "Timorem’Med., 'timores' Rom., make a journey to the earth. • Laeta' is Pal., Gud., and probably fragm. Vat. The apparently proleptic, in this as in other former is perhaps preferable, as we have places, though it is not easy to distinguish “ timorem mittite" 1. 202, while “timores' this use of an epithet from its more ordidoes not occur at all in Virg., though we nary employment. Venus was sad before have solve' and 'auferte metus.'Wagn.’s Neptune spoke : but she had become happy distinction that the sing. denotes the ap- before his speech came to an end. prehension of a particular thing, the plural 817.] Auro' all Ribbeck's MSS., the fear of many things, is I think re- curru' two or three inferior copies. The futed by 1. 202., 9. 90.

latter is evidently a correction to make the 813.) .Portus Averni’ is the harbour of passage easier. Aurum' for a thing made Cumae. Comp. 3. 441, 442., 6. 236 foll., of gold is found elsewhere in Virg., e.g. and note on G. 2. 161. Serv., and after 1. 739; but the reference has in each case him Spence, find an inconsistency in the to be determined from the context, a task passage as ordinarily pointed, as Nep- which here is somewhat difficult. Hom. tune's promise that Aeneas should reach does not help us, as though he talks of gold Cumae is not the same thing as Venus' re- repeatedly, it is with reference to Poseiquest that he may arrive at the Tiber, and don's palace, the names of his horses, and propose to remove it by separating 'Aver. his own armourer. Probably Heyne is ni' from 'portus’and taking it with ‘gur. right in taking it of the yoke, though it gite :' but the dangers of the voyage were may be the harness. In either case it is in fact over when they reached Cumae, doubtless abl., not dat., so that Wagn.'s and Virg.'s love of variety is not to be objection that 'iungere currui’ is the procontrolled.

per expression, not ‘iungere iugo,' falls to 814.] Quaeres' is the reading of all the ground. The horses are ‘iuncti,' fas. Ribbeck's MSS., ' quaeret' of one or two tened to the car, or to each other (comp. inferior copies, followed by most editors. 3. 113., 7. 724, E. 3. 91 &c.), with gold, Tither would stand very well, quaeret' re- aureo iugo' or 'aurea iunctura.' So erring to Aeneas, ' quaeres' to Venus, who Claudian, Phoenix 86, comp. . by Heins.,

820

Frena feris, manibusque omnis effundit habenas.
Caeruleo per summa levis volat aequora curru ;
Subsidunt undae, tumidumque sub axe tonanti
Sternitur aequor aquis, fugiunt vasto aethere nimbi.
Tum variae comitum facies, inmania cete,
Et senior Glauci chorus, Inousque Palaemon,
Tritonesque citi, Phorcique exercitus omnis;
Laeva tenet Thetis, et Melite, Panopeaque virgo,

825

“Auro frenat equum,” where “freno' is Following a hint of Jahn's, too, we may similarly supplied from 'frenat.' This seems say that vasto' here may be meant to more Virgilian than with Wagn. to make impress slightly the notion of the sky as a 'auro 'dat. ='currui aureo. •Genitor' desert when unpeopled by clouds, not unof Neptune 1. 155, as of Tiber 8. 72, like like “aera per vacuum " G. 3. 109 note. * pater' (note on G. 2. 4). "Frena addit, 822.] “Tum variae comitum facies' puts on the bridles, harnesses them. exquisitius quam comites varia facie et « Frena spumantia” 4. 135.

aspectu," Heyne. “Tam multae scelerum 818.] Feris :' note on 2. 51. Here it facies” G. 1. 506. Whales form part of may be meant to express the spirit of the Homer's description II. 13. 27, étaire de animals, like “ ferox” in 4. 135 just re- khte' ÚT autoù návtobevék kevouwv, où8' ferred to. “Omnis effundit habenas” 12. avoinoev õvakta, though they are not 499.

there combined with sea-gods. Cete' a 819.7 Comp. 1. 147. “Caeruleus' of Greek pl., like 'mele,' pelage,' in Lucr. marine things G. 4. 388 note (see on v. 823.) 'Glauci chorus' like “ Phorci 123 of this book), though here it may chorus” above v. 240. 'Senior,' old, like be meant to be taken strictly. Levis' Glaucus himself, who was represented as seems to include easy motion (6. 17., E. 80 covered with marine incrustations as to 1. 60) and light pressure. Comp. v. 838 have lost all trace of his pristine form below.

(Plato, Rep. 10, p. 611), and to be con820.] • Tonanti' seems to refer to the stantly bewailing his immortality (Schol. on sounding of the sea, of which Virg. has Plato l. c.). Keats has seized this point chosen to remind us, perhaps with a little in his elaborate description of him in sacrifice of propriety, by affixing the epithet Endymion Book 3. The chorus' are to the chariot-wheel at the time when it doubtless sea-gods, as in v. 240, though is calming the waves.

Glaucus was represented as accompanied 821.7 It may be doubted here and in 8. by Kúrea when he went about yearly to 89, whether aquis' is abl., “in respect the coasts and islands of Greece (Paus. 9. of,' or with its waters,'or dat., a smooth 22, $ 6). Inous Palaemon’ G. 1. 437. surface is laid for the waters. Med. 824.) “Exercitus omnis” 2. 415., 11. originally had equis.' For ‘fugiunt vasto 171, 598. Comp. G. 1. 382, where the aethere' Med. as a second reading has word is applied to the rooks. Here it is * fugiuntque ex aethere,' which Wagn. doubtful whether sea-gods or sea-monsters adopts against the whole consensus of the are spoken of. Pliny 36. 5, in his descripother MSS., objecting to the rhythm of tion of a sculpture by Scopas (quoted by

vasto,' and asserting that it cannot be Heyne), speaks of - Tritones chorusque used appropriately of the sky, as it is used Phorci et pristes et multa alia marina," of things which inspire dread by their size, which might be pleaded for the latter view. not simply wonder. The first objection is But probably the two were not very sharply obviously futile: the second proceeds on a distinguished. gratuitous supposition that because the 825.] · Laeva' neut. pl.: see Forc. word is used of objects of terror, it cannot "Tenet' Med., Gud. a m. s., 'tenent’ Pal., be extended to cases where nothing is meant Gud. a m. p. Rom. has tent. Wagn. beyond enormous size, and that when prefers the sing., Ribbeck the pl. Melite 'vastum aequor' &c. occur in a neutral is one of the Nereids mentioned, Il. 18. connexion (e. g. 3. 191), we are bound to 39 foll., among Thetis' companions, as are suppose that Virg. meant us to regard the the five whose names follow hers here. size as formidable, not simply as wonderful. “Panopeaque virgo" above v. 240.

830

Nesaee, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque.

Hic patris Aeneae suspensam blanda vicissim
Gaudia pertemptant mentem ; iubet ocius omnis
Attolli malos, intendi bracchia velis.
Una omnes fecere pedem, pariterque sinistros,
Nunc dextros solvere sinus; una ardua torquent
Cornua detorquentque; ferunt sua flamina classem.
Princeps ante omnis densum Palinurus agebat
Agmen; ad hunc alii cursum contendere iussi.
Iamque fere mediam caeli Nox humida metam

835

826.] See on G. 4. 338. Here the line the yards are stretched with or in respect seems to be found in all the MSS., though, of the sails. Comp. 4. 506 note. as usual, the proper names undergo strange 830.] The description is somewhat transformations.

minute, perhaps in imitation of such pas827—871.] • Rejoicing in the smooth. sages as Il. 1. 433 foll. The important ness of the sea, Aeneas sets sail, his own words are “una,' pariter,' and “una,' the ship, under Palinurus, going first. In the rest being merely a description of sail. middle of the night, the god of sleep assails ing with a more or less shifting wind. Palinurus with a temptation to quit his Pedes' or módes were the ropes attached post, but finding him inflexible, throws him to the two lower corners of a square sail into a sleep and makes him drop into the (Dict. A. “Ships'). The word is as old as water. Aeneas perceives the loss of his Hom., occurring Od. 5. 260., 10.32. These pilot, supplies bis place, and laments him.' are fastened to the sides of the vessel,

827.] The preceding picture resembles towards the stern, an operation briefly exone in Apoll. Ř. 4. 930 foll. (referred to on pressed by fecere,' which follows the v. 241 above), where Thetis and the Nereids analogy of “ facere vela.” The wind keeps push the Argo through the Planctae. There shifting, so the sails are spread ("solvere it is apparently meant that the powers of vela” 4. 574, opp. to legere ') first left, the sea were visible: here it would be then right, to catch it, and this is done needless to suppose it to be meant, any 'pariter' (like “una ') by all the vessels at more than in v. 241. Aeneas sees the ex- the same time. The omission of nunc' traordinary calm, and his anxiety, of which before sinistros' is to be noted. Forc. we are not told expressly, though we may says it occurs sometimes, but gives no infer it from the cares which preceded, other instance of it. vv. 700, 720, as from Venus' own, is fol- 832.] •Cornua,' the extremities of the lowed by joy.

'antennae' (3. 549 note), are turned this 828.] “Pertemptant gaudia pectus” 1. way and that, "torquent detorquentque,' 502.

as the sail is shifted. “Sua flamina' like 829.] Seeing the winds favourable, he “ventis iturus non suis " Hor. Epod. 9. 30, orders the masts to be set up and the sails showing that what is said of the shifting spread. Some copyists, not seeing the of the wind above is not intended to be sense, wrote 'remis' for 'velis, as if more than may happen in the most favourbracchia' meant the arms of the rowers, able voyage. as in v. 136 above; and “remis' is actually 833. "Primus ante omnis” 2. 40. found in both Rom. and Med., though Pal. 834.] 'Ad hunc,' after or according to and the majority of the MSS. have velis.' him, a use of the

preposition largely illus* Bracchia' however are the sail-yards, trated by Hand. Turs. 1. pp. 107 foll. The “veluti bracchia mali,” as Forc. says—a accusative generally expresses, what is here metaphor perhaps invented by Virg., and implied, the rule or law that is followed, as followed by Val. Fl. 1. 126, “ Pallada veli- “ad voluntatem," “ ad arbitrium," "ad fero quaerentem bracchia malo," of the nutum,” “ad numerum." building of the Argo. "Velis' then will 835.] “Mediam metam” is a metaphor be the abl., the meaning being that the from the Slavaos, where the race is round sails are stretched on the yards, which the goal, which accordingly marks that "irg. has chosen to express by saying that half the course is over. We may then

840

Contigerat; placida laxabant membra quiete
Sub remis fusi per dura sedilia nautae :
Cum levis aetheriis delapsus Somnus ab astris
Aera dimovit tenebrosum et dispulit umbras,
Te, Palinure, petens, tibi somnia tristia portans
Insonti ; puppique deus consedit in alta,
Phorbanti similis, funditque has ore loquelas :
Iaside Palinure, ferunt ipsa aequora classem ;
Aequatae spirant aurae; datur hora quieti.
Pone caput, fessosque oculos furare labori.

845

comp. Ov. M. 3. 145, who says, speaking a reading which seems to be very slenderly of midday, “Et sol ex aequo meta distabat supported. The distinction attempted utraque,” though the race he contemplates by Wagn., as if somnia tristia' meant is a different one, from one point to another, dreams, and those sad ones,' 'tristia each of which he calls • meta.' But it is somnia,' sad things, namely dreams, is possible that Virg. may have an entirely surely overstrained.

• Somnia' we may different meaning, considering the arch of say with Forc. is put for somnos :' in other the sky as a 'meta’ or cone, of which the words the poet talks of dreams when he topmost point is reached at midnight. means no more than sleep. This is evidently Serv.'s meaning when he 841.) • Insonti,' as he did not yield to says, “Perite locutus est : nam medium sleep deliberately, but was overcome by caelum meta est åvaßißá Cortos circuli, qui drowsiness against his will. medius est inter ortum et occasum.” Such 842.] Phorbas may be the same as the an interpretation is strongly confirmed by father of an Ilioneus killed by Peneleos Il. Cic. Div. 2. 6, who, speaking of an eclipse 14. 489 foll. : but all that we can say is of the moon, says “ quando illa e regione that Virg. borrowed the name for one of solis facta incurrat in umbram terrae, quae Palinurus' comrades, who, from the speech est meta noctis,” words, as Forc. says, he makes, may be reasonably supposed, practically commented on by Pliny 2. io, as Gossrau observes, to have been ac“ neque aliud esse noctem quam terrae um- quainted with steering. •Fudit' was read bram, figuram autem umbrae similem me- before Pier. tae ac turbini inverso.” Heyne apparently 843.] Med. gives 'sua flamina' as in v. confuses or combines the two explana- 832: but the words are marked as faulty tions.

by some later hand. 836.] With Jahn, Ladewig, and Ribbeck 844.] · Aequatae,' not shifting, but I have restored ‘laxabant,' the reading of taking the ship exactly in the stern (comp. the earliest editions, and, as now appears, v.777), and filling the sails evenly. Comp. of all the best MSS., Med., Pal., Rom., 4. 587 note. 'Datur hora quieti’ is not Gud. &c., for ‘laxarant.' The question be- explained by the commentators : yet it is tween them is about as important as that susceptible of several meanings: (1) the between 'conplebant' and conplerant'v. hour is given (you) for rest:' (2) 'the hour 107 above : either might well stand, ‘laxa- is sacred to rest :' (3) 'the hour is being rant' being supported by laxaverat' v. given (by others) to rest,' i.e. every one 857, where the act is regarded as com- is asleep. On the whole the second seems pleted, ‘laxabant' by laxabant' 9. 225, preferable, though I know of no parallel where it is regarded as continuing: expression in Virg. or elsewhere which

837.] The meaning seems to be that might place it beyond doubt. they slept on the benches beside their oars. 845.) • Ponere caput’11.830. Hor. 2 S. • Dura" is a touch of late civilization which 8. 58. • Furare,' as Heyne remarks, is we should scarcely have found in Hom. used like the Greek KA ÉTTEIV, though no

838.] • Levis’v. 819. •Aetheriis astris' more is meant than withdrawing, “subv. 518 note.

trahere," much as we in a different con839.] ‘Dimovit' and dispulit,' simply nexion might talk of stealing a nap. The by flying through them.

construction with the dative is one of those 810.] Heyne preferred tristia somnia, facts which seem to point to a connexion

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