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Esse iubet. Gaudet regno Troianus Acestes,
Indicitque forum et patribus dat iura vocatis.
Tum vicina astris Erycino in vertice sedes
Fundatur Veneri Idaliae, tumuloque sacerdos
Ac lucus late sacer additur Anchiseo.

Iamque dies epulata novem gens omnis, et aris


perhaps under a mistaken notion that its who consulted the senate but was not external authority was greater. The par. bound by it. Wagn.'s explanation 'estabticiple would clearly be out of place, as the lishes rules for senatorial procedure,' clause “hoc Ilium &c. has nothing to do teaches the senators their duties, is less with what precedes. The meaning is, he likely, though it might receive some supassigns the sites for private dwellings by port from 1. 731, “ Iuppiter, hospitibus lot, and gives names to the different quar- nam te dare iura loquuntur." ters of the city. With 'sortitur domos' 759.] The temple of Venus on Mount comp. 3. 137, “ Iura domosque dabam :” Eryx was famous. Dionys. 1. 53 (cited by with the remainder, v. 633 above, 3. 349 Heyne, Excursus 2) instances the altar This foll. Wagn, explains · Ilium' of the city, Alverádos Appodítns as one of the proofs * Troiam' of the region : but the city was that Aeneas visited Sicily, and Tac. A. 4. called Acesta, and · Troia' in Helenus' city 43 says that the Segestans sent an embassy can scarcely have been the region, which to Rome, begging that the temple might Helenus had called Chaonia (3. 334 foll.). be restored, “nota memorantes de origine Strabo 13, p. 608 C. comp. by Wagn. says eius et laeta Tiberio,” doubtless its foundathat the rivers about Aegesta had the tion by Aeneas. “ Turrim ... sub astra names of Scamander and Simois.

Eductam” 2. 460. 757.] *Troianus' gives the reason of 760.] • Idaliae' seems an ordinary epiAcestes' joy at seeing the old names re- thet, as Venus is not likely to have been vived.

specially worshipped on Mount Eryx as 758.] The constitution of the state pro- Idalia, though Venus Erycina was worceeds pari passu with the building of the shipped at Rome, Livy 22. 10. We might town, as in 1. 426., 3. 137. See note on have expected “matri Idaliae :" but the the former passage.

* Indicit forum’ is only variation in the MSS. is that one apparently explained on the analogy of gives · Iliadae.' 'forum agere,' to hold a court, indicere 761.] Anchises, as a hero, has a réuevos being used as in “indicere iustitium' &c. bestowed on him. Comp. 3. 302 foll., * Iura dare,' to make laws, was part of the where we read of a similar honour to kingly office as conceived by Virg. See on Hector. * Anchiseo ' suggests the Greek 1. 293. Lersch. § 2, “ de iure condendo,” way of indicating a temple by a neuter quotes from Livy 1. 8, “Rebus divinis adjective, to 'Ayxío Elov. Ac' was rerite perpetratis vocataque ad concilium stored by Heins. for et. Late sacer' multitudine, quae coalescere in populi occurs again of a grove 8. 598. Fore. unius corpus nulla re praeterquam legibus seems to explain it rightly (s. v. 'late"), poterat, iura dedit,” a passage exactly ap- “lucus amplus et totus sacer;" though it propriate to the present. So 7. 246, “ Hoc would be possible to explain late' as inPriami gestamen erat, cum iura vocatis dicating an extraordinary and more than More daret populis.” On a comparison of local sanctity-just as e. g. the words in the passage in Livy with two others in this sense might be applied to Delphi. Pal. Virg., “Iura dabat legesque viris” 1. 507, has 'additus.' “ Secretosque pios : his dantem iura Ca- 7624778.] After nine days of festivitonem ” 8. 670, it may be doubted whether ties they prepare to embark. Those who ‘patribus vocatis' here and “vocatis popu- are left behind grieve at parting, especially lis” 7, 1. c. are abl. abs. or dat. In any the women. All is ready, and the fleet case the sense is the same. A council, large sails.' or small, is summoned, and the laws given 762.) We have already had the 'noby the king. Gossrau remarks that this vemdiale' (see on v. 64): but Virg. may was not only the old Roman practice, but be thinking of the solemnities of which that established or revived by Augustus, that formed the close, and perhaps also of



Factus honos : placidi straverunt aequora venti,
Creber et adspirans rursus vocat Auster in altum.
Exoritur procurva ingens per litora fletus ;
Conplexi inter se noctemque diemque morantur.
Ipsae iam matres, ipsi, quibus aspera quondam
Visa maris facies et non tolerabile nomen,
Ire volunt, omnemque fugae perferre laborem.
Quos bonus Aeneas dictis solatur amicis,
Et consanguineo lacrimans commendat Acestae.
Tris Eryci vitulos et Tempestatibus agnam
Caedere deinde iubet, solvique ex ordine funem.


" aurae.


the other novemdiale,' which actually passage somewhat similar to this : but lasted nine days (Dict. A. s. v.), though it such an analogy does not help us much. had nothing to do with a funeral.

Admitting then that if the notion involved 763.] See E. 2. 26 note.

in ‘numen’ would be satisfactorily sup764.] Comp. 3. 70. With creber' ported, the word would be appropriate and Heyne comp. 3.530, “Crebrescunt optatae poetical, I think this passage is one of the

innumerable exceptions to the critical rule 765.] των δε στοναχή κατά δώματ’ that the more difficult reading is to be ορώρει ΙΙ. 24. 512.

preferred. Virg. may have thought of the 766.) Forb. comp. Livy 7. 42, Homeric ουκ ονομαστός, Od. 19. 260, 597., plecti inter se lacrimantes milites coepisse.” 23.19. But it would be more satisfactory * Noctemque diemque’ is best taken as the if a parallel could be adduced from his own ordinary acc. of the object, they prolong works, though the expression may seem to the night and the day by their embraces, be one which does not stand in need of any something like “ fando surgentis demoror such support. The confusion is of course austros” 3. 481. The notion is partly that common : see 4. 94 note. of making the time move slowly by crowd. 769.] Comp. v. 619 above, 3. 160. ing so much into it (comp. 1. 748 note), 771.] Consanguineo,' his and their partly that of actually prolonging the kinsmen, as being half Trojan. It shows time before sailing:

the ground on which Aeneas commits them 767.} For ipsi' a few MSS. repeat to Acestes' protection. ipsae," which, though plausible at first 772.] Eryx is worshipped as a hero. sight, is inconsistent with 'quos' v. 770. “Inmolabitur .. agna Tempestatibus Others were weary of the sea besides the Hor. Epod. 10. 24. Comp. above 3. 120. matrons, v. 716 above.

Med. has ‘agnos.' 768.) With Ribbeck I have recalled 773.] • Caedere' followed by solvi :' nomen,' the reading of Heins. and Heyne, comp. 3. 61, E. 6. 85. • Ex ordine' I in. found in Pal., Med. a m. pr. and a quo- cline to take as i. q. 'rite,' like 'ordine tation in Non. p. 307. The common read above, v. 53, the reference here being to ing is ‘numen? two MSS. have 'lumen' the previous sacrifices. And so I see Serv. as a various reading, and Rom. and another explains it, “rite peragi sacrificium, et sic MS. give 'caelum. The last is adopted solvi funem,'ut in septimo [v. 139],Phry: by Henry : but it seems to have arisen giamque ex ordine Matrem Invocat." from a recollection of 4. 53, as has so As an alternative he adds,“ Vel, quo often happened in similar cases. Be- naves ad terram ligantur,” an interpretatween 'numen and nomen' the ques- tion which would almost require 'funis,' tion is more difficult. Wagn., reading the reading before Heins., and would be numen,' appeals to the deification of less Virgilian. Some of the earlier comΘάλασσα Or Πόντος. Henry replies that mentators strangely understood solvi Virg. speaks of gods of the sea, but not funem' by a Gotepor apótepov of cutting of the sea itself as a god. The sea is the rope with which the victims were tied : called “monstrum " below v. 849 in a see Emmenessius' note.


Ipse, caput tonsae foliis evinctus olivae,
Stans procul in prora pateram tenet, extaque salsos
Porricit in fluctus ac vina liquentia fundit.
Prosequitur surgens a puppi ventus euntis.
Certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora verrunt.

At Venus interea Neptunum exercita curis
Adloquitur, talisque effundit pectore questus :
Iunonis gravis ira nec exsaturabile pectus
Cogunt me, Neptune, preces descendere in omnis;
Quam nec longa dies, pietas nec mitigat ulla,
Nec Iovis inperio fatisque infracta quiescit.
Non media de gente Phrygum exedisse nefandis



774.] G. 3. 21 (note), where 'ornatus' Heins., from Med. and others for 'et inoccurs instead of evinctus.'

exsaturabile.' The MSS. frequently vary 775.) Some MSS. give " stans celsa in between simple adjectives with negatives puppi,” apparently from 3. 527. Libations prefixed and adjectives compounded with and sacrifices however seem usually to negatives, e.g. non piger' and 'impiger,' have been made from the stern : comp. non felix' and 'infelix. With the sense the passage just referred to, and Apoll. R. comp. above v. 608., 7. 298. •Exsaturabi4. 1595 foll

. Heyne suggests, plausibly lis' seems found nowhere else. enough, that on leaving the harbour they 782.] Caesar B. C. 1. 9 has “ad omnia would naturally perform the ceremony se descendere paratum.” See other infrom the prow, looking to the sea over stances of this use of the word in Forc. which they were to sail. Procul’ is not The usual combination seems to be deeasy : perhaps it may refer to the distance scendere ad,” which is here found in some from the shore, implying that the offering of the MSS. of Serv. Gossrau well comp. is thrown far into the sea : or it may refer “Ire in lacrimas” 4. 413, "ad miseras to the height of the prow above the waves, preces decurrere” Hor. 3 Od. 29. 59. So Virg. preferring it to celsa' on rhythmical also Tac. A. 1. 12, “Senatu ad ultimas grounds. Entrails would be placed in obtestationes procumbente.” paterae' as well as wine (Dict. A. ‘Pa- 783.] *Pietas,' as Aeneas had endea. tera').

voured to propitiate Juno 3.547. It might 776.] v. 238 above (note). Here the however be extended to other acts of piety MSS. are said to be unanimous for 'proii- not affecting Juno, 6. 405. cit’ or some such word, porricit' being 784.] The change of the nom. is harsh, due to Heins.

as we are not warned of it by a change in 777.] Repeated from 3. 130.

the gender. Iovis inperio : Jupiter had 778.] Repeated from 3. 290. In Pal., declared himself favourable to Aeneas in Gud., and another good MS., the first Men Book 1, and had checked Juno afterwards telian, this and the preceding line change by sending him away from Carthage. places.

* Fatisque' Med., Rom., Pal., 'fatisve' 779–826.] Venus appeals to Neptune, fragm. Vat., Gud. It signifies little which expressing her fear lest Juno, after this we adopt. The command of Jove and the last outrage on the ships, should attempt will of destiny are naturally combined, to raise another storm. Neptune re- tending as they do the same way, and as assures her, reminds her of past instances naturally distinguished. Infractaque of his care for Aeneas, and promises that constitit ira” Ov. M. 6. 626. With the the Trojans shall reach Italy in safety, with general language of the line comp. Juno's the loss of only one of their number. He own words 7. 297, “At, credo, mea numina glides in his car of state over the waves, tandem Fessa iacent, odiis aut exsaturata smoothing them as he goes.'

quievi.” 780.] Comp. above v. 482., 4. 553. 785.] •Media de gente :' Juno is not 781.j .Nec exsaturabile' (neque' Pal., satisfied with having torn Troy as it were Ied. corrected, &c.) was restored by out of the heart of Phrygia. ** Exedisse

Urbem odiis satis est, nec poenam traxe per omnem :
Reliquias Troiae, cineres atque ossa peremptae
Insequitur. Causas tanti sciat illa furoris.
Ipse mihi nuper Libycis tu testis in undis
Quam molem subito excierit: maria omnia caelo
Miscuit, Aeoliis nequiquam freta procellis,
In regnis hoc ausa tuis.
Per scelus ecce etiam Troianis matribus actis
Exussit foede puppis, et classe subegit


σαιο. .

muliebriter dictum,” says Serv., which is 788.] “Let her be well assured that she perhaps the best way of accounting for has reasons, for I know of none. Serv. Virg.'s use of so harsh a metaphor, at the says “ Bene supprimit: contra ipsam enim same time that he was probably thinking, sunt quae Iuno in decimo (v. 92] exsequi. as Heyne well suggests, of the taunt of the tur, 'me duce Dardanius Troiam expugnaHomeric Zeus to Hera II. 4. 34 foll. : vit adulter ?""

789.] It seems better to remove the ει δε σύγ εισελθούσα πύλας και τείχεα comma which many editions place after μακρά

‘undis,' as · Libycis in undis' refers rather audr Beppálois Aplauov Ipiduotó re to excierit' than to 'testis, though the παϊδας,

latter combination might be defended, if άλλους τε Τρώας, τότε κεν χόλον εξακέ- necessary.

790.] The language closely follows 1.

133, 134, “Iam caelum terramque meo Henry reads "excidisse' from fragm. Vat. sine numine, Venti, Miscere, et tantas and several MSS., and probably Donatus : audetis tollere moles ?” Venus' language but it may be doubted whether excidere' however has a slightly more colloquial air occurs in Virg. in this sense : see on 2.637. than Neptune's, as she speaks under femi

786.] Traxe,' an abbreviated form, like nine excitement and refers to an event “exstinxti” 4.682, “vixet" 11. 118. So which, being some time past, need not be “abstraxe” Lucr. 3. 650. Its strangeness characterized so exactly. In 1. 134, as has led to many alterations in the MSS., there remarked, Neptune may refer to the some of which, including Med. a m. pr., mountains of waves : Venus evidently write the word in full, 'traxisse,' regard- means no more than "What a coil she less of the verse, while others, adopting made !' Maria omnia caelo miscuit' is 'traxisse' omit nec. Pal. and fragm. one form of the proverbial expression, the Vat. originally had 'traxere. With the other form of which is given in 1. 133. expression “trahere per poenam’ Ruhkopf Juv. combines the two 2. 25, “Quis caelum comp. Eur. Iph. T. 257, did nóvwv ável. terris non misceat et mare caelo ?” In Comp. also 3. 315, “vitam extrema per another passage he has “clames licet et omnia duco.” The old punctuation con- mare caelo Confundas” (6. 283). tinued the sentence to reliquias : Torquil 792.] Comp. generally Neptune's speech Baden on Sen. Here. F. p. 32 proposed to 1. 132 foll

. put a stop at 'omnem,' continuing 'Re- 793.] For ‘per scelus,' the reading besiquias Troiae, cineres atque ossa, per- fore Pierius, found in one of Ribbeck's curemptae;' and Wagn. has improved on sives, was “pro scelus!” So'produxit' and this by removing the comma after 'ossa.' 'perduxit' are confounded E. 1.73. Heyne Gossrau points nec poenam traxe per om- gives a choice of interpretations, per nem Reliquias Troiae, fortifying himself by scelus' with “exussit,' i.q. “sceleste,' and the authority of Med., which on questions 'per scelus actis.' The latter seems best. of punctuation is worth very little. The Ruhkopf comp. such expressions as di objection to this, as to the old pointing, is üßpews Morowoai, åróueval, &c., Heyne that it makes too subtle a distinction be- " Gens humana ruit per vetitum et nefas” tween “reliquiae,' the remains after the Hor. 1 Od. 3. 26. destruction of Troy, and cineres atque 794.] “Subegit' Aeneam. "Classe amis. ossa,' the remains of those remains, which sa' is of course exaggerated, though shr bave survived subsequent persecution. qualifies the words in v. 796, if the inter


Amissa socios ignotae linquere terrae.
Quod superest, oro, liceat dare tuta per undas
Vela tibi, liceat Laurentem attingere Thybrim,
Si concessa peto, si dant ea moenia Parcae.
Tum Saturnius haec domitor maris edidit alti:
Fas omne est, Cytherea, meis te fidere regnis,


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pretation adopted in the note there is cor- pose to extenuate the boon. Two other rect. There is the same spirit of exagge- interpretations are mentioned by Wagn., ration in her language 1. 251, where she 'quod superest de classe,' or 'de sociis, talks of “navibus amissis,” though she and quod superest de itinere.' The for. doubtless knew at the time that only one mer brings the passage into conformity ship was really lost.

with what appears on the whole the best 795.] · Ignotae' is another touch of ex. view of v. 691, at the same time that it aggeration, as elsewhere the Trojans speak supplies a subject for 'dare,' which would of Sicily as familiar and friendly, above otherwise perhaps be too obscure with vv. 24, 28 foll., 630. But she may call it tibi' following. Besides, the latter is so with reference to the separation between open to one or two objections of its own : Aeneas and those left behind, who will be it is not suggested by the immediate constrangers to him henceforth. Ignota text, which speaks of the burning of the terra" is read by Med., Gud. a m. pr., first ships, the Acolian storm having been disMentelian, &c.: but the dat. which is found missed in v. 792: perhaps also it makes in fragm. Vat. is more poetical and less Venus assume too readily that their journey obvious, and so more likely to have been is near its end, as if distance and tempests altered. Rom. exhibits the error in its had been the only causes of its prolonga. transitional state, reading “ignotae terra,' tion. I think then that 'quod superest and the original reading of Pal. was per- is to be explained of the remaining ships haps'ignota terrae.'

and their crews, and that the probabilities 796.] There is even more variety of of this interpretation here and in v. 691 opinion about 'quod superest' here than may fairly be said to strengthen each other. in v. 691 above. Heyne, who placed a 797.] Most editors take tibi’ as an semicolon after superest,' seems to have ethical dative, virtually equivalent to 'I regarded it as i.q. ceterum,' to which pray ;' but the instances they quote are, as Wagn. objects that the request which fol- Forb. admits, not strictly parallel, and lows, so far from being an afterthought, there can be no doubt that such a use of is the main object of Venus' speech. This the word in a connexion like this would objection is not quite conclusive, as there create a very awkward ambiguity. With might even be a dramatic propriety in the Ladewig then I accept Heyne's first exrequest so introduced. Venus has been planation, “ dantur proprie vela ventis : carried on by her impetuosity into an nunc ea Neptuno quasi creduntur.” So enumeration of Juno's crimes, and now be- perhaps in 12. 263“ profundo," in G. 2. thinks herself of what she wants to have 41“pelago” may be the dat. after “dare done, at the same time that she may pur- vela.” We have already had a bolder inposely adopt a phrase which rather dis- novation on the usual expression in 3. 9, guises her anxiety about the main point. “ dare fatis vela." Such a defence however can hardly be 798.] Ea moenia' has to be explained urged against other views equally recon- from the previous knowledge of Neptune, cilable with the language, and not requiring as no city has been mentioned. Comp. 3. to be reconciled with the context. Henry 100, “quae sint ea moenia quaerunt," understands it to mean "all that is now where the reference is scarcely more direct. possible for us to obtain from you in this With ‘dant' comp. v. 737 above. our distressed condition,' which would 799.] The rhythm of this line is barsh : agree with the common interpretation of probably however we are meant to pause the words in v. 691, "all that is left for at haec,' separating Saturnius' from you to do in order to ruin us utterly.” 'domitor.' But Neptune's help was really worth far 800.] “Fas omne" 3.55. “Fas fidere" more to them than this, though it may 2. 402. again be replied that it suits Venus' pur.

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