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Troiaque nunc staret, Priamique arx alta, maneres.

Ecce, manus iuvenem interea post terga revinctum
Pastores magno ad regem clamore trahebant
Dardanidae, qui se ignotum venientibus ultro,
Hoc ipsum ut strueret Troiamque aperiret Achivis,
Obtulerat, fidens animi, atque in utrumque paratus,
Seu versare dolos, seu certae occumbere morti.
Undique visendi studio Troiana iuventus
Circumfusa ruit, certantque inludere capto.
Accipe nunc Danaum insidias, et criminé ab uno
Disce omnis.


the Greeks, “Argolicas latebras” being analogy to his expression is to be found in substituted for “ equum.”

such phrases as “rem struere," and in the 56.] The reading of this line is doubt. use of “ moliri.” “Troiam aperiret Achivis' ful. Staret—maneret' is attested by is rightly understood by Henry not of acPomponius Sabinus to have been read by tually opening the gates, which Sinon is Apronianus, and is the second reading of not said to have done, but of his effecting Med. Servius recommends 'stares-mane- an entrance for the Greeks by the story he ret,' to avoid the jingle. Staret-ma- tells, and by letting them out of the horse. neres' is the first reading of Med., found 61.] Fidens animo' is the reading of also apparently in both Pal. and Rom. Rom., and of the MSS. of Sen. de Vita Wagn. adopts it, comparing 7. 684, and Beata 8. 3 ; but fidens animi’ is right, is followed by later editors, rightly it like praestans animi’ 12. 19, confident would seem. Stares-- maneres' is the of soul,' not 'trusting to his courage.' reading of Heyne, but it appears to have ‘Armorum fidens'in Lucan 9. 373 looks no first-class authority, though Pierius like a misunderstanding of the phrase. speaks of it as found in ancient MSS.

62.) Versare dolos: 11. 704. • Ver. * 5776.] 'A Greek surrenders himself sare,' like ‘versatus,' To ÚT poros, to shift prisoner, and is invited to give an account or shuffle; here to shuffle successfully : of himself,

“Verte aliquid ” Pers. 5. 137. Serv. with 57.] The story of Sinon was the subject some MSS. reads "dolo,' sc. Troianos.' of a lost tragedy by Sophocles, and is vari. Certe,' the common reading, before ously told by Quinctus Smyrnaeus, Try- Pierius and Heins. restored 'certae' from phiodorus, Dictys, Dares, and Tzetzes. the best MSS., has the authority of Med., See Introduction to this Book. In one of Gud., and Pal. a m. s. Though less the versions he is made to mutilate him- poetical than certae,' it would not be self like Ulysses in Od. 4. 244, a source without force, having the sense of salfrom which, as Heyne suggests, the whole tem,' as in Cic. Tusc. 1. c. ult.-'occum. story may have originated. He is repre- bere,' 1. 97, note. Rom. a m. p. has 'ocsented as the son of Aesimus the brother of currere.' Anticleia, and thus a first cousin to Ulysses. 63.] · Undique : from all sides. Cic.

59.] Ultro obtulerat :' 8. 611. Serv. 2 Verr. 4. 53, “concurritur undique ad mentions another reading 'quis (queis) istum Syracusas.” se,' which is still found in some copies. 64.] Rom. has certat,' which was of

60.] Hoc ipsum ut strueret,' to com- course introduced because of ruit,' pass this very thing, sc. to be brought to 65.] Aeneas, as Forb. and Henry ob. the king. The instances quoted of stru. serve, pointedly prepares to satisfy Dido's ere insidias, dolos' &c. are not strictly request 1. 753, « dic-insidias Danaum." parallel, as they merely refer to scheming 'Accipe,' the correlative of da’E.1.19.-a thing against another, not to scheming 'Crimine :' Serv. mentions a reading “cria thing for one's self. Virg. however men,' supported also by Donatus, which probably used strueret' as a “verbum was connected with “insidias,' so as to iminsidiarum,” according to his usual cus- prove the balance between ‘ab uno' (sc.‘e tom, so as to secure the associations con- Danais') and 'omnes.' Silius however evinected with the term, though the real dently found crimine,' as appears from

Namque ut conspectu in medio turbatus, inermis,
Constitit atque oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit :
Heu, quae nunc tellus, inquit, quae me aequora possunt
Accipere? aut quid iam misero mihi denique restat, 70
Cui neque apud Danaos usquam locus, et super ipsi
Dardanidae infensi poenas cum sanguine poscunt ?
Quo gemitu conversi animi, compressus et omnis
Impetus. Hortamur fari; quo sanguine cretus,
Quidve ferat, memoret, quae sit fiducia capto.

75 [Ille haec, deposita tandem formidine, fatur :] his imitation 6. 39, “nosces Fabios certa- conversa repente Pectora : nunc fati misemine ab uno." "Omnis' of course refers ret” &c.— Compressus et omnis Impetus,' to Danaos ;' learn from a single act of not 'all fury ceased,' as Trapp, and proguilt what all of them are.'

bably the rest, understand it, but every 67.] It seems needless to inquire, with act of violence was stayed,' like “impetum Henry and Forb., whether Sinon's emotion facere.” The Trojans would naturally be is altogether feigned. Aeneas is describing rushing on Sinon, or at any rate menacing him as he saw him, first showing signs of him with their weapons. utter prostration, then partially recover- 74, 75.] The old pointing was after 'meing himself

, v. 76, though still trembling, moret: Heyne put a stop after ferat,' v. 107 (where “ficto pectore' immediately which is to a certain extent supported by follows 'pavitans '). Inermis' comes in the parallel passage 3. 608, “Qui sit, fari, naturally, as he is in the midst of a furious quo sanguine cretus, Hortamur; quae deand armed populace.

inde agitet fortuna, fateri.” But it seems 69. Nunc' simply at this present better to punctuate after 'fari,' so as to time iam denique, now at last, after make all that follows an oratio obliqua, all. With Sinon's exaggerated language memora quo sanguine cretus sis’ &c. comp. the more utter self-abandonment of Comp. 1.645 note. Quae sit fiducia capto,' Achemenides 3. 601, 605, and the taunts 'what he had to rely on as a captive,'of Aeneas to Turnus 12. 892.

i. e. what intelligence he could offer, or, as 71.] ‘Insuper' was the old reading: Henry well gives it, why he should not et super' however, which was restored meet the captive's doom,--not quite the by Heins. from the best MSS., is neces- same as Forb. after Burmann, 'qua fiducia sary, as Wagn. has seen, on account of ultro se captivum obtulerit,' though it 'neque.' Ipsi' probably is not to be virtually includes that sense. Ribbeck's pressed, as though the Trojans might be quive fuat, memores quae” &c. is anexpected to receive an outcast from the other of his unhappy conjectures. Much Greeks; it seems rather to have the force more ingenious is another suggestion by of 'etiam.' See note on v. 394.

an unnamed young scholar, mentioned 72.) “ Dare” or “solvere sanguine in his note, that a line should be suppoenas” occurs more than once, v. 366., plied from the parallel passage in Book 3, 9. 422., 11. 592; but the modal abl. could « quidve ferat. Priamus rex ipse haud not be used with 'poscere,' so 'cum' is multa moratus Dat iuveni dextram, quae introduced, along with my blood,' as 'ex sit fiducia capto." · Memorem' is another sanguine' is found with “sumere poenas” reading mentioned by Serv.; but with it 11. 720., 12. 949.

not much sense could be extracted from 73.] Quo gemitu :' comp. v. 145, “ his " quae sit fiducia capto.” lacrimis," and see on G. 1. 329, "quo 76.] This line is repeated 3. 612, while motu." • Conversi animi' might mean here it is omitted in Med. (where it is 'our attention was turned towards him,' added by another hand in the margin), like “convertere animos acris oculosque Pal., and Gud., and not noticed by Serv. talere cuncti ad reginam Volsci:” but the Heyne infers from Pomponius Sabinus common interpretation of a revulsion of that it was erased on critical grounds by feeling is more probable, and is supported Apronianus, whose recension Med. repreby an imitation in Sil. 10. 623, which sents. Rom. unfortunately fails us here, Forb. quotes, “ His dictis sedere minae et having an extensive lacuna after v. 72,

Cuncta equidem tibi, Rex, fuerit quodcumque, fatebor
Vera, inquit; neque me Argolica de gente negabo ;
Hoc primum ; nec, si miserum Fortuna Sinonem
Finxit, vanum etiam mendacemque inproba finget.
Fando aliquod si forte tuas pervenit ad auris
Belidae nomen Palamedis et incluta fama
Gloria, quem falsa sub proditione Pelasgi


down to 3. 684. It is certain that Virg. had as it were given them incidentally his frequently repeats himself (probably with first instalment of truth.— Nec si' &c. the notion of imitating Hom.), and equally The sentiment, according to Macrob. Sat. certain that the inferior MSS. frequently 6. 1, is taken from Attius, Teleph. fr. 6, introduce lines from other parts of the • Nam si a me regnum Fortuna atque opes poem into places where they have no busi. Eripere quivit, at virtutem non quiit." ness, so that it seems safest to print the 80.] Te quoque dignum Finge Deo” verse in brackets. In itself it is suffi- 8. 365. Fingo' is stronger than ‘facio? ciently appropriate, in spite of a slight —she has moulded him into misery, but verbal inconsistency with v. 107, though shall never mould him into falsehood.' not necessary, as with 'inquit' the begin- Comp. the use of the word 6. 80, G. 2. ning of Sinon's speech is not very abrupt. 407.—Vanum’1. 392. Observe the posi

77—104.] 'He says his name is Sinon, tion of inproba :' her insatiate malice a relation of Palamedes, whose death he shall not go so far as to make me a liar.' resented, and thus incurred the enmity of Inprobus' is used specially of those who Ulysses.'

make others unscrupulous, 4. 412, E. 8. 77.] ‘Fuerint quaecumque' was the old 49. See generally on G. 1. 119. reading before Heins., introduced appa- 81.] ‘Fando,' 'in talking:' note on E. 8. rently by those who thought, as Wagn. 71. Aliquid,' the old reading, supported and Henry do still, that the clause re- by some MSS. both of Virg. and of Priscian ferred to 'cuncta. It is found in Gud. a p. 811, evidently arose from a misunderm. s. and some others, and supported by standing of 'aliquod,' as if it went with Pal., “fuerit quaecumq” (the last two “fando." Aliquod nomen'seems equivaletters seem to be lost). «Fuerit quod- lent to “si nomen fando pervenit alicubi” cumque,' beside Med., Gud. a m. p. &c., or “aliquo tempore,” or perhaps “ aliqua Serv. and Donatus, has the authority of forte," on the principle illustrated E. 1. Phaedrus, who imitates the passage 3 Prol. 54. Ovid has imitated this line (15. 497), 27, “Sed iam, quodcunque fuerit, ut dixit “ Fando aliquem Hippolytum vestras, Sinon, Ad regem cum Dardaniae perduc- puto, contigit auris ... occubuisse neci." tus foret, Librum exarabo tertium Aesopi 82.] For Palamedes see Heyne's Exstilo," thus showing that he understood

Belus was a very remote ancestor the words to mean “in any event' (i. e. of Palamedes, the grandfather of his grandas explained v. 31, 'whether you read mother. The quantity of the penultimate it or not'), a view which the future of the patronymic is contrary to rule, but sense of ‘fuerit’ favours. Henry however mentioned as an exception by Priscian, p. thinks Phaedrus means this book, such 584. Incluta fama gloria ? Palamedes as it may be. Serv. remarks that quod- appears to have figured in the tragedians cumque' is euphemistic, as we say, 'let the (see the fragments of Aesch., Soph., Eur.) worst come to the worst.'

as a kind of human Prometheus, some of 78.7 · Vera’ adheres to 'fatebor,' I will the inventions of the latter being actually tell all truly.' Negabo' as 'fatebor,' 'I attributed to him. He was a favourite am not going to deny.' So in Ovid's imi. subject with the Sophists, some of whom tation, M. 13. 315, “nec me suasisse ne- exercised their ingenuity in dressing up a gabo," where Ulysses is entering on the case for him or for Ulysses, while others charge about Philoctetes. "Finget' points fixed on him as the true type of a hero, the same way.

not violent, like Achilles, but wise after 79.] * Hoc primum :' a sort of paren- the Stoic pattern, and even insinuated thesis, like “ hoc tantum

v. 690.

*This that Homer's silence about him was owing to begin with, as in declaring that he to jealousy of his supposed poetical power. should not deny himself to be a Greek he 83.] 'Falsa sub proditione' means not



Insontem infando indicio, quia bella vetabat,
Demisere neci, nunc cassum lumine lugent:
Illi me comitem et consanguinitate propinquum
Pauper in arma pater primis huc misit ab annis.
Dum stabat regno incolumis regumque vigebat
Consiliis, et nos aliquod nomenque decusque
Gessimus. Invidia postquam pellacis Ulixi-


10. 69.

‘under a false charge of treason,' as all the specification was to be expected in a plaueditors take it, a sense which the words sible tale, and that poverty, while increasing would hardly bear, nor at the time of a the pathos of the story, would account for false alarm of treason' (Henry), which Sinon's dependence on a superior. So in would be an inopportune detail, and barely the case of Achemenides, 3. 615. In consistent with the legend, but simply arma,' to war, Lucan 3. 292. "Primis ab "under a false information,''proditio' being annis' can only mean from my early equivalent to 'indicium,' as in Flor. 3. 18, youth,' as in 8. 517, in spite of the diffi“postquam id nefas proditione discussum culty to be noticed v. 138. It is probable, est,” just as in Ov. Amor. 2. 8. 25, in- as Cerda suggests, that Virg. may have dex' and 'proditor' are synonymous, “in- been thinking of the early age at which dex ante acta fatebor, Et veniam culpae the Romans were sent to war; and this proditor ipse meae.” There is no reference perhaps may lead us, with Heyne and whatever to the pretended treason of Pala- Wagn., to extend a similar reference to medes, though that happened to be the “pauper,' war in Virgil's time being a lusubject of the charge. The repetition crative calling. “falsa sub proditione, Insontem, infando 8 8.7 Stabat regno incolumis' is rightly indicio' is sufficiently accounted for by explained by Heyne as a variety for ‘erat Sinon's apparent horror of the transaction. regno incolumi.' Comp. 1. 268. •Regno' *Sub proditione,' like “sub crimine," Juv. is used for “regia dignitate” 9. 596. For

regumque' Canon. a m. p. and some in85.] Cassus lumine' occurs Lucr. 4. ferior MSS. have regnumque,' the old 368, of darkness or shadow, and Cic. Arat. reading, which is scarcely intelligible, as 369 has “non cassum luminis ensem,” of a "regnum' could not stand for the state of constellation. Lumen’ here of course is the Greeks at Troy, and with Palamedes' the light of day or life, as in 12. 935, “cor influence at home we have clearly nothing pus spoliatum lumine," so that the express to do. Vigebat: Lucr. 4. 1156, “ Esse sion is equivalent to "aethere cassis," 11. in deliciis, summoque in honore vigere." 104, and agrees exactly with demisere 89.7 Conciliis is the reading of Med. neci.' Comp. Aesch. Eum. 322, áracion and Pal., consiliis' of the Verona palimpsest και δεδορκόσιν.

a m. p., and some others.. The received 86.] The apodosis begins here. In case distinction between the two words is that you ever heard of Palamedes, I was his the former signifies an assembly in general, companion in arms and near kinsman,' i.e. the latter a select deliberative body. The I may designate myself as such ; an ellipsis, latter seems decidedly preferable, as the as Trapp remarks, as good in English as in addition of regum'shows that the Homeric Latin. Illi' then is the emphatic word. Bovah yepóytwv, not the ayoph, is meant, ‘Comitem' and 'consanguinitate propin- and deliberative ability was the special quum' are not strictly co-ordinate, as the virtue of Palamedes. Besides, consiliis' meaning evidently is that Sinon was sent enables us at once to account for the corto be Palamedes' comrade, being already ruption “regnum' in the previous line. his kinsman; but writers are not always 90.7 * Gessimus nomen decusque,' like conscious grammarians, and instances may“ gerere honorem," “ auctoritatem,” &e. be found even in prose where the ordinary Pellacis,' Med., Gud. a m. s., Serv., Donaepithet is confounded with the epithet tus on Ter. Phorm. 1. 2. 17, Velius Longus, used predicatively,

p. 2227 P. Fallacis,' Pal., Gud. a m. p., 87.] Of the various explanations devised probably Verona palimpsest, Charisius, p. by the commentators to account for the 52. Comp. G. 4. 443. Macleane on Hor. mention of the poverty of Sinon's father, Od. 3. 7. 20, in resisting Bentley's unthe most natural seem to be that some authorized attempt to substitute 'pellax'


Haud ignota loquor-superis concessit ab oris
Adflictus vitam in tenebris luctuque trahebam,
Et casum insontis mecum indignabar amici.
Nec tacui demens, et me, fors si qua tulisset,
Si patrios umquam remeassem victor ad Argos,
Promisi ultorem, et verbis odia aspera movi.
Hinc mihi prima mali labes, hinc semper Ulixes
Criminibus terrere novis, hinc spargere voces
In volgum ambiguas, et quaerere conscius arma.
Nec requievit enim, donec Calchante ministro-


for 'fallax,' throws a doubt on the very 97.] ‘Hinc,' from this time, as semper' existence of the former word, as not de- seems to show. Labes:' the imitation ducible from pellicere ;' Germanus how- of this passage in Justin 17. 1, “ Haec ever suggests that it may come from ‘pello, prima mali labes, hoc initium impendentis the verb of which appello,' compello,' minae fuit,” shows that he took "labes' in 'interpello,' are compounds, and quotes its primary sense of a downfall, as in Lucr. a legal term “virgines appellare.” The 2. 1145, “dabunt labem putrisque ruinas.” word is also found in Auson. Epitaph. 12. We may paraphrase then “Hinc primum 4, and Arnob. pp. 58, 231.

fortunae meae ruere incipiebant.” So Serv. 91.] Haud ignota loquor' seems to “ ruinam significat, a lapsu.” There is a mean you doubtless know the story.' passage immediately preceding this expla*Concessit,' 10. 820. See also E. 10. 63. nation of Serv., which has led to a suspi.

92.] 'Adflictus :' dashed down from my cion that he had a different text from that prosperity, as Henry explains it; so 'tene- before us : “Quia secuta sunt postea orabris,' in obscurity, contrasts with 'nomen- culum et adscita Calchantis factio : adscita que decusque.' “ Ipsi se in tenebris volvi sane dicitur adsumpta.” From this Cuncaenoque queruntur,” Lucr. 3. 77. Comp. ingham extracted • Hinc adscita mihi Id. 2. 15, 54., 5. 11. The last passage labes.” But the gloss would be unintellimight be quoted in support of a curious gible without ‘prima,' which it is evidently variety in the Verona palimp. here, 'flue- intended to explain, though the lemma tuque.'

seems to have fallen out. It would almost 93.] “Casus insontis amici,” 5. 350. seem as if Serv. had used the word 'ad

94.) .Et'follows ‘nec,' nec tacui' being scita, and some later grammarian had extaken as a positive statement. “Tulisset' plained it by 'adsumpta,' his note afteras 'ferebant,' v. 34. "Quidve ferat Fors,” wards coming to be incorporated in Serv.'s Enn. A. 203. The pluperfect is used on text. account of the oratio obliqua, as in v. 189., 98.] With 'spargere voces,' comp. the 3. 652., 9. 41, Livy 34. 6, which confirms Greek otepuoad yos. •In volgum' is in Donaldson's opinion (Varr. ed. 2, p. 365 accordance with the representations of foll.) that the so-called futurum exactum Ulysses in the Greek drama as Onuoxapio. is really only the perf. subj. Wagn.'s other ths (Eur. Hec. 134), Toll ÓxNov Méta (Id. instances are not to the point.

Iph. A. 526). 95.]

" Remeare proprie de victoribus 99.] “Quaerere conscius arma,' 'to seek dicitur. Vid. Cort. ad Lucan. 7. 256, et allies as a conspirator,'—-nearly equivalent Burm. ad Val. Fl. 4.589.” Forb. ‘Argos' to “quaerere arma consciorum,” or “quaefor Greece: his real country of course was rere conscios," as Wagn. gives it. QuaeEuboea. Heyne rather prefers the read. rere arma occurs in this very sense 11. ing of some inferior MSS. 'agros.'

229. That Ulysses sought for allies ap96.] ‘Promisi ultorem.' There is no pears from the introduction of Calchas, occasion to understand 'fore' here or in and from the anticipation of the event, v. 4. 227. Comp. Sen. Contr. 4. 29. Quint. 124, which argues that his designs were Decl. 1. 6. (Forc.). • Verbis' opposed to not entirely a secret.

tacui :''by speaking out I made myself a 100.] ‘Nec requievit enim, nor indeed bitter enemy (in Ulysses).'

did he rest. “Enim' as G. 2. 104. The


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