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For a deputy surveyor.

I, A B, having been appointed a deputy surveyor of the lands of the United States in do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will well and faithfully, and to the best of my skill and ability, execute the duties confided to me pursuant to a contract with C D, surveyor general of public lands in bearing date the day of 18. according to the laws of the United States and the instructions received from the said surveyor general.

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(To be sworn and subscribed before a justice of the peace, or other officer authorized to administer oaths.)

For chainman.

I, E F, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the duties of chain carrier; that I will level the chain upon uneven ground, and plumb the tally pins, whether by sticking or dropping the same; that I will report the true distance to all notable objects, and the true length of all lines that I assist in measuring, to the best of my skill and ability.

(To be sworn and subscribed as above.)

For flagman or axman,

I, GH, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will well and truly perform the duties of according to instructions given me, and to

the best of my skill and ability.
(To be sworn and subscribed as above.)


The principal meridian, the base line, and the standard parallels having been first run, measured, and marked, and the corner boundaries thereon established, according to instructions, the process of running, measuring, and marking the exterior lines of townships will be as follows:

Townships situated NORTH of the base line and WEST of the principal meridian.

Commence at No. 1, (see figures on Diagram A,) being the southwest corner of T. 1 N.-R. 1 W., as established on the base line; thence north, on a true meridian line, four hundred and eighty chains, establishing the section and quarter-section corners thereon, as per instructions, to No. 2, whereat establish the corner of Tps. 1 and 2 N.-Rs. 1 and 2 W.; thence east, on a random or trial line, setting temporary section and quarter-section stakes, to No. 3, where measure and note the distance at which the line intersects the eastern boundary, north or south of the true or established corner. Run and measure westward, on the true line, (taking care to note all the land and water crossings, &c., as per instructions,) to No. 4, which is identical with No. 2, establishing the section and quarter-section PERMANENT CORNERS on said line.

Should it happen, however, that such random line falls short, or overruns in length, or intersects the eastern boundary of the township at more than three chains and fifty links distance from the true corner thereon, as compared with the corresponding boundary on the south, (either of which would indicate an important error in the surveying,) the lines must be retraced, even if found necessary to remeasure the meridional boundaries of the township, (especially the western boundary,) so as to discover and correct the error; in doing which, the true corners must be established and marked, and the false ones destroyed and obliterated to prevent confusion in future; and all the facts must be distinctly set forth in the notes. Thence proceed in a similar manner from No. 4 to No. 5, No. 5 to No. 6, No. 6 to No. 7, and so on to No. 10, the southwest corner of T. 4 N.-R. 1 W. Thence north, still on a true meridian line, establishing the mile aud half-mile corners, until reaching the STANDARD PARALLEL or correction line; throwing the excess over, or deficiency under, four hundred and eighty chains, on the last half-mile, according to law, and at the intersection establishing the "CLOSING CORNER," the distance of which from the standard corner must be measured and noted as required by the instructions. But should it ever so happen that some impassable barrier will have prevented or delayed the extension of the standard parallel along and above the field of present survey, then the deputy will plant, in place, the corner for the township, subject to correction thereafter, should such parallel be extended.

NORTH of the base line, and EAST of the principal meridian.

Commence at No. 1, being the southeast corner of T. 1 N.-R. 1 E., and proceed as with townships situated "north and west," except that the random or trial lines will be run and measured west, and the true lines east, throwing the excess over or deficiency under four hundred and eighty chains on the west end of the line, as required by law; wherefore the surveyor will commence his measurement with the length of the deficient or excessive half-section boundary on the west of the township, and thus the remaining measureinents will all be even miles and halfmiles.


1. The first mile, both of the south and east boundaries of each township you are required to subdivide, is to be carefully traced and measured before you enter upon the subdivision thereof. This will enable you to observe any change that may have taken place in the magnetic variation, as it existed at the time of running the township lines, and will also enable you to compare your chaining with that upon the township lines.

2. Any discrepancy arising either from a change in the magnetic variation or a difference in measurement, is to be carefully noted in the field-notes.

3. After adjusting your compass to a variation which you have thus found will retrace the eastern boundary of the township, you will commence at the corner to sections 35 and 36, on the south boundary, and run a line due north, forty chains, to the quarter-section corner, which you are to establish between sections 35 and 36; continuing due north forty chains farther, you will establish the corner to sections 25, 26, 35, and 36.

4. From the section corner last named run a random line, without blazing, due east, for the corner of sections 25 and 36, in east boundary, and at forty chains from the starting point set a post for temporary quarter-section corner. If you intersect exactly at the corner, you will blaze your random line back, and establish it as the true line; but if your random line intersects the said east boundary, either north or south of said corner, you will measure the distance of such intersection, from which you will calculate a course that will run a true line back to the corner from which your random started. You will establish the permanent quarter-section corner at a point equidistant from the two terminations of the true line.

5. From the corner of sections 25, 26, 35, 36, run due north between sections 25 and 26, setting the quarter-section post as before, at forty chains, and at eighty chains establishing the corner of sections 23, 24, 25, 26. Then run a random due east for the corner of sections 24 and 25 in east boundary; setting temporary quarter-section post at forty chains; correcting back, and establishing permanent quarter-section corner at the equidistant point on the true line, in the manner directed on the line between sections 25 and 36.

6. In this manner you will proceed with the survey of each successive section in the first tier, until you arrive at the north boundary of the township, which you will reach in running up a random line between sections 1 and 2. If this random line should not intersect at the corner established for sections 1, 2, 35, and 36, upon the township line, you will note the distance that you fall east or west of the same, from which distance you will calculate a course that will run a true line south to the corner from which your random started. Where the closing corner is on the base or standard line, a deviation from the general rule is explained under the head of "Diagram B."

7. The first tier of sections being thus laid out and surveyed, you will return to the south boundary of the township, and from the corner of sections 34 and 35 commence and survey the second tier of sections in the same manner that you pursued in the survey of the first, closing at the section corners on the first tier.

8. In like manner proceed with the survey of each successive tier of sections, until you arrive at the fifth tier; and from each section corner which you establish upon this tier, you are to run random lines to the corresponding corners established upon the range line forming the western boundary of the township; setting, as you proceed, each temporary quarter-section post at forty chains from the interior section corner, so as to throw the excess or deficiency of measurement on the extreme tier of quarter sections contiguous to the township boundary; and on returning establish the true line, and establish thereon the permanent quartersection-corner.

QUARTER-SECTION CORNERS, both upon north and south and upon east and west lines, are to be established at a point equidistant from the corresponding section corners, except upon the lines closing on the north and west boundaries of the township, and in those situations the quartersection corners will always be established at precisely forty chains to the north or west (as the case may be) of the respective section corners from which those lines respectively start, by which procedure the excess or deficiency in the measurements will be thrown, according to law, on the extreme tier of quarter sections.

Every north and south section line, except those terminating in the north boundary of the township, is to be eighty chains in length. The east and west section lines, except those terminating on the west bound


of the township, are to be within one hundred links of eighty chains in length; and the north and south boundaries of any one section, except in the extreme western tier, are to be within one hundred links of equal length. The meanders within each fractional section, or between any two meander posts, or of a pond or island in the interior of a section, must close within one chain and fifty links.

DIAGRAM A illustrates the mode of laying off township exteriors north of the BASE line and EAST and WEST of the principal MERIDIAN, whether between the base and first standard, or between any two standards; and the same general principles will equally apply to townships south of the base line and east and west of the meridian, and between any two standards south, where the distances between the base and first standard, and between the standards themselves, are five townships or thirty miles.

DIAGRAM B indicates the mode of laying off a TOWNSHIP into sections and quarter sections, and the accompanying set of field notes (marked B) critically illustrate the mode and order of conducting the survey under every variety of circumstance shown by the topography on the diagram. In townships lying south of and contiguous to the base or to any standard parallel, the lines between the northern tier of sections will be run north, and be made to close as true lines; quarter section corners will be set at forty chains, and section corners established at the intersection of such section lines with the base or standard, (as the case may be,) and the distance is to be measured and entered in the field book to the nearest corner on such standard or base.

DIAGRAM C illustrates the mode of making mound, a stake, or stone corner boundaries for townships, sections, and quarter sections.

The mode and order of surveying the exterior boundaries of a township are illustrated by the specimen field notes marked A; and the mode and order of subdividing a township into sections and quarter sections are illustrated by the specimen field notes marked B. The attention of the deputy is particularly directed to these specimens, as indicating not only the method in which his work is to be conducted, but also the order, manner, language, &c., in which his field notes are required to be returned to the surveyor general's office; and such specimens are to be deemed part of these instructions, and any departure from their details, without special authority, in cases where the circumstances are analogous in practice, will be regarded as a violation of his contract and oath.

The subdivisions of fractional sections into forty acre lots, (as near as may be,) are to be so laid down on the official township plat in red lines, as to admit of giving to each a specific designation, if possible, according to its relative position in the fractional section, as per examples afforded by Diagram B, as well as by a number, in all cases where the lot cannot properly be designated as a quarter-quarter. Those fractional subdivision lots which are not susceptible of being described according to relative local position, are to be numbered in regular series; No. 1 being (wherever practicable, and as a general rule) either the northeastern or the most easterly fractional lot, and proceeding from east to west and from west to east, alternately, to the end of the series; but such general rule is departed from under circumntances given as examples in fractional sections 4, 7, 19 and 30, where No. 1 is the interior lot of the northern and western tiers of the quarter sections to which there is a

corresponding No. 2 given to the exterior lot, and the series of numbers is in continuation of the latter. The lots in the extreme northern and western tiers of quarter sections, containing either more or less than the regular quantity, are always to be numbered as per example. Interior lots in such extreme tiers are to be twenty chains wide, and the excess or deficiency of measurement is always to be thrown on the exterior lots; elsewhere, the assumed subdivisional corner will always be a point equidistant from the established corners.

The official township plat to be returned to the General Land Office is to show on its face, on the right hand margin, the meanders of navigable streams, islands, and lakes. Such details are wanted in the adjustment of the surveying accounts, but may be omitted in the copy of the township plat to be furnished to the district land office by the surveyor general. A suitable margin for binding is to be preserved on the left hand side of each plat. Each plat is to be certified, with table annexed, according to the forms subjoined to "Diagram B," and is to show the areas of public land, of private surveys, and of water, with the aggregate area as shown on the diagram.

Each township plat is to be prepared in triplicate: one for the General Land Office, one for the district office, and the third to be retained as the record in the office of the surveyor general.

The original field books, each bearing the written approval of the surveyor general, are to be substantially bound into volumes of suitable size, and retained in the surveyor general's office, and certified transcripts of such field books (to be of foolscap size) are to be prepared and forwarded, from time to time, to the General Land Office.

With the copy of each township plat furnished to a district land office, the surveyor general is required by law to furnish descriptive notes as to the character and quality of the soil and timber found on and in the vicinity of each surveyed line, and giving a description of each corner boundary.


Printed blank forms for such notes will be furnished by the General Land Office. The forms provide eighteen spaces for meander corners, which, in most cases, will be sufficient; but when the number shall exceed eighteen, the residue will have to be inserted on the face of the township plat, to be furnished to the register of the district land office. There is shown a series of meander corners on Diagram B, viz, from No. 1 to No. 22, on the river and islands; 23 to 28 being on Island Lake; 29 and 30 on Clear Lake; and 31 and 32 on lake in section 26.

There is also a distinct series of numbers, 1 to 7, to designate corners to D. Reed's private survey, and to fractional sections, made such thereby; and the same series is continued from 8 to 14 inclusive, to designate corners to S. William's private survey, and to fractional sections made such thereby. These are numberings on the plat merely for the purpose of ready reference to the descriptions of such corners to be furnished to the registers.

The letters on "Diagram B," at the "corners" on the township boundaries, are referred to in the descriptive notes to be furnished to the district land office, but are not required to be inserted on the official plat to be returned to the General Land Office.

The following chapter, on the subject of the variation of the magnetic. needle, is extracted from the revised edition of the work on surveying by Charles Davies, L. LD., a graduate of the Military Academy at

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