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4. MEANDER CORNER POSTS are planted at all those points where the township or section lines intersect the banks of such rivers, bayous, lakes, or islands, as are by law directed to be meandered.
The courses and distances on meandered navigable streams govern the calculations wherefrom are ascertained the true areas of the tracts of land (sections, quarter sections, &c.) known to the law as fractional, and binding on such streams.
MANNER OF ESTABLISHING CORNERS BY MEANS OF POSTS.
Township, sectional, or mile corners, and quarter sectional or half mile corners, will be perpetuated by planting a post at the place of the corner, to be formed of the most durable wood of the forest at hand.
The posts must be set in the earth by digging a hole to admit them two feet deep, and must be very securely rammed in with earth, and also with stone, if any be found at hand. The portion of the post which protrudes above the earth must be squared off sufficiently smooth to admit of receiving the marks thereon, to be made with appropriate marking irons, indicating what it stands for. Thus the sides of township corner posts should square at least four inches, (the post itself being five inches in diameter,) and must protrude two feet at least, above the ground; the sides of section corner posts must square at least three inches, (the post itself being four inches in diameter,) and protrude two feet from the ground; and the quarter section corner posts and meander corner posts must be three inches wide, presenting flattened surfaces, and protruding two feet from the ground.
Where a township post is a corner common to four townships, it is to be set in the earth diagonally, thus:
On each surface of the post is to be marked the number of the particular
from E. to S. 2 S.
R. 1 W.
From N. to W.
These marks are not only to be distinctly but neatly cut into the wood, at least the eighth of an inch deep; and to make them yet more conspicuous to the eye of the anxious explorer, the deputy must apply to all of them a streak of red chalk.
Section or mile posts, being corners of sections, and where such are common to four sections, are to be set diagonally in the earth, (in the manner provided for township corner posts;) and on each side of the squared surfaces (made smooth, as aforesaid, to receive the marks) is to be marked the appropriate number of the particular one of the four sections, respectively, which such side faces; also, on one side thereof are to be marked the numbers of its township and range; and to make such marks yet more conspicuous, in manner aforesaid, a streak of red chalk is to be applied.
In every township, subdivided into thirty-six sections, there are twentyfive interior section corners, each of which will be common to four sections. A quarter section, or half-mile post, is to have no other mark on it than S., to indicate what it stands for.
NOTCHING CORNER POSTS.
Township corner posts, common to four townships, are to be notched with six notches on each of the four angles of the squared part set to the cardinal points.
All mile posts on township lines must have as many notches on them, on two opposite angles thereof, as they are miles distant from the township corners, respectively. Each of the posts at the corners of sections in the interior of a township must indicate, by a number of notches on each of its four corners directed to the cardinal points, the corresponding number of miles that it stands from the outlines of the township. The four sides of the post will indicate the number of the section they respectively face. Should a tree be found at the place of any corner, it will be marked and notched as aforesaid, and answer for the corner in lieu of a post, the kind of tree and its diameter being given in the field notes.
The position of all corner posts, or corner trees, of whatever description, that may be established, is to be evidenced in the following manner, viz: From such post or tree the courses must be taken and the distances measured to two or more adjacent trees in opposite directions, as nearly as may be, and these are called "bearing trees." Such are to be distinguished by a large smooth blaze, with a notch at its lower end, facing the corner, and in the blaze is to be marked the number of the range, township, and section; but at quarter-section corners nothing but 4 S. need be marked. The letters B. T. (bearing tree) are also to be marked upon a smaller blaze directly under the large one, and as near the ground as practicable.
At all township corners, and at all section corners, on range or township lines, four bearing trees are to be marked in this manner, one in each of the adjoining sections.
At interior section corners four trees, one to stand within each of the four sections to which such corner is common, are to be marked in manner aforesaid, if such be found.
A tree supplying the place of a corner post is to be marked in the manner directed for posts, but if such tree should be a beech, or other smooth bark tree, the marks may be made on the bark and the tree notched.
From quarter section and meander corners two bearing trees are to be marked, one within each of the adjoining sections.
Where the requisite number of "bearing trees" is not to be found at convenient and suitable distances, such as are found are to be marked as herein directed; but in all such cases of deficiency in the number of bearing trees, (unless, indeed, the boundary itself be a tree,) a quadrangular trench, with sides of five feet, and with the angles to the cardinal points, must be spaded up outside the corner, as a center, and the earth carefully thrown on the inside, so as to form a range of earth, which will become covered with grass, and present a small square elevation, which in after-time will serve to mark unmistakably the spot of the
Where it is deemed best to use STONES for boundaries, in lieu of posts, you may, at any corner, insert endwise into the ground, to the depth of 7 or 8 inches, a stone, the number of cubic inches in which shall not be less than the number contained in a stone 14 inches long, 12 inches wide, and 3 inches thick-equal to 504 cubic inches-the edges of which must be set north and south, on north and south lines, and east and west, on east and west lines; the dimensions of each stone to be given in the field notes at the time of establishing the corner. The kind of stone should also be stated.
MARKING CORNER STONES.
Stones at township corners, common to four townships, must have six notches, cut with a pick or chisel on each edge or side toward the cardinal points; and where used as section corners on the range and township lines, or as section corners in the interior of a township, they will also be notched, to correspond with the directions given for notching posts similarly situated.
Posts or stones at township corners on the base and standard lines, and which are common to two townships on the north side thereof, will have six notches on each of the west, north, and east sides or edges; and where such stones or posts are set for corners to two townships south of the base or standard, six notches will be cut on each of the west, south, and east sides or edges.
Stones, when used for quarter section corners, will have cut on them -on the west side on north and south lines, and on the north side on east and west lines.
Whenever bearing trees are not found, mounds of earth, or stone, are to be raised around posts on which the corners are to be marked in the manner aforesaid. Wherever a mound of earth is adopted, the same will present a conical shape; but at its base, on the earth's surface, a quadrangular trench will be dug; by the "trench" (here meant) is to be understood a spade deep of earth thrown up from the four sides of the line, outside the trench, so as to form a continuous elevation along its outer edge. In mounds of earth, common to four townships or to four sections, they will present the angles of the quadrangular trench (diagonally) towards the cardinal points. In mounds common only to two townships or two sections, the sides of the quadrangular trench will face the cardinal points. The sides of the quadrangular trench at the base of a township mound are to be six feet, the height of mound three feet.
At section, quarter section, and meander corners, the sides of the quadrangular trench at base of mounds are to be five feet, and the conical height two and a half feet.
Prior to piling up the earth to construct a mound, there is to be dug a spadeful or two of earth from the corner boundary point, and in the cavity so formed is to be deposited a marked stone, or a portion of charcoal, (the quantity whereof is to be noted in the field book;) or in lieu of charcoal or marked stone, a charred stake is to be driven twelve inches down into such center point: either of those will be a witness for the future, and whichever is adopted, the fact is to be noted in the field book.
When mounds are formed of earth, the spot from which the earth is
taken is called the "pit," the center of which ought to be, wherever practicable, at a uniform distance and in a uniform direction from the center of the mound. There is to be a "pit" on each side of every mound, distant eighteen inches outside of the trench. The trench may be expected hereafter to be covered by tufts of grass, and thus to indicate the place of the mound, when the mound itself may have become obliterated by time or accident.
At meander corners the "pit" is to be directly on the line, eight links further from the water than the mound. Wherever necessity is found for deviating from these rules in respect to the "pits," the course and distance to each is to be stated in the field books.
Perpetuity in the mound is a great desideratum. In forming it with light alluvial soil the surveyor may find it necessary to make due allowance for the future settling of the earth, and thus making the mound more elevated than would be necessary in a more compact and tenacious soil, and increasing the base of it. In so doing, the relative proportions between the township mound and other mounds is to be preserved as nearly as may be.
The earth is to be pressed down with the shovel during the process of piling it up. Mounds are to be covered with sod, grass side up, where sod is to be had; but, in forming a mound, sod is NEVER to be wrought up with the earth, because sod decays, and in the process of decomposing it will cause the mound to become porous, and therefore liable to premature destruction.
POSTS IN MOUNDS
must show above the top of the mound ten or twelve inches, and be notched and marked precisely as they would be for the same corner without the mound.
Besides the charcoal, marked stone, or charred stake, one or the other of which must be lodged in the earth at the point of the corner, the deputy surveyor is recommended to plant midway between each pit and the trench, seeds of some tree, (those of fruit trees adapted to the climate being always to be preferred,) so that, in course of time, should such take root, a small clump of trees may possibly hereafter note the place of the corner. The facts of planting such seed, and the kind thereof, are matters to be truthfully noted in the field-book.
WITNESS MOUNDS TO TOWNSHIP OR SECTION CORNERS.
If a township or section corner, in a situation where bearing or witness trees are not found within a reasonable distance therefrom, shall fall within a ravine, or in any other situation where the nature of the ground, or the circumstances of its locality, shall be such as may prevent, or prove unfavorable to, the erection of a mound, you will perpetuate such corner by selecting in the immediate vicinity thereof a suitable plot of ground as a site for a bearing or witness mound, and erect thereon a mound of earth in the same manner and conditioned in every respect, with charcoal, stone, or charred stake deposited beneath, as before directed; and measure and state in your field-book the distance and course from the position of the true corner of the bearing or witness mound so placed and erected.
Such corners are to be nowhere except on the base and standard
lines, whereon are to appear both the corners which mark the intersections of the lines which close thereon, and those from which the surveys start on the north. On these lines, and at the time of running the same, the township, section, and quarter-section corners are to be planted, ́and each of these is a corner common to two, (whether township or section corners,) on the north side of the line, and must be so marked.
The corners which are established on the standard parallel, at the time of running it, are to be known as "standard_corners,” and, in addition to all the ordinary marks, (as herein prescribed,) they will be marked with the letters S. C. Closing corners will be marked with the letters C. C. in addition to other marks.
The standard parallels are designed to be run in advance of the contiguous surveys on the south of them, but circumstances may exist which will impede or temporarily delay the due extension of the standard; and when, from uncontrollable causes, the contiguous townships must be surveyed in advance of the time of extending the standard, in any such event it will become the duty of the deputy who shall afterward survey any such standard to plant thereon the double set of corners, to wit, the standard corners, to be marked S. C., and the closing ones, which are to be marked C. C.; and to make such measurements as may be necessary to connect the closing corners and complete the unfinished meridional lines of such contiguous and prior surveys, on the principles herein set forth, under the different heads of "exterior or township lines," and of "Diagram B."
You will recollect that the corners (whether township or section corners) which are common to two, (two townships or two sections,) are not to be planted diagonally like those which are common to four, but with the flat sides facing the cardinal points, and on which the marks and notches are made as usual. This, it will be perceived, will serve yet more fully to distinguish the standard parallels from all other lines
THE MEANDERING OF NAVIGABLE STREAMS.
1. Standing with the face looking down stream, the bank on the left hand is termed the "left bank," and that on the right hand the "right bank." These terms are to be universally used to distinguish the two banks of a river or stream.
2. Both banks of navigable rivers are to be meandered by taking the courses and distances of their sinuosities, and the same are to be entered in the field-book.
At those points where either the township or section lines intersect the banks of a navigable stream, POSTS, or where necessary, MOUNDS of earth or stone, are to be established at the time of running these lines. These are called "meander corners ;" and in meandering you are to commence at one of those corners on the township line, coursing the banks, and measuring the distance of each course from your commencing corner to the next "meander corner," upon the same or another boundary of the same township, carefully noting your intersection with all intermediate meander corners. By the same method you are to meander the opposite bank of the same river.
The crossing distance between the MEANDER CORNERS on same line is to be ascertained by triangulation, in order that the river may be protracted with entire accuracy. The particulars to be given in the field