The Military Life of John, Duke of Marlborough

Front Cover
Harper & Brothers, 1848 - Great Britain - 410 pages
 

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Contents

the Act of Association in favor of William
34
His first Services in foreign War under William
35
He is liberated from Prison and ere long restored to Favor
37
And appointed to the supreme Command in the Netherlands
38
At which Period the Blenheim Papers commenced
39
Vast Ability by which the Government of France was directed
40
Extraordinary Success which had hitherto attended Louis in all his Enterprises
41
Hopes and Schemes of the Catholic Party throughout Eu rope at this Time Their ultimate Failure
42
Simultaneous Attacks on the Protestants in France and En gland irrevocably separate the two countries
43
Efforts of William III to avert the Danger
44
Manner in which the Bequest of Spain to the Duke of Anjou had been obtained
45
ers from this Accession to the Power of France
47
Comparative Strength of the Forces on the opposite Sides
49
CHAPTER II
50
Which arose from the Greatness of his Deeds
51
Vast Changes which he effected on France during his Reign
52
Which arose from his Turn of Mind coinciding with the Spirit of the Age
53
His Virtues and Vices were alike those of his People
54
His Government was essentially feudal and monarchical
55
His Efforts to give Unity to Thought
56
General Resemblance of his Ideas of Government to those of Napoleon
58
Magnificent Ideas of each as shown in their public Works
59
Which produced the Reaction against him that checked his Power
60
Opposite Characters of Louis XIV and William III
61
Heroic Resistance of William to the French Invasion
62
Adaptation of the Character of William to his Destiny in Life
63
His Policy in War which at length proved Victorious
64
His Character in Private
65
Character of James II of England
66
The Rashness and Imprudence which cost him his Throne
67
Commencement of the War
68
Forces on the side of France
69
Marlboroughs first Mission to the Continent and first Cam paign
71
Bonn
73
The Dutch prevent Marlborough from Fighting and the Cam paign concludes with the taking of Limbourg
74
Disasters on the Upper Rhine and in Bavaria
75
Extreme Danger of the Empire from these Successes
76
French Plan of the Campaign in Germany
77
Plan of the Allies to counteract it
78
Marlboroughs cross March into Germany
79
Subsequent Successes in Bavaria
80
Marshal Tallard joins the Elector of Bavaria who determines to fight
81
Vend˘me is defeated in his Attempt to penetrate through the Tyrol
82
Forces on both Sides and their comparative Merits
83
French Position and Dispositions with its Dangers
85
And Advantages
86
Commencement of the Battle
87
Attack on Blenheim which is repulsed
88
Crossing of the Nebel by the Allies
89
The Cavalry with great Difficulty are got across
90
Rout of Prince Holstein in the Attack on Oberglau
91
Operations of Eugene on the Riglit
92
Grand and decisive Charge by Marlborough in the Center
93
Eugenes Success on the Right
94
Total Rout of Tallard who is made Prisoner
95
Mistake by which the French Left escaped Destruction
96
Capture of all the Troops in Blenheim and Conclusion of the Battle
97
Results of the Battle
98
Causes of thie Defeat of the French
99
Capture of Landau and Traerbach and Conclusion of the Campaign
101
Honors and Rewards bestowed on Marlborough
102
Bitter Sense which Marlborough entertained of this parsimo
105
Vigorous Efforts of the French Government
112
His able Plan to overreach the Enemy
118
Marlborough prepares to attack the French at Waterloo
124
Similarity between his present Situation and that of Welling
131
Forces on the opposite Sides in Flanders
133
Villerois Efforts to restore the Battle which are unsuccessful
139
MAP OF FRANCE AND THE NETHERLANDS
141
Marlboroughs Hopes for a speedy Peace
145
Splendid and disinterested Conduct of Marlborough in
151
ries but he prevails at Court
156
Great Error in the subsequent Policy of England
157
CHAPTER IV
158
Appearance of Charles XII of Sweden in Germany
159
Great Military Abilities
160
His Faults Rashness and Cruelty
161
Efforts of Louis XIV to win him to bis Side
162
Measures of Marlborough to counteract his Efforts
163
Visit of Marlborough to Charles at Dresden
164
His Address and Success with that Monarch
165
His satisfactory Arrangement of the Difficulties regarding Poland
166
Renewed Jealousies and Procrastinations of the Allied Powers
167
Which causes the Campaign to be wasted in useless Man euvers
168
Disasters of the Allies in Spain and on the Rhine
169
Marlborough in consequence strongly urges an Invasion in the South of France
170
Invasion of Provence by Eugene
171
Failure there and Retreat of Eugene
172
Causes of the Reaction against Marlborough and the War at this Time
173
Change in the System of Government by the Revolution
174
Decline of Marlboroughs Influence at Court and Rise of Mrs Masham
176
Her great Influence
177
Violence of the Party Contests in England
178
paign in the Low Countries
179
Preparations and Forces of the Allies in Flanders
180
Vend˘mes Movements to Aid a Revolt in Antwerp
181
Vend˘mes able Plan to Aid a Rising in Ghent and Bruges
182
He makes himself Master of Ghent and Bruges
183
Extreme Vexation and serious Illness of Marlborough
184
Marlboroughs Crossmarch on Vend˘mes Communications
185
Vend˘me moves off followed by the Allies
186
Description of the Field of Battle
187
Preliminary Movements on both sides and Capture of the French advanced Guard
188
Forces on both sides and Commencement of the Battle
189
Brilliant Success of the French Right
190
Operations of Eugene on the Right
191
And of Marlborough on the Left
192
Vigor with which it was executed by Overkirk who entire ly turns them
193
Results of the Battle
195
Marlboroughs Advice to march to Paris is overruled and it is resolved to lay Siege to Lille
196
Preparations of the Allies for the Siege
197
Commencement of the Siege and Position of the covering Army
198
Marlborough arrests Vend˘me and Berwick when trying to raise the Siege
199
Progress of the Siege and Eugene wounded which throws the Direction of the Siege on Marlborough
200
Efforts on both Sides to obtain Supplies of Ammunition
201
Capitulation of the Town of Lille
202
Siege of the Citadel of Lille and Diversion of Vend˘me against Brussels
203
Marlborough recovers Ghent
204
And Bruges Concludes the Campaign and again refuses the Government of the Netherlands
205
Glorious Results of the Campaign and great Ability of Marl borough
206
CHAPTER V
208
His cold Reception from the Court of England and Mission to the Hague
209
Great Concessions offered by Louis
210
Vain Endeavors of Louis to bribe Marlborough
211
Ultimatum of the Allies which is rejected by France
212
Noble Efforts of Louis to save France
214
Marlboroughs Efforts to obtain an Augmentation of Force in the Low Countries
215
Which at length are partially successful The Forces at his Disposal
217
And lays Siege to Tournay
218
Description of Tournay
219
Siege of the Citadel and its desperate Chances
220
Alarms of the Troops at the subterraneous Warfare
221
Its real Horrors
222
But the Citadel is at length taken
223
Commencement of the Battle
233
Marlborough after a desperate Conflict carries the Wood of TaisniŔre
234
Bloody Repulse of the Prince of Orange on the Left
235
Heroic but ineffectual Efforts of the Prince of Orange to re store the Combat
236
A vigorous Attack of Villars on the Right weakens his Center which Marlborough prepares to attack
237
Decisive Attack by Lord Orkney on the Center
238
His able and orderly Retreat
239
Results of the Battle to the Allies
240
Loss of the French and Humanity of Marlborough
241
Capture of Mons and Conclusion of the Campaign
242
Continued Decline of Marlboroughs Influence at Court
243
Unjust Criticisms and Censures on the Campaign
244
Injudicious Request of Marlborough to be made Captaingen eral for Life
245
Increasing Jealousies of him at Court
246
His Remonstrances with the Queen
247
He determines to resign if Mrs Masham is not removed
248
Battle of Pultowa and overthrow of Charles XII
249
Character of Peter the Great of Russia
250
His Errors and Delusions regarding him
251
Real Character of his Changes
252
CHAPTER VI
253
Rigorous Demands of the Allies
254
Plan of the Campaign agreed on between Eugene and Marl borough
255
Sect Page 4 Passage of the Lines of the Scarpe
256
Description of Douay
257
Both Armies expect another Battle
258
Villars retires without fighting
259
Fall of Douay
260
Great Skill with which Villars averted the Invasion of France on this Occasion Fall of Bethune
261
Increasing Animosity to Marlborough in England He in tends to besiege Calais
262
Siege and Capture of St Venant
263
And of Aire
264
General Alarm at the Augmentation of the Public Burdens
265
Argument of Bolingbroke on the Subject
266
Real Causes of the Evils complained of
267
Envy of him among his own Party
268
Paltry Difficulties thrown in the Way of the Completion of Blenheim
269
Ungrateful Reception of Marlborough by the Ministers and Country
270
Dismissal of the Duchess of Marlborough
271
Marlborough with great Reluctance withholds his intended Resignation
272
Prosperous Condition of the Army in the Low Countries
273
Death of the Emperor Joseph and Election of Charles VI as Emperor
274
Plan of the Campaign
275
Fatal Separation of Eugene with his Troops from Marlbor ough
276
Villars avoids a Battle by Orders of Louis
277
Who had begun a separate and secret Negotiation with En gland
278
His Project for achieving this
279
Preparations for Executing it and Deceiving the Enemy
280
He passes the Lines with entire Success
281
Commencement of the Siege of Bouchain
282
Ostensible Preparations for War and real secret Negotiations
285
Louis rises in his Demands at Utrecht which turns into
292
Marlboroughs Speech in seconding the Motion of Halifax
298
Marlborough is received with the highest Honors on
305
Sect Page 65 Suspension of the building of Blenheim at the Public Expense
307
Which arose from a Plan for the Restoration of the Stuarts
308
His domestic Bereavements and Stroke of Palsy
309
His last Years and Death
310
CHAPTER VII
312
Nature of the Feudal Wars
313
Great Change when Armies were paid by Government
314
Character of CondÚ
315
Peculiar Character of Marlborough as a General
316
His extraordinary Prudence and Address
317
Nature of War in the Time of Marlborough
318
Circumspection was in him a Matter of Necessity
319
He was compelled to adopt the System of Sieges and fix the War in Flanders
320
Dangers of the opposite System
321
He was the Perfection of Genius matured by Experience
322
His great Address and Suavity of Manner
323
His Character as a Statesman and in Private
324
His political Character after the Revolution
325
His Faults and Weaknesses
326
Circumstances which palliate these Faults in him
327
His Magnanimity and Humanity
328
His Character as drawn by Adam Smith and Bolingbroke
329
The five great Generals of Modern Times
330
Early Life of Eugene
331
Character of his Warfare and his first great Victory over the Turks
332
His Campaigns in Italy and Germany
333
Sect Page 29 His astonishing Successes over the Turks
334
Narrow Escape from Ruin and wonderful Victory at Belgrade
335
His Character as a General and Parallel to Napoleon
336
Early Life of Frederic the Great
337
His Accession to the Throne and vigorous Application to its Duties
338
His Aggression on and Conquest of Silesia and first Victory at Mollwitz
339
His glorious Successes over the Austrians
340
His decided and indomitable Character already appears
341
His great Services to his Kingdom during the next ten Years of Peace
342
Frederic invades Saxony and conquers that Country
343
He defeats the Austrians at Prague and is defeated at Kolin
344
The Kings marvelous Victories at Rosbach and Leuthen
345
Disasters sustained by his Troops in other Quarters and Vic tory of Zorndorf
346
Frederics Defeat at Hohenkirchen
347
Overwhelming Misfortunes in other Quarters
348
Dreadful Battle and Victory of the Prussians at Torgau
349
Operations in the Camp of Bunzelwitz
350
The Death of the Empress of Russia restores his Affairs
351
Wonderful Result of the Struggle
352
His Character as a General
353
Comparison of Frederic and Napoleon
354
Of Marlborough and Wellington
355
Points in which their Situations differed
356
Great Superiority of Force with which Wellington had to contend
357
Their respective Characteristics
358
Great and remarkable Land Triumphs of England over
362
Opposite Sides on Political Questions on which the Parties
368
General Terrors it excited in Great Britain
374
Which distinctly appeared in the Votes and Composition
380
Sect Page 21 Character of Harley Earl of Oxford
384
It was these general Causes which overtumed Marlborough
385
Great Violations of moral Rectitude in the Mode of their Attack on Marlborough
387
What was the Danger to be guarded against in the Peace
388
The Result has proved the Tories were wrong in their Policy regarding it
389
Disastrous Effects and Serious Dangers to England which followed the leaving a Bourbon on the Spanish Throne
390
Examples of this in later Times
391
These Dangers have arisen solely from the Spanish Alliance
392
It was a Sense of this Advantage which made Napoleon en gage in the Peninsular War
393
Causes which render the Alliance of Spain of such vital
394
Instance of the same Political Infatuation in our Times
395
Results which have followed from it in the last Instance
396
Strange Insensibility to National Sins which often prevails
397
Analogy between the Situation of the Tories in the War of the Succession and the Whigs in that of the Revolution
398
Extraordinary Coincidence in the Crisis of the two Contests
399
Real Causes of this Identity of Conduct of the opposite Parties on these Occasions
400
Excuses which existed for the Policy of the Tories at the Treaty of Utrecht from the Dread of Spain
401
Bolingbrokes Picture of the ruined State of the Spanish Monarchy at this Period
402
But no Excuse can be found for our Violation of the Treaty of Utrecht by the Quadruple Alliance in 1834
404
Answer to the common Argument used in behalf of the Quadruple Alliance
405
Our active Interference to put down Don Carlos and the Male Line was still more unjustifiable
406
What England should have done on the Occasion
407
England has lost all Title to complain of any Violation of the Treaty of Utrecht
408
Great Change which the Substitution of the Female Line for the Male in Spain made in this Respect on the Interests of other Powers
409

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Page 384 - AWAKE, my St John ! leave all meaner things To low ambition, and the pride of kings. Let us (since life can little more supply Than just to look about us and to die) Expatiate free o'er all this scene of Man ; A mighty maze ! but not without a plan ; A wild, where weeds and flowers promiscuous shoot ; Or garden, tempting with forbidden fruit.
Page 103 - Inspired repulsed battalions to engage, And taught the doubtful battle where to rage. So when an angel by divine command With rising tempests shakes a guilty land, Such as of late o'er pale Britannia past, Calm and serene he drives the furious blast ; And, pleased the Almighty's orders to perform, Rides in the whirlwind, and directs the storm.
Page 160 - On what foundation stands the warrior's pride, How just his hopes let Swedish Charles decide; A frame of adamant, a soul of fire, No dangers fright him, and no labours tire; O'er love, o'er fear, extends his wide domain, Unconquer'd lord of pleasure and of pain; No joys to him pacific...
Page 331 - Marlborough was raised to the head of the army, and indeed of the confederacy, where he, a new, a private man, a subject, acquired by merit and by management a more deciding influence, than high birth, confirmed authority, and even the crown of Great Britain, had given to King William.
Page 288 - Bay, either by way of restitution or cession ; and that both nations should continue to enjoy whatever territories they might be possessed of in North America at the ratification of the treaties. She likewise insisted upon a security that the crowns of France and Spain should never be united on the same head.
Page 96 - I have not time to say more, but to beg you will give my duty to the queen, and let her know her army has had a glorious victory. M. Tallard and two other generals are in my coach, and I am following the rest. The bearer, my aide-de-camp, Colonel Parke, will give her an account of what has passed. I shall do it, in a day or two, by another more at large. MARLBOROUGH.
Page 103 - Twas then great Marlborough's mighty soul was proved, That, in the shock of charging hosts unmoved, Amidst confusion, horror, and despair, Examined all the dreadful scenes of war; In peaceful thought the field of death surveyed, To fainting squadrons sent the timely aid, Inspired repulsed battalions to engage, And taught the doubtful battle where to rage.

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