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THE

21072

Popular Edurator

VOLUME THE FIFTH. .

STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring;

for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business : for expert men
can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling
of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies, is sloth ; to use them
too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar;
they perfect nature, and are perfected by experience; for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning
by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by
experience.-Bacon.

LONDON:

W. KENT AND CO., 51, AND 52, PATERNOSTER ROW.

MDCCCLVI.

As we have already informed our readers, it was our intention to have closed the POPULAR EDUCATOR with the Fifth Volume. Finding it impossible to do so without leaving several subjects unfinished, we determined to carry on the Work to the end of the present year, and then issue a Title and Index to be bound up with the enlarged volume. Since that time we have received so many strong expressions of regret at the early discontinuance of the publication, that we have been induced to postpone its termination till the completion of the Sixth Volume. We, therefore, at the request of several corranondents, now present our readers with a Title and Index. for the convenience of those who may

desire it.

CONTENTS.

PAGB

PAGE

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA,

XXI. Le Girondin et le Cent-Suisse; Sections I., II.,

III.; Une Promenade de Fénélon ; Sections

I., II., III., with exercises, etc.............
XXII. Section IV., with exercises, etc..
XXIII. Jeanne d'Arc, Section I., with exercises, etc.
XXIV. Sections II., III.; Le Mort de Jeanne d'Arc,

Sections I., II., with exerciser, etc.
XXV. La Marguerite et l'Epi de Blé, Section I.,

with exercises, etc.

325
343
359

391

XIV. Foreign Trade; Memoranda of Transactions

XV. Cash Book; Cash Account ......
XVI. Cash Book; Cash Account; Bill Book; Bills

Receivable; Bills Payable
XVII. Day Book..

XVIII. Bank Account; Interest Account, with the

Union Bank Journal..........

XIX. Journal...

XX. Index to Ledger ; Ledger

XXI. Ledger; Trial Balance

XXII. Invoice Book
XXIII. Account Sales Book.
XXIV. Account Current Book.

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XLIV. Verbs in ful; treated in Detail

XLV.

XLVI. Formation of Words; Nouns and Adjectives.. 400

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LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION.

V. The Dash ; Hyphen; Ellipsis

27

VI. The Apostrophe;

Quotation Mark; Diæresis.. 42

VII. Analysis of the Voice ; Quality of the Voice;

Smoothness of the Voice; Versatility ...... 61

VIII. Distinct Articulation ; Correct Pronunciation;

True Time

75

IX. Appropriate Pauses; Right Emphasis

88

X. Correct Inflections

116

XI. Exercises on Inflections

137

XII.

154

XIII. Just'stress ; Expressive Tones

163

XIV. Rules on Expressive Tone; Appropriate Modu-

lation; Promiscuous Exercises : Antiquity

of Freedom; Pope and Dryden.....,

177

XV. Promiscuous Exercises: the Puritans; Univer-

sal Decay; Eternity of God

194

XVI. The Upright Lawyer; Human Culture ; Ameri-

can Eagle; Memory; Old Ironsides...... 229
XVII. Interesting Adventure ; Thoughts on Polite-
Dess; Ode on Art; GOD; Niagara

258
XVIII. Education of Females ; Custom of Whitewash-

ing; Child of the Tomb; Love and Fame .. 274

XIX. Poetry; Causes of War; Foundation of National

Character; Success of the Gospel; Power of

the Soul; Hymn of Nature.

350

XX. Woman; Tread-mill Song; Wouter Van Twiller;
Palmyra

367
XXI. Child carried away by an Eagle; To the Con-

dor; Scene at the Dedication of an Heathen
Temple..

381
XXII. Hamilton and Jay; Psalm of Life; Adams

and Jefferson; Posthumous Influence of the
Wise and Good; Last Days of Autumn;
Voices of the Dead; Importance of Know-
ledge to the Mechanic

398

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LESSONS IN PHYSICS OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

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CHAPTER V.

which took place during the tertiary epoch will explain the

inclination or dip which mark the strata in some localities. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS.

The scooping or denuding action of the ocean upon the chalk SECTION IV.

beds will explain the hollows or the basins in which the ter

tiary formations rest.
(Continued from page 316, Vol. IV.)

VEGETATION.
ON THE TERTIARIES.

In the basins scooped by denudation in the chalk, and which II. ON THE FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE TERTIARIES. are now called the Basins of London, Hampshire, the Isle of All the beds of the tertiary rocks have every appearance of pebbly gravel, at first spread pretty uniformly over the whole

Wight, and Paris, the Eocene beds always consist of a coarse having been deposited in a shallow sea, not far from coast tract; but afterwards, when the sand became more elevated, lines, with much regularity, and in the course of many ages, and consequently the rising rocks yielding different kinds of The earlier beds are very extensive, and consist of rolled detritus, its character altered. If you imagine cliffs of rocks pebbles produced by the rubbing and wearing down of the of different characters, thus gradually rising, and being conchalk Aints, and perhaps of fragments of hornblende and stantly acted upon by the waves of the sea or by running primitive rocks, scattered over a shallow sea-bottom. It is water, and this water-action taking place in circumstances of Otherwise impossible to account for the immense beds of sand found in the tertiaries.

great diversity, you will come by the facts which will enable To enable you to derive intellectual advantage from this clay of London, the marly clays of Brussels, the silicious or

you to account for the coarse limestones of Paris, the plastic lesson on the plants and animals of the tertiaries, your mind Ainty formations from the warm springs in Auvergne in Central must keep firm hold of the following principles : 1. The term " tertiary" implies a secondary” system of France, and for the various limestones of the Greek Islands.

That the vegetation of the first tertiary land, or the Eocene, rocks as already in existence. The highest and newest of was very luxuriant, is proved by the fragments of wood and these is the chalk,

the fruits of trees which are found fossil in rich abundance in 2. The “secondary" beds may, have formed either the the Isle of Sheppey at the mouth of the Thames. These fossil bottoms of seas, or islands and mainlands, for many ages before woods are very great in number and very rich in variety. the tertiaries began to be deposited.

Even in the Isle of Sheppey alone, several hundred species have 3. During this interval, all the districts that now form the been discovered, all of them differing much from existing great plains of Europe were covered by the sea. 4. Most of the European land of that epoch lay chiefly from found growing in warm climates. There is a large prepon,

plants, though they are closely allied to some which are now east to west, and extended far into the Atlantic, connecting derance of a species allied to the palms, something like a kind the land now called England and Ireland not only with Spain, between the cocoa-nut and the screw pine or Pandanus, which but also with the islands to the west of Africa.

are so well known in tropical climates. There are others of 6. At that time the Pyrenees, the Alps, Apennines, the the Nipæ family, which now luxuriate in Japan, and in the Grecian Mountains, the Caucasus, the Carpathians, etc., formed Spice Islands. a chain of islands in the open sea.

The fossil wood of these trees is often found to have been 6. Things continued long in this tranquil state until a volpierced, and almost destroyed, by an extinct kind of Teredo, canic power threw up the Wealden of Kent and Sussex, and before it had been deposited in the mud. Sometimes the a gradual upheaval of the land took place, and the aforesaid wood presents nothing but cavities, which had been left by these islands rose gradually higher and higher above the ocean, and animals, and which were afterwards filled up with carbonate of consequently more land was formed.

lime. 7. As those vast islands rose, the sea would dash against their sides, dislodge fragments from their cliffs, which they would roll smooth, wear down, until they constituted the The tertiary beds abound in shell animals, both univalve, beds of gravel which now cover the chalk in some places. having but one shell like the snail; or bivalve, having two

8. The shores of these islands and mainlands were low and shells like the oyster or cockle. The bed called the London swampy, and large rivers brought down the mud and sand to clay is full of.the remains of crabs and lobsters, some of which form what is now the south-east of England, and also the for- are very perfect. One of the most remarkable groups amid mations about Brussels,

these tertiaries, is a species of foraminiferous shell, called 9. The seas were tenanted by animals like the shark, and the nummulite on account of its resemblance to a small piece by fishes of the tribes now found in warm latitudes, and by of money. The fossil remains of this shell-fish are so incredibly large shell-fish that could live either in salt, or in brackish, abundant in some localities, as that rocks of enormous size are water.

entirely made up of them. The tertiary shells bear, for the 10. The rivers were peopled with crocodiles, turtles, tortoises, most part, a considerable analogy to those which exist at something akin to those now existing.

present, as will be seen in Fig. 1. · 11. The sides of the hills and the plains were clothed with Our engraving is only intended to represent a few specimens a rich tropical vegetation, abounding with the palm-tree and of the tertiary shells, to show their usual appearance and the cocoa-nut. This luxuriant vegetation indicates an abund. character. The entire species, as already determined by naturalance of animal life.

ists, amount to nearly three thousand. Some of the tertiary These geological facts, and others akin to them, will help strata are almost entirely composed of shelly remains in a you to understand some of the peculiar circumstances in which broken and crushed state, and many sandy seams in the clayey you occasionally find the tertiary deposits. The upheavals beds consist of shell dust. In some places the shells are preVOL. V.

105

SHELLS.

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