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EDITED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF
THE NINTH BOOK
Vergilmis Maro, Publuis
EDITED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS
EDWARD H. CUTLER, A.M.
PRINCIPAL OF PREPARATORY SCHOOL, NEWTON, MASS.
BOSTON, U.S.A., AND LONDON
GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
The Athenæum Press
HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY
BY EDWARD H. CUTLER
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
In the preparation of the present work the effort has been made to follow as closely as possible the methods proposed by the editors-in-chief of the series of School Classics to which it belongs. In pursuance of this course personal opinions on points comparatively unimportant have yielded cheerfully, as they should, to uniformity of treatment. For instance, the editor of this work would not otherwise have listed together in the Vocabulary words beginning with i vowel, and those beginning with i
Although in an elementary text-book it would have been inappropriate to emphasize matters of purely linguistic interest, attention has been called occasionally in the Notes to the coördinate use of the passive voice as middle, and of the active with a reflexive object. The Romance languages in their numerous reflexive verbs furnish, in analytic form, perfect illustration of the development of the middle voice, both direct and indirect, and of the relation of the middle voice to the passive. A few suggestive examples from the French have been given in the Notes.
Dr. Tetlow's Vocabulary to the eighth book of the Aeneid is probably the only work embodying the most recent views in etymology, in which the derivation of verbals in -us has been treated systematically and consistently. Some he refers to roots, and others to verbs, but in every case for a definite reason. In the Vocabulary of the present work the editor has been permitted, in the exercise of his own judgment, to refer all such nouns to the verbs.
The complete conjugation of a verb is made up of forms derived from the same root or stem at different periods and in different ways, but for convenience grouped together. In referring to the verb the verbal in -us, it is meant simply that the word belongs closely to the same group. It is believed by the editor to be identical with the supine, a noun often found in other forms than the accusative and the ablative (locative) singular. Since the supine is now universally recognized as a noun, it seems reasonable that nouns like audītus and visus, for instance, should not be considered different words when in the ablative, and when in the nominative with identical meaning. Nor should it be an objection that such nouns have often become concrete, or even collective, and that they are more commonly used as such than as pure abstract verbals. A similar change of meaning, or union of such meanings in one word, is common in all languages.
The traditional treatment of the supine as a special form of the verb appears ascribable to two causes. First,
the accusative form is sometimes followed by the same case as the verb. But a like construction is found with other words whose intimate connection was felt with the verb-group, with verbal adjectives in -bundus and with Second, it is used in the accusative
verbal nouns in -tiō.
to denote purpose. But this is a survival of the accusative of limit, or goal of motion, a construction familiar in Homer, and in Latin persisting in the names of towns and in a few other words in common use, as rūs and domum.
It may possibly be said that the view here presented should lead to abolishing the supine entirely. The editor would have no objection to such a step; but the regular use of the word in forming the future infinitive passive would still justify recognizing it as in its derivation belonging to the verb-group.1
Except in the instance mentioned derivation has been given, with few exceptions, as in Lewis's Elementary 1 In the Notes on line 241, – si fortuna permittitis uti, quaesitum Aenean
in order not to confuse the pupil by any novel view, quaesitum is called a supine. It would seem more reasonable to consider it a verbal noun in apposition with fortuna uti: "if . . ., that is, if you accord me the going-to-seek . . . .' If it were not one of the comparatively few instances extant in which the 'supine' takes an object, this view would probably be accepted.
Some of the verbals in question are found in supine constructions only, but these are probably less numerous than recognized verbal nouns which are found in the ablative only, or in the accusative and the ablative.