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though it has somewhat puzzled the commentators: 'I access to, though he commonly followed Hall or Holam now only the shadow of poor Buckingham, whose lingshed in the main. figure, formerly unobscured, this instant puts on a cloud, which shadows my clear sıın. Knight thus comments
“ – the Confession's seal'— The old copies, from on the same reading :-“This passage is not easy to be
the misprint of the first folio, read “commission's seal." understood. Is the comparison a single or a double
for “confession's seal.” Theobald made the correction. one? Douce says it is double : · Buckingham is first
which is supported by Hollingshed, who says, " the inade to say that he is but a shadow; in other terms, a
monk bound the chaplain under the seal of confession." dead man. He then adverts to the sudden cloud of mnisfortune that overwhelms him, and, like a shadow,
- put his knife into him”—The materials for this
scene, drawn originally from Hall, whether through his obscures his prosperity.' Johnson treats the comparison as single: I am the shadow of poor Buckingham, him, were derived from the official legal documents,
successor and copyist, Hollingshed, or directly from whose post and dignity is assumed by the cardinal that overclouds and oppresses me, and who gains my place | trial, in the Year-book,' (13 Henry VIII.). Hall
and correspond precisely with the report of the Duke's by darkening my clear sun.' Offering another explana
was a lawyer, probably consulted the original manution, Johnson would read puts out ; and Stevens inclines to pouts on. We think the comparison is continu
script, as the reports were not printed during his time
This particular charge is thus stated in the old law vus, though not exactly single: I am the shadow of
French:~" Donques autrefoits il dit, si le Roy mores! poor Buckingham-Buckingham is no longer a reality;
sans issue male il vous estre Roy; et auri que il disoii, but even this figure of himself is absorbed, annihilated, by the instant cloud. The metaphor, however, forgets
si le Roy avoit lui commis al prison, donques il 20ul lui
occire ove son dagger." After stating the Duke's cothatThe shadow proves the substance true.”
fession and execution, the case concludes, in a fashion Knight.
very unlike our modern reports, with a prayer for the
Duke's soul, and a brief eulogy on his character:I cannot perceive that any satisfactory explanation of
“ Dieu à sa ame grant mercy-car il fuit tres noble the old reading has been offered. Johnson, who also
prince et prudent et mirror de tout courtesie." It is confessed the lines, as they stood, were to him “ inexplicable," suggested that on was a misprint for “out,"
worthy of notice, that this last phrase is also applied by
the Poet to the Duke. In act ii. scene 1, the commons which alteration Sir W. Blackstone adopts, and thus explains :-“ By adopting. Dr. Johnson's first conjecture, mirror of all courtesy."
are said to call him, “bounteous Buckingham-the - puts out' for ' puts on,' a tolerable sense may be given to these obscure lines: 'I am but the shadow of poor “By day and night"-Stevens doubts whether this Buckingham;' and even the figure or outline of this is an oath, or merely means "always, at all times :" shadow begins now to fade away, being extinguished | like Falstaff's “Thine own true knight-By day or by this impending cloud, which darkens (or interposes night.” But the context shows that it is evidently an between me and) my clear sun; that is, the favour of adjuration, like Hamlet's— my sovereign.” Finding nothing so satisfactory as this By day and night, but this is wondrous strange. conjecture, it has been adopted in the text, though with great reluctance to vary from the original edition.
- one toould take it,
That never saw 'em pace before, the sparin
And springhalt reign'd among them.”
The old editions thus print the last two lives :“ The meaning (says Malone) appears to be, things
the spavin, are now in such a situation that resentment and indig
A springhalt reign'd arnong them. nation predominate, in every man's breast, over duty | This the modern editors all retain. The only senise and allegiance.”
of these words, and that strangely expressed, is that the
"spavin,” which is a “springhalt,” reigned among them. “ There is no primer business”—The first impression But the spavin and the springhalt (the old name for of this play has “no primer baseness." The context what, in modern veterinary phrase, is the string-kalt) seems clearly to show that the author wrote a primer are two diseases so different, not only in nature but business,"—i. e. no matter of state more requiring in in external effect, that they would not be confounded stant attention, Baseness, though it may give an intel by any one who used the terms at all, much less by one ligible sense, does not agree with the context; for the
so well skilled in horse-flesh as Shakespeare often prures Queen does not assail Wolsey in this manner, but speaks || himself to have been. The spavin is of two sorts, both of him in very guarded terms. Though baseness is re radical diseases amounting to unsoundness, in jockey tained by Knight, who brands the other as a feeble read law and usage. The bog or blood-sparin is an enlargeing, I have, with most other editors, adopted the altera
ment, in different stages of disease, of the bag containing tion which was first suggested by Warburton.
a mucous substance on the inside of the horse's hock at · By sick interpreters (once weak ones”)–. e. By of the bones of the hock-joint; and all the forms of
its bending. The bone-sparin is a more serious affection sick interpreters, who are sometimes weak ones. “Once,” for at some one time or other, is used by seve
spavin produce lameness in different degrees. The ral of Shakespeare's contemporaries, as Drayton and springhalt of the old farriers, or the stringhalt of modern Leicester, and by the author himself, in the MERRY veterinary science, is a peculiar involuntary twitching Wives of Windsor:—“I pray thee, once give my
of one or both of the hind-legs, caused by a convulsive sweet Nan this ring."
motion of the muscles that move them. The seat and
cause of the disease have not been well ascertained. It "By a vain prophecy of Nicholas HENTON”—This is has been pronounced by high authority to be “ an irregthe name in the original text, which modern editors ular action of nervous energy," but does not amount to generally alter to “ Nicholas Hopkins," which the chron unsoundness; for, though unpleasant to a rider, it is iclers give as the monk's name. But it appears that || generally connected with more than ordinary strength Hopkins was sometimes styled Hinton, or Hintonensis, and endurance. Now, it would seem that Shakespeare as being of the convent of Hinton, near Bristol. It is meant that his satirical old lord should sneer at the sere proper, therefore, to retain the name, as it shows that ral affectations of walk and manner among the mimics Shakespeare did not content himself with literally fol- of foreign fashion, by likening them to different forms lowing the single volume of Hollingshed before him, || of horse disease, --some baving the lameness and stiff as is assumed and argued upon by Malone and others, I gait of spavined horses; others, the jerking and twitchbut read such histories bearing on his subject as he had || ing nervousness of those affected with the springbalt.
I do not, therefore, doubt that in the first impression, or fire made and prepared for him, and there new apparthe manuscript copy from which it was printed, A elled him with rich and princely garments. And in the springhalt was an error of the printer or copyist, for time of the King's absence the dishes of the banquet "And," — with the same capital beginning the line. were cleau taken up, and the table spread again with
new and sweet perfumed cloths, every man sitting still “Of fool, and feather"- The text may receive illustration from Nashe's “ Life of Jack Wilton,” (1594:-, again, every man being newly apparelled. Then the
until the King and bis maskers came in among them " At that time (viz. in the court of King Henry VIII.) I King took his seat under the cloth of estate, commandwas no common squire, no undertrodden torchbearer; I had my feather in my cap as big as a flag in the fore- || Then in came a new banquet before the King's majesty
ing no man to remove, but sit still as they did before. top, my French doublet gelte in my belly, as though and to all the rest through the tables; wherein I sup(lyke a pig readie to be spitted) all my guts had beene
pose were served two hundred dishes or above, of pluckt ont, a paire of side paned hose that hung down like two scales filled with Holland cheeses, my long
wondrous costly meats and devices subtilly devised.slock that sate close to my dock, -my rapier pendant, ting, dancing, and other triumphant devices, to the great
Thus passed they forth the whole night with banquetlike a round sticke, etc., my blacke cloake of cloth, overspreading my backe like a thornbacke or an ele
comfort of the King, and pleasant regard of the nobility
there assembled." phant's eare; and in consummation of my curiositie, my handes without gloves, all a mode French," etc. Douce
- Let the music KNOCK IT'-i. e. Let the music observes that Sir Thomas Lovell's is an allusion to the play. “Knock it" seems to have been derived from feathers which were formerly worn by fools in their beating time, or perhaps from beating the drum. caps, as may be seen in a print of Jordan's after Voert; and which is alluded to in the ballad of “ News and no
ACT II.-SCENE J.
" — build their evils on the graves of great men". cap.
As in MEASURE FOR MEASURE, (act ii. scene 2,)“ evils" “ Short Blister'n breeches"—i. e. Breeches puffed | is used in its ancient and now obsolete sense, for forici. or swelled out like blisters. Some editors have thought it should be “bolster'd breeches,”-i. e. stuffed out like
" 'Gainst me, that I cannot take peace with: bolsters.
No black envy shall make my grave."
These short lines are not introduced without a mean SCENE IV.
ing. With those pauses in the delivery that properly "- all this noble bevy"-So Spenser, in the “Fairy belong to one speaking under such circumstances, they Queen:
add to the pathos. They are ordinarily printed after A lovely bevy of fair ladies sat.
the uniform metrical fashion of the modern editors :--
'Gainst me I can't take peace with : no black envy Drayton, and Milton, (“ a bevy of fair dames,"") with
Shall make my grave. Commend me to his grace. other poets, having thus employed the word in this connection, “ bevy” has come to signify a company of ladies ; " — till my soul forsake"-Rowe here stuck in mebut its original application was to focks of birds; and “ till my soul forsake me." It is not difficult to see that it is still the technical sporting phrase for a flock of Shakespeare had a different metaphysical notion from quails.
that of his editors: the me places the individuality in the “ As first, good company"-We retain the old
punc, tuation, which has been altered into “ first good," and “When I came hither, I was lord high constable, understood to mean, what we should now call “first And duke of Buckingham; now, poor Edward Bohun.” rate company." On the contrary, the author made
The Duke of Buckingham's name was Stafford by Guildford mention “good company” first, and “ good
descent from his personal ancestors, and Bagot on the wine” and “good welcome” as second and third, omit
female side; but he is said to have affected the surname ting the formal enumeration. Collier rightly remarks,
of Bohun, because he was lord high constable by inher. • It would not be easy to point out an instance where
itance of tenure from that family. • first good' is rised in the sense of the best." "- if I make my play”-i. e. If I may choose my
SCENE II. game and my partner, at my own fancy.
“ From princes into pages"-" This may allude to the “ – Chambers discharged" —“Chambers" were short retinue of the Cardinal, who had several of the nobility pieces of ordnance, used on joyous occasions, contrived among his menial servants.”—JOHNSON. w carry a large charge of powder, and make a loud report.
“ – The King is discovered sitting, and reading
pensively"-" The old stage-direction shows the sim- and gracefully salute him”—These are the words
plicity of contrivance in our old theatres; for according of the old stage-direction. Modern editors say“ twelve
to it, the Lord Chamberlain having gone out, the King maskers," and "sixteen torch-bearers,” which is taken
himself drew the traverse curtain across the back of the from the account in Cavendish's “Life of Wolsey," and added, without authority, to the original stage-direction. | sitting, and reading pensively. The words are, “Exit
stage, and exhibited himself to Norfolk and Suffolk, “ You have found him, cardinal"-Cavendish, in re
Lord Chamberlain, and the King draws the curtain, and lating this scene, states that Wolsey selected “Sir Ed
sits reading pensively.'”—Collier. ward Neville, a comely knight of a goodly personage, “ I be not found a talker”—The meaning appears to that much more resembled the King's person in that
be, “ Let care be taken that my promise be performed, inask than any other.” On this, " the King plucked
that my professions of welcome be not found empty down his visor and Master Neville's also, and dashed
talk." out with such a pleasant cheer and countenance that all noble estates there assembled, seeing the King to be “ I'U venture one have at him"— The first edition has there amongst them, rejoiced very much
“I'll venture one; have at him." The next old edition in folio has “ I venture one heave at him," which last is
the reading preferred by Stevens, and commonly adoptI fear, with dancing is a little heated."
ed. It gives a good sense, and may be right; but as On being discovered and desired by Wolsey to tako “ have at him” is idiomatic old English, not yet absolete, the seat of honour, the King said “he would first go for to attack, and is used in this very connection in act and change his apparel; and so departed, and went iii. scene 2, where Seymour begins his charge upon straight into my lord's bedchamber, where was a great Wolsey with “Have at you," I rather think that the
“ Yorur grace.
author here used the compound phrase as a noun. whereof were enchased two carbuncles, which gave so Knight, as usual, adheres to the first folio, and thus ex bright a splendour round about the room that there was plains its words:-" It appears to us that Norfolk means no need of any other light." by “I'll venture one,' I'll risk myself; and that Suffolk is ready to encounter the same danger— I another.'” "— forty pence"-"Forty pence' was, in those days,
the proverbial expression of a small wager. Money “ Hare their free voices" — Malone asserts that the
was then reckoned by pounds, marks, and nobles. word “sent,” in the next line, is understood after Forty pence,' or three-and-fourpence, is half a noble, " have,” in this passage. To say that all the learned
and is still an established legal fee."-STEVENS. clerks “ have their free voices" is sufficiently intelligi. ble; and in the folio (1623)“ voices" is followed by a
SCENE IV. period, the sense being complete.
“ – Enter two Vergers, with short Silrer Wands"“Kept him a foreign man still; which so griev'd him, This minute stage-direction is given as it appears in the That he ran mad, and died."
old editions, and its costume, etc., are supported by the That is, kept him in foreign parts. The fact is from contemporary authorities. The “two great silver pilHollingshed, who says, “ Aboute this time the King re lars," borne by gentlemen, and the “two priests, bear. ceived into favour Doctor Stephen Gardiner, whose ser ing each a silver cross," were both of them regular parts vice he used in matters of great secrecie and weight, of Wolsey's pomp; one of them being symbolic of his admitting him in the room of Dr. Pace, the which being archbishopric, the other of his authority as cardinalcontinually abroad in ambassades, and the same often legate. The “ Treatous," a contemporary satire, by tymes not much necessarie, by the Cardinalles appoint Roy, thus described his pomp:ment, at length he toke such greefe therwith, that he
With worldly pompe incredible, fell out of his right wittes."
Before him rideth two prestes stronge ;
And they bear two crosses right longe,
Gapynge in every man's face:
And each of theym holdyn a pillar, - if that QUARREL, fortune, do divorce"- This is
In their hondes steade of a mace the old reading: Hanmer substituted quarreller, which does not improve the meaning. Warburton understood “ The Queen makes no ansier, rises out of her chair, “quarrel” as an arrow, from her "striking so deeply goes about the court, comes to the King," etc. and suddenly.” A “quarrel” was the name of the “Because she could not come directly to the King. large arrow, with a square head, (whence the name,) for the distance which severed them, she took pain to used in cross-bows. Fairfax, Spenser, and other poets, go about unto the King, kneeling down at his feet," etc. use the word. Yet “quarrel" is not elsewhere thus -Cavendish's Life of Wolsey. tized by our Poet, nor does it in that sense well apply here. I am satisfied that it is used for quarreller" the
- against mine honour AUGHT, act for the agent,” (as Johnson says.) Stevens thinks My bond to wedlock, or my love and duty, we should read, “ If that quarrel fortune to divorce,"
Against your sacred person," etc. taking “ fortune" as a verb :-" If any quarrel chance to There is a license of construction here one of the separate pomp from its bearer." One serious objection many elliptical expressions with which the play abounds. to this is, that in the old copies “fortune” is printed Aught" is required to be repeated—“ Aught against with a capital, as a noun, after the old mode.
your sacred person." “She's a stranger now again"—i. e. The revocation “ Beseech you, sir, to spare me, till I may of her husband's love has reduced her to the condition
Be by my friends in Spain advis'd," etc. of an unfriended stranger.
Cavendish states that, at the close of this speech, Kath your soft CHEVERIL conscience"-"Cheveril" is
arine “rose up, making a low court'sey to the king, and leather made of kid-skin, and easily stretched. The al so departed from thence. Many supposed that she lusion was common. Stevens quotes from the “ Histrio would have resorted again to her former place; but mastix," (1610,)
she took her way straight out of the house, leaning, as The cheveril conscience of corrupted law.
she was wont always to do, upon the arm of her gede
ral receiver, called Master Griffith. And the King being Pluck off a little"-Johnson would read, “ Pluck
advertised of her departure, commanded the crier to up a little;" but the explanation of Stevens seems the
call her again, who called her by the name of Kathatrue one-viz, “descend a little." Anne declares she
rine, Queen of England, come into the court,' etc. would not be a queen, nor a duchess; and the old lady,
With that quoth Master Griffith, Madam, ye be called then proceeds to “pluck off a little" from rank, and to
again.'—' On, on, (quoth she,) it maketh no matter; for assert that Anne would consent to be a countess, if she
it is no indifferent court for me; therefore I will not had the opportunity.
tarry. Go on your ways.'— And thus she departed out “ You'd venture an EMBALLING”—The word “emball of that court, without any further answer at that time ing" has occasioned dispute: Stevens would read em or at any other, nor would never appear at any other palling, and Whalley embalming, in reference to the court after." balm or oil of consecration. Emballing" seems, as
Lord cardinal, Johnson suggested, to have reference to the ball, one of the ensigns of royalty.
To you I speak." “Would for Carnarvonshire"-Anne would not be a
Mrs. Siddons, in her famous personation of the Queen, for all the world;" but you would (says the
here introduced an ingenious refinement, which was so queen
effective on the stage, that it has since become identified old lady) “ for little England;"-I would " for Carnarvonshire"—for one Welsh county.
with the scene, being not only adopted by her succes
sors in the part, but has been spread widely beyond " — and high note's"- In the original,“ high notes." the walls of the theatre, by critical eulogy, (Campbell's We understand it “ that high note is taken,” etc. “Life of Siddons, and Boaden’s “Life,”) and has been
perpetuated by the pencil and the graver. I think it is " -- from this lady may proceed a gem
evident that the Poet only meant a strong and direct To lighten all this isle ?"
appeal to Wolsey, such as could not be mistaken by The carbuncle was supposed to have intrinsic light, him or others for a moment. The innovation-it may and to shine in the dark. In the description of a palace | almost be called an interpolation of Mrs. Siddons--was in “ Amadis de Gaule," (1619,) it is said, “In the roof a thought that might deserve to have been in the author's of a chainber hung two lamps of gold, at the bottoins intent, though I do not think it was. It is thus described,
in a criticism on Mrs. Siddons, by the late Mr. Terry. shown in the last scene of the next act, where CromAfter dwelling upon her majesty, of deportment in the well mentions his return. Some of the editors of the trial-scene, and her “clear and intelligent harmony of last century, not noticing this, supposed that Cranmer unlaboured elocution, which unravels all the intricacies had been present, and was called back as he was going; of language, illuminates obscurity, and points and un and add, without authority, “ The King speaks to Cranfolds the precise truth of meaning to every apprehen- | mer." sion," he thus proceeds:—" But we dwell with the strongest admiration upon the extraordinary sublimity
ACT III.-SCENE I. of her feelings and expressions, when Wolsey opposes her request of delay. Vexed to the uttermost by the
“ Take thy lute, wench: my soul grows sad with troubles ; artifices with which her ruin is prosecuted, and touched
Sing, and disperse them, if thou canst. Leave working." with indignation at the meanness and injustice of the The relation of the interesting interview between proceeding, she interrupts Campeius, with the intention Wolsey, Campeius, and Katharine, is founded originally of accusing Wolsey, and of refusing him for her judge; on the narrative of Cavendish, who says that the Queen and calls, in a resistless tone of command, ‘Lord Cardi came out of her privy chamber with a skein of white nal!' Campeius, who had been urging immediate trial,
thread about her neck, into the chamber of presence." imagines it addressed to him, and comes forward as if
This excellent biographer was present at the early part Here Mrs. Siddons exhibited one of those of the meeting; for he subsequently, after the principals inequalled pieces of acting, by which she assists the had withdrawn, says, “We in the other chamber might barrenness of the text, and fills up the meaning of the sometime hear the Queen speak very loud; but what it
Those who have seen it will never forget it; was, we could not understand." but to those who have not, we feel it impossible to describe the majestic self-correction of the petulance and
“ – in the presence”-i. e. In the chamber of royal
audience. vexation which, in her perturbed state of mind, she feels at the misapprehension of Campeius, and the intel
“ They should be good men, their affairs as righteous ; ligent expression of countenance and gracious dignity
But all hoods make not monks." of gesture with which she intimates to him his mistake, and dismisses him again to his seat. And no language
Being churchmen they should be virtuous, and every can convey a picture of her immediate re-assumption of
business they undertake as righteous as their sacred the fulness of majesty, glowing with scorn, contempt,
office; but all hoods make not monks:" in allusion to anger, and the terrific pride of innocence, when she
the Latin proverb, Cucullus non facit monachum; to
which Chaucer also alludes :turns round to Wolsey, and exclaims, “ To you I speak!' Her form seemed to expand, and her eyes to burn be
Habite ne maketh monke ne frere ;
But a clene life and devotion, yond human, Wolsey obeys the summons, and requests
Maketh gode men of religion. to know her pleasure; and she proceeds to make the charge, and her refusal."
- If your business
Seek me out, and that way I am wife in,
Out with it boldly," etc.
This is obscurely expressed, but seems to mean, “ If These are not mere words of passion, but technical
your business is with me, and relates to the question of terms in the canon law. * Detestor and Recuso ;-the former, in the language of canonists, signifies no more
my marriage, out with it boldly." than I protest against.”—(Blackstone.) The words “ They that must weigh out my afflictions," etc. are Hollingshed's :—" and therefore openly protested
The commentators here say that “weigh out” is for that she did utterly abhor, refuse, and forsake such a
outweigh, as in MACBETH “overcome" is put for come judge.” Just before, the Queen has said to Wolsey
I do not perceive the fitness of this sense in this You are mine enemy, and make my challenge,
place, if indeed weigh out” is ever thus used. I unwhich, it is worthy of remark, is again in the technical derstand it to mean deliberate upon, ponder over.
This language of the common law, in objecting to a juryman. she expects from her distant friends, to whom she looks “ You sign your place and calling"-"Sign" is here
for counsel, which she cannot hope from any Englishused in the sense of denote, or show. He gave the external signs of his holy order and rank in outward
“ The more shame for ye ! holy men I thought ye,” etc. meekness, while his heart was full of pride.
“If I mistake you, it is by your fault, not mine; for "Where powers are your retainers; and your WORDS, I thought you good. The distress of Katharine might Domestics to you, serve your will," etc.
have kept her from the quibble to which she is irresisti“ You have now got power at your beck, following in bly tempted by the word cardinal.”—Johnson. your retinue; and words, therefore, are degraded to the servile state of performing any office which you shall
SCENE II. give them. In humbler and more common terms :
" — how he COASTS, Having now got power, you do not regard your word.”
And Hedges, his orn way."
“ To coast is to hover about, to pursue a sidelong wards for “words." They think that the Queen means
course about a thing. To hedge is to creep along by to say, that the great and powerful were among his re
the hedge,—not to take the direct and open path, but tainers, and that his wards (young nobility, of whom
to steal covertly through circumvolutions. wardship was given to him by the crown) were made " He is return'd, in his opinions, which domestics about his person. This was the fact, and was
Have satisfied the king for his divorce,” etc. a main charge against Wolsey.
These words are of doubtful sense, and may be taken Thus hulling in
in either of two ways. Stevens interprets them thus :The wild sea of my conscience," etc.
“Suffolk means to say Cranmer is returned in his To hull is to be driven to and fro by the waves.
opinions, (i. e. with the same sentiments which he en
tertained before he went abroad,) which [sentiments) • My learn'd and well-beloved servant, Cranmer! have satisfied the King, together with all the famous
Prythee, return : with thy approach, I know,” etc. colleges referred to on the occasion. Or perhaps the Cranmer being at this time absent on an embassy, passage (as Tyrwhitt observes) may mean, He is rethe King apostrophizes him. Cranmer's absence ap turned in effect, having sent his opinions, (i. e. the pears not only from history, but the author's intention is opinions of divines, etc., collected by him.")
“ Enter the King, reading a Schedule" -That the “ Håd I but seru'd my God with half the zeal Cardinal gave the King an inventory of his own private I serv'd my king, he would not in mine age wealth, by mistake, and thereby ruined himself, is a Have left me naked to mine enemies." known variation from the truth of history. Shakespeare, This was actually said by the Cardinal, when on bis however, has not injudiciously represented the fall of death-bed, in a conversation with Sir William Kingston ; that great man as owing to an incident which he had
the whole of which is very interesting :-"Well, well. once improved to the destruction of another. (See the
Master Kingston, (quoth he,) I see the matter against story related of Thomas Ruthall, Bishop of Durham, in me how it is framed, but if I had serred my God as diliHollingshed.)
gently as I have served my king, he would not hare giren “ Yet fil'd with my abilities”-i. e.“ My endeavours, ine over in my grey hairs. Howbeit this is the just rethough less than my desires, have fild (that is, have
ward that I must receive for my worldly diligence and gone an equal pace with) my abilities.”—JOHNSON. pains that I have had to do himn service; only to satisfy So in a preceding scene :
his vain pleasure, not regarding my godly duty." When - front but in that file
Samrah, deputy-governor of Bassorah, was deposed by Where others tell steps with me.
Moawiyah, the sixth caliph, he is reported to have exThe folios have“ filld with my abilities,"—an obvious pressed himself in the same manner :-" If I had served misprint, though adhered to by Collier.
God so well as I served him, he would never have con
demned me to all eternity." A similar sentiment also " — notwith standing that your bond of duty, occurs in the “ Earl of Murton's Tragedie,” by Church As 'twere in love's particular," etc.
yard, (1593.) Antonio Perez, the disgraced favourite. “ Besides the general bond of duty, by which you made the same complaint. Mr. Douce has also pointed are obliged to be a loyal and obedient subject, you owe out a remarkable passage in Pitscottie's “ History of a particular devotion of yourself to me, as your particu- Scotland," in which there is a great resemblance to these lar benefactor."-Johnson.
pathetic words of the Cardinal. James V. imagined
that Sir James Hamilton addressed him thus in a ** More than mine own : that am, have, and will be," etc.
dream:-“ Though I was a sinner against God, I failed Here the commentators are at loss. Knight's usual not to thee. Had I been as good a servant to the Lord ingenuity, in finding a meaning for the original text, my God as I was to thee, I had not died that death." is baffled, and he allows that “there is certainly some corruption in this passage, for no ellipsis can have taken this obscure forn.” Collier says, “ We can do no more
ACT IV.- SCENE I. than reprint exactly the old text, with the old punctua [“ Exit Procession, with a great flourish of Trumtion; as if Wolsey, following that am, have, and will pets"]-The stage-direction, respecting the exit of the be' by a long parenthesis, had forgotten how he com procession, in the old copy immediately follows the de. menced his sentence. Something may have been lost, scription of the procession itself; but it is clear that it which would have completed the meaning; and the in passes over the stage while the two gentlemen are constances have been frequent where lines, necessary to the versing about it. In the folio it runs thus:-—" Exeunt, sense, have been recovered from the quarto impressions. first passing over the stage in order and state, and then Here we have no quarto impressions to resort to, and a great flourish of trumpets." the later folios afford us no assistance, as they reprint the passage as it stands in the folio, (1623,) excepting
SCENE II. that the two latest end the parenthesis at · break.'
“0, Griffith! sick to death: “ – the cuiding flood" — Tochide, in its earlier sense,
My legs, like loaden branches, bow to the earth, was to brawl, to make a sharp or loud noise. Thus, in
Willing to leave their burden." the MIDSUMMER-Nigut's DREAM—“Never did I hear such gallant chiding,"—i. e. such a cry of the hounds.
" This scene is above any other part of Shakespeare's
tragedies, and perhaps above any scene of any other “ Dare mate a sounder man than Surrey"-i. e. Dare poet, tender and pathetic, --without gods or furies, or match myself as an equal.
poisons or precipices; without the help of romantic cir“ To be thus JADED”-i. e. Overcrowed, overmastered.
cumstances, without improbable sallies of poetical lamenThe force of this term may be best understood from a
tation, and without any throes of tumultuous misery."
JOHNSON. proverb given by Cotgrave, in v. Rosse, a jade :-" Il n'est si bon cheval qui n'en deviendroit rosse : It would he stepp'd before me, HAPPILY"_" Happily," anger a saint, or crestfall the best man living, to be so though of old used as we now use it, was also taken used."
sometimes for perhaps, haply—a confusion of senses “ — DARE us with his cap, like Larks"—" It is well
that might have originally arisen from carelessness. It
seems used in this last sense here. known (says Stevens) that the hat of a cardinal is scarlet; and that one of the methods of daring larks was “He could not sit his mule"-Cardinals generally rode by small mirrors fastened on scarlet cloth, which en on mules, as a mark perhaps of humility. Cavendish gaged the attention of these birds while the fowler drew says that Wolsey rode like a cardinal sumptuously upon his net over them.” This practice of daring larks by his mule, trapped altogether in crimson velvet and gilt mirrors is still pursued, in order to attract them to the gun. | stirrups.” The rich caparisons of his mule seem to have “ — the sacring bell”—The “sacring" bell, in the
made a great impression on the public mind, as the conRoman Catholic Church, is the small bell sounded on
temporary satires are full of allusions to their splendour. the elevation, or at the approach, of the Host, and during " — with easy ROADS"_"Roads," or rodes, here, is other ceremonies.
the same as courses, stages, or journeys. From whence “ May have a tomb of orphans' tears wept on 'em!"
also was formed out-rodes, in-rodes, etc. This refers to the general power of the chancellor as “ Of an unbounded stomACH"-"Stomach" is here guardian of infants, one of the most ancient portions of used for pride, or haughtiness. The following charachis jurisdiction. " A tomb of tears (says Johnson) is ter of Wolsey, from Hollingshed, shows how nearly very harsh.” Stevens has adduced an Epigram of Mar- Shakespeare followed the very words of his original:tial, in which the Heliades are said to "
weep a tomb of
* This Cardinal was of a great stomach, for he computed tears" over a viper. (V. Lib. iv. Epig, 59.) Drummond, himself equal with princes, and by craftie suggestions in his “ Teares for the Death of Moeliades," has the got into his hands innumerable treasure: he forced little same conceit:
on simonie, and was not pitiful, and stood affectionate The Muses, Phæbug, Love, have raised of their teates
in his own opinion: in open presence he would lie and A crystal tomb to him, through which his worth appears. saie untruth, and was double both in speech and nean