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mination over him. And therefore Athanasius (or whoever else was author of that writing to Liberius the Roman bishop) having reference unto the former text, affirmeth that “hes raised up that buried body of his, and presented it to his father, having freed it from death, of which it was holden.” And Maximus (or he that collected the dialogues against the Marcionites, under the name of Origen, out of him) expounding the other text: “ Overh whom then had death dominion?" saith he. “ For the saying that it hath no more dominion, sheweth that before it had dominion" over him. Not that death could have any dominion over the Lord of Life, further than he himself was pleased to give way unto it: but as when death did at the first seize upon him, “ hisk life indeed was taken from the earth,” yet “none' could take it from him, but he laid it down of himself;” so his continuing to be death's prisoner for a time, was a voluntary commitment only, unto which he freely yielded himself for our sakes, not any yoke of miserable necessity that death was able to impose upon him. For “ hem had power to lay down his life, and he had power to take it again:" yet would he not take it again, before he had first, not laid himself down only upon death's bed, but slept also upon it; that arising afterward from thence, he might become “ the first fruits of them that slept." In which respect, the fathers' apply unto him that text of the Psalm, “ [p
και 'Εγείρας εκείνο το ταφέν, προσήνεγκε τω πατρί, ελευθερώσας ου εκραTeito Oavátov. Athanas. rescript. ad Liberium, op. tom. 2. pag. 665.
Η Τίνος ούν εκυρίευσεν ο θάνατος και το γαρ είπείν ουκέτι κυριεύει, έδειξεν ötl 7 pótępov ťxvpievosv. Orig. Dialog. 3. | Acts, chap. 3. ver. 15.
k Jbid. chap. 8. ver. 33. | John, chap. 10. ver. 18.
m Ibid. n 1 Cor. chap. 15. ver. 20.
• Cyprian. testimon. advers. Judæos, lib. 2. sec. 24. Lactant. Institut. lib. 4. cap. 19. Ruffin. in exposit. symbol. Augustin. de civit. Dei, lib. 17. cap. 18. C'yrillus : cujus in hunc locum (in catena MS. Nicetæ Serronii) verba sunt ista. 'Εκοιμήθη μέν γάρ επί του σταυρού, το πνεύμα τω πατέρι παραθέμενος, και ύπνωσεν ύπνον τριήμερον εν τω τάφω κατατεθείς ανέστη δε του πα. τέρος αυτόν εκ των πυλών του θανάτου υψώσαντος. .
p Psalm 3. ver. 5.
laid me down and slept, I awaked, for the Lord sustained me." And Lactantius that verse of Sibyll,
Και θανάτου μοίραν τελέσει τρίτον ήμαρ υπνώσας, ,
The term of death he shall finish,
when he hath slept unto the third day.
His dying, or his burying at the farthest, is that which here is answerable unto his lying down: but his tapi τριήμερος ου τριημερόνυκτος, (as Dionysius1 calleth it) his three days' burial, and his continuing for that time in the state of death, is that which answereth unto his sleeping or being in Hades. And therefore the fathers of the fourth council of Toledo, declaring how in baptism “ the death and resurrection of Christ is signified," do both affirm, that “the dipping in the water is as it were a descension into hell, and the rising out of the water again, a resurrection;" and add likewise out of Gregory, with whom many other doctors do herein agree, that” the three-fold dipping is used to signify the three days' burial. Which differeth as much from the simple burial, or puting into the earth, as μετοικισμός doth from μετοικία, the transportation or leading into captivity from the detaining in bondage, the committing of one to prison from the holding of him there, and the sowing of the seed from the remaining of it in ground.
9 Dionys. ecclesiast. hierarch. cap. 2.
I Tò dè, úrvÚOw, tñs kararlitews ¿TiTaois dotiv. Euthym. in Psalm. 4. ver. 9.
$ Et ne forte cuiquam sit dubium hujus simpli mysterium sacramenti; videat in eo mortem et resurrectionem Christi significari. Nam in aquis mersio, quasi in infernum descensio est ; et rursus ab aquis emersio resurrectio est. Concil. Toletan. IV. cap. 5. (al. 6.)
' Dionys. eccles. hierar. cap. 2. Cyrill. vel Johan. Hierosolymitan. cateches. 2. Mystagogic. Petrus Chrysologus, serm. 113. Leo I. epist. 4. cap. 3. Paschasius de Spiritu S. lib. 2. cap. 5. Joh. Damascen. orthodox. fid. lib. 4. cap. 10. Germanus in rer. ecclesiast. theoria. Walafrid. Strab. de reb. ecclesiastic. cap. 26. Theophylact. in Johan. cap. 3.
u Nos autem quod tertio mergimus, triduanæ sepulturæ sacramenta signamus : ut dum tertio infans ab aquis educitur, resurrectio triduani temporis exprimatur. Concil. Toletan. ex Gregorio, lib. 1. registri, epist. 41.
And thus have I unfolded at large the general acceptions of the word Hades and inferi, and for the ecclesiastical use of the word hell answering thereunto : which being severally applied to the point of our Saviour's descent, made up these three propositions that by the universal consent of Christians are acknowledged to be of undoubted verity. “ His dead body, “though free from corruption, yet did descend into the place of corruption,” as other bodies do. His soul, being separated from his body,"departed hence into the other world,” as all other men's souls in that case use to do. “ He went unto the dead, and remained for a time in the state of death," as other dead men do. There remaineth now the vulgar acception of the word hell, whereby it is taken for the place of torment prepared for the devil and his angels: and touching this also, all Christians do agree thus far, that Christ did descend thither at least wise in a virtual manner : as “God" is said to descend, when he doth any thing upon earth, which being wonderfully done beyond the usual course of nature may in some sort shew his presence," or when he otherwise “ vouchsafethx to have care of human frailty.” Thus when “ Christ'sy flesh was in the tomb, his power did work from heaven:” saith St. Ambrose. Which agreeth with that which was before cited out of the Armenian's confession: “ According' to his body which was dead, he descended into the grave; but according to his DIVINITY, which did live, he overcame hell in the mean time;" and with that which was cited out of Philo Carpathius, upon Cantic. chap. 5. ver. 2. “ I sleep, but my heart waketh: ina the grave spoiling hell;" for which, in the Latin collections that go under
# Descendere dicitur, cum aliquid facit in terra, quod præter usitatum naturæ cursum mirabiliter factum præsentiam quodam modo ejus ostendat. Augustin. de civit. Dei, lib. 16. cap. 5.
* Descendere dicitur Deus; quando curam humanæ fragilitatis habere dignatur. Aug. serm. 70. de tempore.
Erat caro ejus in monumento; sed virtus ejus operabatur e cælo. Ambros. de incarnat. cap. 5. 2 Supra, pag. 356.
a Supra, pag. 351.
his name, we read thus: “ I sleep, to wit on the cross, and my heart waketh: when my DIVINITY spoiled hell, and brought rich spoils from the triumph of everlasting death overcome, and the devil's power overthrown.” The author of the imperfect work upon Matthew, attributeth this to the Divinity, not clothed with any part of the humanity, but naked as he speaketh. Seeing the devils “ feared him," saith he, “ while he was in the body, saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus the son of the high God? art thou come to torment us before our time? how shall they be able to endure his NAKED DIVINITY descending against them? Behold after three days of his death he shall return from hell, as a conqueror from the war.”
This conquest others do attribute to his cross, others to his death, others to his burial, others to the real descent of his soul into the place of the damned, others to his resurrection: and extend the effect thereof not only to the delivery of the fathers of the old Testament, but also to the freeing of our souls from hell. From whence how men may be said to have been delivered, who never were there, St. Augustine declareth by these similitudes : “ Thoud sayest rightly to the physician, Thou hast freed me from this sickness, not in which thou wast, but in which thou wast like to be. Some body else having a troublesome business, was to be cast into prison: there
b Ego dormio, in cruce scilicet, et cor meum vigilat: cum divinitas Tartara spoliavit, et opima spolia retulit de triumpho superatæ mortis æternæ, atque dejectæ diabolicæ potestatis. Philo Carpath. in Cantic. cap. 5.
e Quem in corpore constitutum timuerunt, dicentes ; Quid nobis et tibi, Jesu fili Dei excelsi ? venisti ante tempus torquere nos ? quomodo nudam ipsam divinitatem contra se descendentem poterunt sustinere ? Ecce post tres dies mortis suæ revertetur ab inferis, quasi victor de bello. Op. imperf. in Matth. homil. 35. tom. 2. Chrysost. ed. Lat.
d Recte dicis medico, Liberasti me ab ægritudine ; non in qua jam eras, sed in qua futurus eras. Nescio quis habens causam molestam, mittendus erat in carcerem : venit alius, defendit eum. Gratias agens, quid dicit ? Emisti animam meam de carcere. Suspendendus erat debitor : solutum est pro eo ; liberatus dicitur de suspendio. In his omnibus non erant; sed quia talibus meritis agebantar, ut, nisi subventum esset, ibi essent; inde se recte dicunt liberari, quo per liberatores suos non sunt perduci. Augustin. in Psalm. 85.
cometh another, and defendeth him. What saith he, when he giveth thanks? Thou hast delivered me from prison. A debtor was in danger to be hanged, the debt is paid for him, he is said to be freed from hanging. In all these things they were not: but because such were their deserts, that unless they had been holpen, there they would have been; they say rightly that they were freed thence, whither by those that freed them they were not suffered to be brought.” That Christ destroyed the power of hell, “ spoilede principalities and powers, and made a show of them openly, triumphing over them :" is acknowledged by all Christians. Neither is there any who will refuse to subscribe unto that which Proclus delivered in his sermon before Nestorius, then bishop of Constantinople (inserted into the acts of the council of Ephesus :) “ He was shut up in the grave, who stretched out the heavens like a skin: he was reckoned among the dead, and spoiled hell;" and that which St. Cyril and the synod of Alexandria wrote unto the same Nestorius, concerning the confession of their faith : (approved not only by the third general council held at Ephesus, but also by the fourth" at Chalcedon, and the fifthi at Constantinople): “ Tok the end that by his unspeakable power treading down death in his own as the first and principal Aesh, he might become the first born from the dead, and the first fruits of those that slept; and that he might make a way to man's nature for the turning back again unto incorruption: by the grace of God he tasted death for all men, and revived the third day, spoiling hell.” All, I say, do
• Ephes. chap.
ver. 15. * 'Εν τάφω κατεκλείετο, και τον ουρανόν εξέτεινεν ωσεί δέρριν έν νεκpois édoyibeto kai Tòv qonv čovólevev. Procli Cyzicni episc. homil. de nativit. Domin. in act. concil. Ephes. part. 1. cap. 1. edit. Rom.
8 Act. concil. Ephes. part. 1. cap. 26. edit. Rom. 6 Concil. Chalced. act. 5.
Quint. synod. Constantinop. collat. 6. * "Ινα γάρ άρρήτω δυνάμει πατήσας τον θάνατον, ώς έν γε δή πρώτη τη ιδία σαρκί, γένηται πρωτότοκος εκ νεκρών, και απαρχή των κεκοιμημένων οδοποιήση τε τη του ανθρώπου φύσει την εις αφθαρσίαν ανάδρομαν, χάριτι θεού υπέρ παντός εγεύσατο θάνατον, τριήμερος δε ανεβίω σκυλεύoas töv äonu. Synod. Alexandrin. epist. ad Nestor,