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It is a commonplace of these latter days that | he decided to adopt the law as his profession. a democracy chooses its leaders from its lawyers, In 1880 he passed his examination for the licence and democratic France has been no exception to the general rule. But of the many lawyer statesmen who have attained high office under the Third Republic there is none more distinguished than the present Head of the State.
M. Poincaré was born in 1860 at Bar-le-Duc, Lorraine, where his father was a civil engineer. After receiving his education at a lycée in Paris
en droit. At this time he made several excursions into journalism, contributing articles to the "Voltaire" and also to the "XIX Siècle," a review edited by Edmond About. When he entered on his professional career as an advocate his success was rapid and great, and he quickly became one of the leading advocates of the Paris Bar. He appeared in many important
cases both in Paris and in the provinces, and on one occasion he went so far afield as Roumania to conduct an important case.
His political career began in 1886 when he was appointed private secretary to the Minister of Agriculture, M. Jules Develle. Three years later he was elected member of the Chamber of Deputies for Commercy. In 1893 he received a Cabinet office, being appointed Minister of Education in the first Dupuy Ministry, but resigned with his colleagues in November of that year. He was Minister of Finance from May 1894 to January 1895, and Minister of Education from January to October 1895, when he again went out of office and returned to the Bar. While the Dreyfus crisis was at its height he was entrusted by President Loubet with the task of forming a ministry, but the difficulties in his way proved insurmountable. He was out of office until 1906, when he became Minister of Finance, resigning, however, in October of that year. In January 1912 he became Premier and Minister for Foreign Affairs, offices which he held until his election as President of the Republic in January 1913.
During the whole of his political career M. Poincaré has been an advocate of moderate causes. While a firm supporter of republican institutions, and an advocate of moderate social reform, he has never given his support to extreme socialistic measures. As Minister of Finance he abolished the vicious system of extraordinary expenditure which too many Governments had made use of to conceal the deficits in their Budgets a financial reform of the first import
If he failed to solve the difficult problem of a general income tax he has at least the credit of having proposed the best scheme which has as yet been put forward for dealing with that question. While a strenuous advocate of economy, he has always recognised that it was a matter of life and death for France to maintain her military and naval forces at the highest possible pitch of efficiency. As Foreign Minister he was a firm supporter of the Russian Alliance and of the entente cordiale with this country. It was largely due to his firm and tactful diplomacy that so far as the Great Powers were concerned the peace of Europe was preserved during the difficult period of the Balkan War. It is most fortunate that at the present crisis France should be ruled by a statesman who has gained in an unusual degree the confidence not only of his own countrymen but of the Allies with whom he has to co-operate.
A SITTING of the High Court of Justiciary was held in Glasgow on 22nd December. Lord Dundas and Lord Hunter were the presiding judges. Mr William Mitchell, Advocate-Depute, appeared for the Crown in the North Court, assisted by Mr James B. Paton, while Mr Wark prosecuted in the South Court, assisted by Mr
Neil A. MacLean. The calendar was an unusually light one, consisting of only six cases, which were all disposed of in one day. At the conclusion of the circuit Lord Dundas congratulated the Sheriffs and the Magistrates of Glasgow on the remarkable immunity from serious crime of the districts under their jurisdiction.
FACULTY OF ADVOCATES.-Mr James Scott Cumberland Reid, B.A., LL.B. Cambridge, and Mr William Garrett, B.A, LL.B. Cambridge, LL.B. Glasgow, were on 18th December admitted to the Faculty of Advocates.
THE LATE MR WILLIAM HORN, ADVOCATE.We regret to record the death of Mr William Horn, advocate, which took place on 30th December. Mr Horn was the elder son of the late Mr Robert Horn, Dean of the Faculty of Advocates, and on leaving Oxford was himself admitted to the Scottish Bar in 1874. Mr Horn left Edinburgh in 1891, and has since resided at Woodcote, near Blackshiels. He represented Fala on the County Council of Midlothian. He also served on the School Board and Parish Council of Fala, and acted for some time as chairman of each of these bodies. Latterly he resigned these offices, as his health failed and a drier climate became necessary. He had just returned from visiting his youngest son in Canada, and the journey home, prolonged owing to the war, hastened his death. Mr Horn leaves a widow and six children.
MR LOUIS ARTHUR JEROME CARRAGHER, presently clerical assistant in the Bill Chamber of the Court of Session, has been appointed Ordinary Clerk in the Bill Chamber, in room of Mr David Duff M'Laren, promoted.
MR VICTOR MURRAY COUTTS TROTTER, barrister-at-law, has been appointed a puisne judge of the High Court of Adjudicature at Madras.
MR GAVIN SINCLAIR, advocate, Aberdeen, has been appointed Procurator-Fiscal for the city of Aberdeen, in succession to the late Mr Robert Lamb. It is a condition of the appointment that the whole time of the fiscal must be devoted to the duties of the office. Mr Sinclair was educated at Fyvie, and studied law at the University of Aberdeen. He served his apprenticeship with his present partner, Mr Wm. M. Sellar, advocate, and when he qualified in 1896 he became Mr Sellar's principal assistant, and shortly afterwards his partner. Mr Sinclair has been for a number of years secretary of the Aberdeen Unionist Association.
MR ROBERT BURNS, who has been acting as assistant secretary of the Carnegie Dunfermline Trustees for the past three years, has been
appointed to the office of secretary in succession to Mr William George, who has resigned on account of ill-health. Mr Burns is a son of Mr J. C. Burns, Woodburn, Larkhall, and a brother of the Rev. J. G. Burns, Queen's Park East United Free Church, Glasgow. He was educated at Glasgow University, was trained in the office of Messrs Moncreiff, Warren, Paterson & Co., writers, Glasgow, and for some time thereafter was employed in the office of the town clerk of Glasgow.
SIR JAMES URQUHART, solicitor, formerly Lord Provost of Dundee, has, on the recommendation of Lord Provost Don, been appointed a Deputy-Lieutenant for the County of the City of Dundee.
WE regret to record the death of Mr Charles Brown Aikman of Woodleigh, Cove, Dumbartonshire, which took place on 17th December. Mr Aikman was a native of Lanark and was born in 1834. He joined the Faculty of Procurators in Glasgow in 1861. He retired from business over twenty years ago. In his younger days he took a great interest in music and was a president of the Glasgow Choral Union, and it is not long since he sang in the choir of Kilcreggan Church, of which he was an elder. His favourite pastime was bowling, and he was also keenly interested in gardening and animal life. Mr Aikman was a Liberal in politics of the old Whig type. He was for many years secretary of the Clydesdale Upper Ward Society, and he was a Justice of Peace for the county of Dumbarton.
Captain Thomas Todrick, 8th Royal Scots, killed fighting in Flanders.
Lieutenant E. M. M. Alexander, 10th Battalion Seaforth Highlanders.
Private R. B. Anderson, jun., 1st Lovat's Scouts.
Captain Hon. J. M. Balfour, 2nd (Reserve) Battalion Scottish Horse.
Captain L. L. Bilton, A.S.C., Lowland Mounted Brigade (T. and S. Column), Reserve.
Lieutenant-Colonel A. S. Blair, Commanding 9th Roval Scots.
Second Lieutenant Archibald Blair, 8th Royal Scots.
Private James D. Boswall, 9th Royal Scots.
Lieutenant-Colonel John D. Boswell, Commanding Ayrshire Yeomanry. 8th (Service) Battalion Royal Scots. Alex. Brook, Commanding
Captain James Bruce, jun., A.S.C., Lowland Mounted Brigade (T. and S. Column).
Trooper Ronald Burness, Lothians and Border Horse. Private R. M. Burns, 2nd Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Major H. F. Cadell, Lothians and Border Horse. Trooper A. G. Cairns, Lothians and Border Horse. Major J. B. Cameron, Commanding Lowland (City of Edinburgh) Heavy Battery, R.G.A.
Assistant Commandant J. D. B. Campbell, Remounts Department.
Captain R. G. Campbell, 10th (Service) Battalion Seaforth Highlanders.
Major James Carruthers, M.V.O., R.A.
Lieutenant Harry Cheyne, jun., 1st Lowland Brigade, R.F.A.
Second Lieutenant William L. Christie, Lowland (City of Edinburgh) Heavy Battery, R.G.A.
Lieutenant T. W. Bennet Clark, 9th Royal Scots, machine gun officer.
Captain George Deas Cowan, 9th Royal Scots. Captain William Cowan, Royal Garrison Artillery. Captain R. J. Cunningham, 5th K.O.S.B. Private David Deas Dewar, Sportsman's Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Captain M. R. Dickson, 8th (Service) Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Major W. C. Dudgeon, 10th (Cyclist) Battalion Royal Scots, Reserve.
Lieutenant W. H. Robertson Durham, 10th Scottish
Lieutenant F. H. Fasson, Scottish Horse (4th Regiment).
Lieutenant H. S. Ferguson, Highland Cyclist Battalion.
Mounted Brigade, T. and S. Column (Reserve).
Captain A. M. Gregorson, 9th Royal Scots (Reserve Battalion).
Second Lieutenant H. J. Grierson, 6th (Reserve) Battalion Black Watch.
Second Lieutenant J. G. Hamilton Grierson, 5th Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Captain John Grieve, A.S.C., Lowland Division (T. and S. Column).
Captain George F. Henderson, 3rd Regiment Scottish Horse.
G. L. D. Hole, 1st Edinburgh Voluntary Aid Detachment, British Red Cross Society.
Lieutenant-Colonel J. A. Hope, A.S.C. (T.). Captain J. N. Hotchkis, Highland Cyclist Battalion. Second Lieutenant Evan A. Hunter, A.S.C. (Scottish Horse).
Lieutenant J. E Inglis, Lowland (City of Edinburgh) Heavy Battery, R.G.A.
Second Lieutenant R. M. Ireland, 5th Royal Scots. Captain G. Erskine Jackson, Fife and Forfar Yeomanry (Staff Captain Highland Mounted Brigade). Signalling Serjeant-Instructor George W. Balfour Kinnear, 48th Highlanders, Toronto, Canada. Major A. S. Leslie, Scottish Horse.
Lieutenant W. Liddle, 9th Royal Scots, Brigade Signalling Officer.
Lieutenant J. B. Lorimer, 8th (Service) Battalion, Cameron Highlanders.
Second Lieutenant John H. Lowson, 12th Royal Scots.
Lieutenant-Colonel David Lyell, Acting Secretary, County Territorial Force Association, Midlothian.
Captain and Hon. Major John M. Macandrew, Seaforth Highlanders (Recruiting Officer at Fort George).
Captain J. H. Macdonald, 7th Royal Scots. Lieutenant J. G. H. M'Intosh, 4th Scottish Horse. Lieutenant W. R. B. M‘Jannet, 10th Battalion Seaforth Highlanders.
Colonel J. F. Mackay, Recruiting Staff, Headquarters.
Second Lieutenant David Mackenzie, 6th Black Watch.
Lieutenant J. M. Mackenzie, Royal Naval Brigade. Lieutenant Kenneth Mackenzie, 9th Royal Scots (Reserve Battalion).
Captain A. W. U. Macrae, 5th Royal Scots. Colonel Horatio R. Macrae, V.D., Commanding Division, National Reserve, City of Edinburgh.
Second Lieutenant Gilbert Cumming Manford, 14th Highland Light Infantry.
Private A. D. E. Mathison, A Company, 4th Royal Scots.
Lieutenant J. D. L. Melrose, (Forth) R.G.A.
Lieutenant J. S. L. Millar, 2nd Lovat's Scouts (Signalling Officer, Highland Mounted Brigade Staff). James Milligan, 1st Edinburgh Voluntary Aid Detachment, British Red Cross Society.
Second Lieutenant J. T. R. Mitchell, 11th A. and S. Highlanders.
Lieutenant G. B. L. Motherwell, 4th Royal Scots
Lieutenant A. Low Mustard, 6th Royal Scots. Captain A. D. Mutter-Napier, 17th (Service) Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers.
Second Lieutenant N. S. Pringle Pattison, 7th Royal Scots.
Second Lieutenant John Prosser, jun., 4th Battalion Black Watch (Royal Highlanders).
Captain C. L. Ralston, 5th Black Watch, at present in command of Forfarshire Reserve Force.
Captain (Hon. Major) Thomas Ranken, 8th Royal Scots.
Major W. B. Rankin, 4th Highland Light Infantry (Special Reserve).
Second Lieutenant C. R. Ritchie, A.S.C., Lowland Division.
Second Lieutenant M. F. Rodger, 3rd Battalion Scottish Rifles (Special Reserve).
Captain J. P. Ross, 5th Royal Scots, Colonial Service, Gold Coast.
Second Lieutenant J. D. Rutherford, A.S.C., Lowland Mounted Brigade (Reserve).
Lieutenant J. M. B. Scott, 1st Lowland Brigade,
Second Lieutenant H. M. Simson, A.S.C., Lowland Division (T. and S. Column).
Captain Robert Simson, 4th (Reserve) Battalion, Royal Scots.
Lieutenant-Colonel A. P. Simpson, Commanding 10th (Service) Battalion, Royal Scots (Cyclists).
Second Lieutenant Donald B. Sinclair, 9th Royal Scots (Reserve Battalion).
Lieutenant-Colonel C. L. Addison Smith, Commanding 10th Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders. Lieutenant R. B. Smith, 10th Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders.
Second Lieutenant F. C. N. Smith, 14th (Service) Battalion, Royal Scots.
Lieutenant H. J. Stevenson, Lothians and Border Horse, A.D.C. Lowland Mounted Brigade.
G. M. Steuart, 1st Edinburgh Voluntary Aid Detachment, British Red Cross Society. Second Lieutenant Charles E. Stewart, jun., Battalion, Durham Light Infantry.
Trooper J. Walcot Stewart, Lothians and Border Horse.
Second Lieutenant F. L. M. Tod, Army Service Corps (Territorial Force).
H. B. Towse (formerly Captain, Royal Scots Greys), now on Staff at Headquarters.
Gilbert Tweedie, Lanarkshire Yeomanry. Captain J. F. Fraser-Tytler, 2nd Lovat's Scouts. Second Lieutenant F. W. G. Urquhart, A.S.C. Lieutenant H. Wakelin, jun., 10th Cyclist Battalion, Royal Scots.
Major Graham G. Watson, 3rd (Reserve) Battalion, Scottish Horse.
Second Lieutenant The Hon. A. G. Watson, 8th Royal Scots.
Serjeant J. D. Watson, 9th Gordon Highlanders. Captain A. S. Watt, Colonial Service, Gold Coast. Captain A. White, 5th Royal Scots.
Captain James Wright, 10th (Cyclists) Battalion, Royal Scots.
Captain T. E. Young, 6th Black Watch.
Robert Beatson, Australian Expeditionary Force. Trooper T. W. Black, Lothians and Border Horse. Private William Sandilands Brown, 1st City of Edinburgh Battalion Royal Scots.
Lieutenant William Burns, 6th Royal Scots. Second Lieutenant Adrian H. Cook, 11th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.
Lieutenant W. D. Cooper, Ayrshire Yeomanry. Second Lieutenant Roland Fraser, 6th Rifle Brigade. Second Lieutenant Ian Galletly, 1st Lowland Brigade, R.F.A.
Lieutenant C. G. Kennaway, 8th Black Watch. Second Lieutenant J. C. Kinmont, 3rd Cameron Highlanders (Special Reserve).
Lieutenant Robert S. Lindsay, 9th Royal Scots. Second Lieutenant A. G. Schaw Miller, Fife and Forfar Yeomanry.
Private J. B. M'Glashan, 9th Royal Scots. Lieutenant John Mackintosh, 6th Seaforth Highlanders.
Piper Duncan Macnaughton, 9th Royal Scots. Second Lieutenant Kenneth Murray, 2nd Lovat's
Lieutenant N. G. Paulin, 1st Lowland Brigade,
Second Lieutenant William M. Potter, 10th Battalion Seaforth Highlanders.
Second Lieutenant George Archer Rusk, 9th (Service) Battalion The Black Watch.
Second Lieutenant Ralph C. Smith, Northumberland Howitzer Battery.
Second Lieutenant E. J. Pott Stevenson, R.F.A. Second Lieutenant John J. E. B. Stewart, 8th Seaforth Highlanders.
Captain George S. G. Strachan, 9th Royal Scots. Second Lieutenant William L. Stuart, 7th Black Watch.
Second Lieutenant James G. Wakelin, 5th Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Second Lieutenant George W. Wallace, Forth R.G.A.
Private William A. Young, 9th Royal Scots.
If any omissions are pointed out in the above list, or if more members join, the names will be included in a supplementary list. Any communications should be addressed to Mr J. H. Notman, Clerk to the Society, 15 York Place, Edinburgh.
THE LATE CAPTAIN THOMAS
On 15th December Captain Thomas Todrick, a member of the Society of Writers to the Signet, met his death in France, and was, we believe, the first Scottish Territorial officer to fall in the war.
Captain Todrick, who was in his thirty-fourth year, was the son of Mr Robert Todrick, agent for the Bank of Scotland at Haddington. He was educated at the Knox Institute, Haddington, and at Leys School, Cambridge,
served his apprenticeship in the office
of Messrs J. & J. Turnbull, W.S., Edinburgh. After his apprenticeship was over he started business in Edinburgh on his own account, and car
ried it on with much success.
In 1900 Captain Todrick received his first commission in what was then the 7th or Haddingtonshire Volunteer Battalion of the Royal Scots. In 1908 he was appointed to the command of the Headquarters company at Haddington, and held
that command for some years. Thinking that he could not do justice to the company on account of his residence in Edinburgh he transferred to the Territorial Force Reserve, but early last year he was asked to take command of the Dalkeith company, and at once accepted. After mobilisation officers and men in the Territorials were asked to volunteer for service abroad, and Captain Todrick was one of the first to answer the call. It was expected that the Service Battalion of the 8th Royal Scots would be called upon to leave Britain about Christmas, but on 1st November they received orders to entrain the following day; within a few days they were in France, and
by the 15th of the same month they were in the firing line.
Captain Todrick, who was almost recklessly brave, took a prominent part in the operations. A few nights before his death he crept from the British across to the German trenches, went under their wire entanglements and came back on that occasion in safety. A few days later the General in command asked that listening patrols should be sent out at night, and Captain Todrick, instead of delegating the duty to others, went out with three men himself.
On reaching a certain point he asked them to lie in a ditch as he thought he saw figures moving in front; he went on alone and fired his revolver. Doubtless the flash revealed him; an answering shot struck him in the neck, and his death was practically instantaneous. His
men brought back his body, and he was buried in a little French cemetery while shells passed overhead. One of his brother officers wrote: "Poor Todrick has gone, best of comrades and bravest man in the battalion; no officer could have been more beloved by the others of all ranks in the battalion."
Captain Todrick is survived by his wife and by two children. He was a man of many friends. By these, and by the members of his profession, his death is felt with no less sorrow and with no less pride than by his comrades-in-arms.