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Gramina, nec teneras cursu laesisset aristas;

Vel mare per

medium fluctu

suspensa tumenti

Ferret iter, celeris nec tingueret aequore plantas.
Illam omnis tectis agrisque effusa iuventus
Turbaque miratur matrum et prospectat euntem,
Attonitis inhians animis, ut regius ostro
Velet honos levis humeros, ut fibula crinem
Auro internectat, Lyciam ut gerat ipsa pharetram
Et pastoralem praefixa cuspide myrtum.

spoken of as a fact, not as a possibility.
Gossrau notices a characteristic exaggera-
tion by Stat. Theb. 6. 561, where a runner
is said to be able "emissum cursu depren-
dere telum." 'Intactae' does not mean
untouched by her feet, so that there is no
occasion for Wakef.'s otherwise question-
able conj. 'infractae,' but untouched by
the sickle, standing corn. Comp. its appli-
cation to unfelled woods and untrodden
glades G. 3. 41. So Ov. M. 10. 654, "Posse
putes illos sicco freta radere passu Et
segetis canae stantis percurrere aristas,"
comp. by Heyne. Some early critics, men-
tioned by Pier. and others, seem to have
rejected the four lines on aesthetical
grounds. In G. 3. 195 Virg. expresses
himself somewhat less hyperbolically.
'Volaret' is potential, TÉTOTO av.

809.] Gramina' of corn, like "herba," here however denoting not the blade but the full grown ear. Comp. its use of plants, 12. 415 &c. Cursu' may be either instr. or modal. 'Laesisset' is wrongly understood by Wagn. as i. q. "laesura esset," a notion to which such passages as 2. 94 lend no colour. Virg. has chosen the pluperf. here for variety's sake, regarding the crushing of the ears as having taken place while the action indicated by 'volaret' was still going on; as we might say "she might fly over standing corn and not leave the ears crushed behind her." 810.] 'Suspensa' kept from touching the ground, as in the phrase suspenso gradu" see E. 2. 66. Equi Pelopis illi Neptunii, qui per undas cursus suspensos rapuisse dicuntur" Cic. Tusc. 2. 27.

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810

815

Virg. may also have thought of Il. 15. 682.

813.] Prospectat,' follow her with their eyes, perhaps with a notion of stretching forward to look.

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814.] Pal. and Gud. have attonitis haesere animis,' from 5. 529, the latter with inhians' as a variant. The following lines, though grammatically dependent on 'prospectat' or 'inhians,' may be said to represent the talk of the people to each other comp. 2. 121, 652. Ostro' with 'velet.' 'Royal honour clothes her shoulders with purple' is equivalent to saying that the honour of royal purple clothes her shoulders. "Purpura regum G. 2. 495. A scarf ("chlamys") is here meant.

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815.] 'Honos' is used in connexion with a purple robe 11. 76, of funeral decoration. Levis humeros' like "levia pectora "above v. 349. Fibula,' probably not the "acus discriminalis," but an actual clasp, like the Athenian TÉTTIĘ.

816.] Auro' like 'ostro,' the clasp being of gold. Comp. 4. 138. For Lycian bows and arrows comp. 8. 166 &c. 'Ipsa,' distinguished from her shoulders and her hair: comp. G. 2. 297., 4. 274. The object of attraction is not the way in which she carries the quiver and the javelin, but the quiver and the javelin themselves.

817.] It is not clear whether a pike of myrtle-wood was a pastoral weapon, or whether the meaning is that the pastoral staff (E. 8. 16 note) was pointed with iron for the occasion, to make it available for war. Stat. Theb. 4. 300 (quoted by Forb.), "hi Paphias myrtos a stirpe recurvant Et pastorali meditantur proelia trunco," leaves the question open. Camilla has been trained to the use of javelius, 11. 574. For the use of myrtle for spear-shafts see G. 2. 447, and comp. above 3. 23. where praefixus' is used of the shaft to which the head is attached, 5. 557., 10. 479., 12. 489.

Else

P. VERGILI MARONIS

AENEIDOS

LIBER OCTAVUS.

THE Trojans having become embroiled with the inhabitants of Latium, and a confederacy having been made against them, it was natural that Virgil should wish to provide Aeneas with Italian allies. The legend of Evander offered itself opportunely to meet the want. He was supposed to have settled in Italy about sixty years before the Trojan war, so that it was possible that his old age should have coincided with the arrival of Aeneas: while the traditional character of the Arcadian prince, the mythical introducer of a foreign civilization, pointed him out as the friend rather than the enemy of the pious hero of Troy. It was reasonable too that Aeneas should be sent to visit Evander in his own home, that home being on the spot which was afterwards to be made illustrious by the foundation of the Eternal City. The narrative of Hercules and Cacus and the description of Roman topography follow as a matter of course. In giving Evander a son, Pallas, Virgil appears to have followed one of the versions of the legend (see Servius' note on v. 51 of this Book), at the same time that he retains the name of the elder Pallas, the founder of the Arcadian Pallantium and the eponym of the town on the Palatine. The thought of making Pallas accompany Aeneas may have been suggested by Apollonius, who makes Lycus send his son Dascylus along with Jason: Ovid however, in telling the story of Evander in the First Book of the Fasti, connects Pallas with Aeneas, so that there may have been some legendary authority for the association. Mezentius is known to have figured in legend as an oppressor dreaded by his neighbours, who were delivered from him on one occasion by Aeneas or Ascanius: and this may have given the hint for Aeneas' alliance with the tyrant's revolted subjects. The request of Venus to Vulcan and the making of the shield are easily traceable to their Homeric sources: the details of the workmanship are doubtless the poet's own, though, as has been said in the General Introduction, a hint may have been taken from Jason's scarf in Apollonius; and they accord well with the character and purpose of the great Roman epic.

Ur belli signum Laurenti Turnus ab arce

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Extulit, et rauco strepuerunt cornua cantu,
Utque acris concussit equos, utque inpulit arma,
Extemplo turbati animi, simul omne tumultu
Coniurat trepido Latium, saevitque iuventus
Effera. Ductores primi Messapus et Ufens
Contemptorque deum Mezentius undique cogunt
Auxilia, et latos vastant cultoribus agros.
Mittitur et magni Venulus Diomedis ad urbem,
Qui petat auxilium, et, Latio consistere Teucros,
Advectum Aenean classi victosque Penatis
Inferre et fatis regem se dicere posci,
Edoceat, multasque viro se adiungere gentis

2.] Cornua' see on 7. 615, 637. Pal. originally had sonuerunt,' corrected into 'strepuerunt.' "Raucisonoque minantur cornua cantu Lucr. 2. 619, comp. by W. Ribbeck.

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3.] Concussit,' roused them; but probably there is also an allusion to the phrase "concutere habenas equis" 5. 147., 6. 101. Inpulit arma' clashed his arms by way of exciting the ardour of his followers. Comp. 12. 332, Sanguineus Mavors clipeo increpat, atque furentis Bella movens inmittit equos;" Sil. 12. 683 (comp. by Gossrau), "Rursus in arma vocat trepidos, clipeoque tremendum Increpat, atque armis imitatur murmura caeli" (of Hannibal). Comp. also Val. F. 6. 6, referred to by Cerda. Whether this was an official act performed by the general does not appear. Serv. thinks there is an allusion to a custom at Rome, according to which the general ("qui belli susceperat curam ") entered the temple of Mars and shook first the ancilia and then the spear of the god, saying "Mars vigila."

4.] "Conversi animi" 2. 73. It is a question whether simul' acts as a connecting particle between the two clauses (Heyne), or strengthens 'omne' and 'coniurat' (Wagn.): but the latter seems better. Tumultu' here expresses the rising of Latium, the abl. being a modal

one.

'Coniurat' denotes a general rising. "De S. C. certior factus ut omnes iuniores Italiae coniurarent" Caes. B. G. 7. 1.

6.] Primi' not with 'ductores' but with 'cogunt,' expressing the action taken at the beginning of the war. Messapus' 7. 691. Ufens' 7. 745.

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66

5

10

ducendo cultores vastos et desertos efficiunt" Serv., rightly, as is shown by parallel instances quoted in Forc., Hirt. (?) B. G. 8. 24, "finis eius vastare civibus, aedificiis, pecore," Stat. Theb. 3. 576, agrosque viris annosaque vastant Oppida," though in the former passage ' vastant has its more usual sense, meaning not only to dispeople but to ravage. The construction is not altogether easy to analyze : but it seems best to take it 'dispeople them in respect of their cultivators.' We may comp. the constructions of " viduo " and "vacuo," "viduus" and "vacuus being more or less parallel to "vastus." Vastare' of simple dispeopling occurs again Stat. Theb. 4. 297.

9.] Et besides all the Latin forces, they send for foreign aid. Venulus is a Tiburtine (11. 742, 757), and as Tibur, according to the legends, was an Argive colony, he is a proper ambassador to Diomede. The city of Diomede was Argyripa (afterwards Arpi) in Apulia; and the legend that Diomede had founded it after the Trojan war very likely arose from the similarity of the name Argyripa to Argos. "Magna Diomedis ab urbe " 11. 226, where there is another reading 'magni.'

10.] Pal. (in an erasure) and Gud. have 'considere,' as in 6. 67: but consistere' is more appropriate here: see on 6. 807.

11.] 'Advectum' may be "advectum esse," but it seems better taken as a participle, 'que-et' coupling the two grounds of complaint against Aeneas. Victosque Penatis" 1. 68. Here 'victos' is meant to tell upon Diomede.

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12.] Inferretque deos Latio" 1. 6. 'Fatis posci,' v. 477 below, 7. 272.

13.] Multasque viro se adiungere gentis' is a diplomatic exaggeration, even though we should give Virg. the benefit of Evander

Dardanio, et late Latio increbrescere nomen :
Quid struat his coeptis, quem, si Fortuna sequatur,
Eventum pugnae cupiat, manifestius ipsi,

Quam Turno regi, aut regi adparere Latino.

Talia per Latium. Quae Laomedontius heros
Cuncta videns magno curarum fluctuat aestu;
Atque animum nunc huc celerem, nunc dividit illuc,
In partisque rapit varias perque omnia versat:
Sicut aquae tremulum labris ubi lumen aenis
Sole repercussum aut radiantis imagine Lunae

and the Agyllines, who are not yet introduced. It seems better with Donatus and Thiel to suppose the misrepresentation to be intentional than with Wagn. to attribute it to "Vergilius aliquando dormitans." Ribbeck comp. 7. 238, which may stand as a verbal parallel, as he probably intends, but does not help to explain the fact.

14.] Viro Dardanio' may give, as Serv. thinks, the reason why Aeneas is represented as finding allies so soon, his hereditary connexion with Italy. The use of 'increbrescere' with 'nomen' is poetical. 15.] Struat' 2. 60., 4. 235 &c. "Fortuna sequatur " 4. 109 note.

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16.] Pugnae' for "belli:" comp. 7.611: so that the meaning is, what he hopes to get by the war. Ipsi' is generally, and perhaps rightly, taken of Diomede, the insinuation being that he is more likely to be threatened as an old enemy of Troy than Turnus or Latinus. But 'ipsi' may be Aeneas, as we should say "what he means by this he knows best," without meaning to imply that we were really ignorant. Comp. 5. 788, "Caussas tanti sciat illa furoris."

17.] Regi-regi' seems meant to be in keeping with the formal tone of the communication to Diomede, which altogether is more in the style of prose than of verse. There seems to be the same formality in 9. 369, "Turno regi responsa ferebant," 11. 294, Et responsa simul quae sint, rex optume, regis Audisti." Comp. Soph. O. R. 284 avaкT' avaкTI ταῦθ ̓ ὁρῶντα ἐπίσταμαι Μάλιστα Φοίβῳ Τειρεσίαν.

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they" &c. Hom. is more explicit, generally expressing himself in full, and occupying a whole line. Serv. says admiringly "Gerebantur' subaudis: et est formosa ellipsis." Peerlkamp removes the stop, so as to connect 'talia' with 'quae cuncta,' which is less likely. 'Laomedontius,' 7. 105.

19.] "Magno fluctuat aestu" 4. 532. Cerda comp. Lucr. 6. 34, "Volvere curarum tristis in pectore fluctus," Catull. 62 (64). 62, "Prospicit et magnis curarum fluctuat undis," perhaps in imitation of Lucretius: see Munro (3rd edition) on Lucr. 3. 57. Serv. remarks that the metaphor anticipates the following simile.

20, 21 are repeated from 4. 285, 286; where see note. Here there seems to be no variety of reading, except that two inferior MSS. and the Schol. on Hor. 2 Od. 16. 11 have "celerem nunc huc."

22.] This simile is taken from Apoll. R. 3. 756 foll. In the original, the water is fresh poured (rò dǹ véov hè λéßntɩ 'Hé που ἐν γαυλῷ κέχυται), which accounts for its motion. Virg. had also probably in his mind Lucr. 4. 209 foll. It must be owned that the comparison is more pleasing when applied, as it is by Apollonius, to the fluttering heart of Medea, than to the fluctuating mind of Aeneas. 'Aquae' with lumen,' like "splendor aquai" Lucr. 1. c. 'Labris,' 12. 417, G. 2. 6. The abl. here seems to be local.

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23.] Sole repercussum' is another instance of Virg.'s recondite use of words. The natural phrase would have been sole repercusso." Perhaps the notion of reciprocal action between the sun and the water may help to justify the variation, the conception apparently being that the light glances from the water to the sun and is sent back. In the rest of the verse he changes the notion, making the light sent back not by the moon but by

Omnia pervolitat late loca, iamque sub auras
Erigitur summique ferit laquearia tecti.

Nox erat, et terras animalia fessa per omnis
Alituum pecudumque genus sopor altus habebat :
Cum pater in ripa gelidique sub aetheris axe
Aeneas, tristi turbatus pectora bello,
Procubuit seramque dedit per membra quietem.
Huic deus ipse loci fluvio Tiberinus amoeno
Populeas inter senior se attollere frondes
Visus; eum tenuis glauco velabat amictu
Carbasus, et crinis umbrosa tegebat arundo;
Tum sic adfari et curas his demere dictis :

O sate gente deum, Troianam ex hostibus urbem.
Qui revehis nobis aeternaque Pergama servas,
Exspectate solo Laurenti arvisque Latinis,

the reflection of the moon. Heyne at-
tempts to harmonize the image by taking
'imagine lunae' of the moon herself that
causes the reflection: but Virg. evidently
cared as little for consistency of thought
as for scientific truth. Mr. Long under-
stands sole repercussum' reflected by the
image of the sun in the water. Radiantis'
from Lucr. 1. c. "sidera respondent in aqua
radiantia mundi."

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24, 25 correspond in the comparison to 20, 21. Pervolitat' is perhaps suggested by "pervolgat " Lucr. 1. c. 'Sub auras erigitur,' 3. 422: comp. ib. 574., 9. 240. There is of course no real inconsistency between sub auras' and 'laquearia tecti.'

26.] Comp. 3. 147., 9. 224, 5. The decription in 4. 522 foll. is much more detailed.

27.] Alituum genus' occurs repeatedly in Lucr., 5. 801, 1039, 1078., 6. 1216.

28.] "Nudoque sub aetheris axe" 2. 512.

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rally represented as old: comp. 5.823.

33.] The robe of the river-god represents his waters: comp. v. 712 below. Rivergods are represented in works of art with a similar covering. For 'eum' Rom. and Verona fragm. have 'cum.'

34.] Carbasus' was properly a very fine kind of linen invented at Tarraco in Spain, according to Pliny 19. 1. A crown of reeds formed part of the conventional representation of a water-god. See on 10. 206, and Vell. Paterc. 2. 83, quoted on

3. 432.

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36-65.] The river-god assures him that he has found a home, promises him the appearance of a white sow by way of confirmation, advises him to apply at once for help to a neighbouring colony from Arcadia under Evander, and enjoins him to propitiate Juno.'

36.] "Sate sanguine divom" 6. 125. 'Gente deum' is not as in 10. 228., 11. 305, a race sprung from the gods, but a race consisting of gods. Troianam urbem: comp. 1. 68, "Ilium in Italiam portans " and see on 2. 703., 3. 86. Revehis,' because Dardanus had come from Italy: comp. 7. 240 &c.

37.] Aeterna' with 'servas.'

38. For 'solo' Med. originally had 'lo,' which a later hand has altered into loco.' "Solo Laurente " 12. 547.

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