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Una ingens Amiterna cohors priscique Quirites, 710
Ereti manus omnis oliviferaeque Mutuscae ;
Qui Nomentum urbem, qui Rosea rura Velini,
Qui Tetricae horrentis rupes montemque Severum
Casperiamque colunt Forulosque et flumen Himellae ;
Qui Tiberim Fabarimque bibunt, quos frigida misit

715
Nursia, et Hortinae classes populique Latini ;

dated the introduction of the Claudii by a is somewhat better known, being mencouple of centuries.

tioned by Livy and Strabo (Dict. G. 710.] Amiternum (Dict. G. s. v.), the 8. vv.). birthplace of Sallust, was assigned by 715.] Fabaris is identified by Serv. with some to the Sabines, by some to the Farfarus, mentioned by Plautus and Ovid, Vestini. As Heyne remarks, Virg., writing and still known as Farfa (Dict. G.). about legendary times, gives a somewhat 716.] Nursia, called 'frigida' from its wider range to the Sabine territory than situation in the midst of mountains, is belonged to it in the historical period. mentioned several times both in early

Quirites,' the people of Cures. “Sabino- and later history. Shortly before the rum Amiternini, Curenses . . . Nursini, time of the composition of the Aeneid Nomentani. Trebulani qui cognomi- its inhabitants were punished by Octanantur Mutusci.” Pliny 3. 12 (17). vianus for their conduct during the Peru

711.) Eretum, though occasionally men- sian war (Dict. G.). There is a difficulty tioned in history, never seems to have been about • Hortinae classes,' as the town a place of importance (Dict. G.). Mu- of Horta stood on the Etruscan side of tuscae seems to be gen. sing. The full the Tiber, and the adj. would naturally be name was Trebula Mutusca. There are “ Hortanus ” (Dict. G. Horta '). Possibly still olives in the neighbourhood (Dict. G.). there may be some confusion with the For.

712.] Nomentum, already mentioned tineii, who are enumerated by Dionys. 5. 6. 773, where it is among the places 61 among the cities of the Latin league, and afterwards to be built and named by are identified by some with the Hortenses, Aeneas' posterity. It is disputed whether perbaps the people of Ortona, mentioned it was a Latin or Sabine town. The pas. in Pliny's list (3. 5 &c.), of the extinct sage in Book 6 favours the former view, communities of Latium. Comp. “foedus,” making it a colony from Alba. • Rosea : “hoedus,” “fordus,” “hordus” &c. This the country in the valley of the river would agree with the mention of the Velinus, about Reate, was called “ Rosei " populi Latini' here, and would not be in

“Roseae”) “Campi” (according to consistent with the occurrence of Allia in Sery. “

ager Rosulanus”): see Dict. G. the next line. “Populi Latini’seems used • Reate.' For a story about its fertility very loosely, as we can hardly suppose that see on G. 2. 201, 202. Pal. and Gud. have Virg. means to introduce at one sweep all •Roscia,' and some inferior copies 'roscida :' the communities which partook in the comp. Pliny 3. 12 (17), (Sabini) “ Velinos sacrifices at the Alban mount, which is accolunt lacus, roscidis collibus."

apparently Serv.'s explanation. Heyne, 713.] Tetrica or Tetricus seems to have Excursus 8, following Cluver, understands been part of the central range of the the expression either of Latin cities which Apennines, separating the Sabine terri- had fallen under the dominion of the tory from Picenum. Severus, which no Sabines or Latin colonies established in other author mentions, doubtless belongs the Sabine territory. It is possible, howto the same range (Dict. G.). Cerda ever, as has been snggested to me by Mr. notices that both names are used as adjec- Nettleship, that Virg. may be referring to tives and applied as such to describe the some community of which the memory has traits belonging to the Sabine character. perished, as certain Latinienses follow the Pal. and Gud. have ‘amnemque severum Hortenses in Pliny's list just referred (the latter with a variant ‘montem ') from to : if so, Latini’ may perhaps be à recollection of 6. 374. Horrentis' the gen. of Latinium.' “ Latiniensia probably gen. sing.

vina,” from another region, are mentioned 714.] Časperia and Himella are scarcely Pliny 14. 6 (8); so the existence of such named except by Virg. and Silius. Foruli aname is not impossible. •Classes' in its

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720

Quosque secans infaustum interluit Allia nomen:
Quam multi Libyco volvuntur marmore fluctas,
Saevus ubi Orion hibernis conditur undis;
Vel cum sole novo densae torrentur aristae,
Aut Hermi campo, aut Lyciae flaventibus arvis.
Scuta sonant, pulsuque pedum conterrita tellus.

Hinc Agamemnonius, Troiani nominis hostis,
Curru iungit Halaesus equos, Turnoque ferocis

ancient sense, according to which the of the line is from Il. 2.784, Tây ÜTÒ TOOO word was applied to military as well as μέγα στεναχίζετο γαϊα. . For 'conternaval forces : see Dictt.

rita' the Medicean of Pierius and another 717.] Allia is well known for the defeat of his MSS., with some inferior copies, of the Romans by the Gauls under Brennus, read tremit excita,' which is found in on July 16, hence called “dies Alliensis," 12. 445, where these words recur. In and kept as an unlucky day.

itself it might be an improvement, but the 718.] “Quam multa in a comparison authority is insufficient and the cause of G. 4. 473. •Libyco marmore perhaps the variation clear. The construction is like "Libyci aequoris” G. 2. 105, where doubtless scuta sonant tellusque (sonat) see note.

The comparison is like the pulsu pedum conterrita,”as against Wagn. second of the two in G. 2. 1. c. Perhaps (large ed.) and others who make 'conVirg. is thinking bere of Il. 2. 143 foll. territa' a 'finite verb. Med. has .cursu where the movement in the assembly is for 'pulsu.' compared to the motion first of the sea, 723—732.] Halaesus brings troops then of a cornfield, under the breath of a from the Auruncan and Oscan territories.' wind.

723.] · Hinc' apparently means 'next,' 719.] From Apoll. R. 1. 1201, eûte though Forb. understands it “cx hac (alia) μάλιστα Χειμερία όλοοίο δύσις πέλει parte.” • Agamemnonius:' Serv. says 'nplwvos. For the storms about the setting that Halaesus was variously represented as of Orion comp. Hor. 1 Od. 28. 21., 3. 27. the bastard son and as the companion of 17.

Agamemnon. Virg. can hardly have con720.] Strictly speaking the construction sidered him the former, unless he is inconis “aut quam multae aristae cum sole sistent with himself 10. 417 foll., where he novo densae torrentur,” but as densae' speaks of Halaesus' father in language really does duty for “inultae,” we may say that could not apply to Agamemnon. that Virg. expresses himself as if the coin. The epithet may well be used loosely, just parison in v. 718 had been introduced by as the Trojans are called “Aeneadae.” “ac veluti,” "quales," or some similar form. Whether any extant author speaks of Heyne, after Faber and others, at one Halaesus as Agamemnon's son is questiontime conj. 'quam' for 'cum,' and so an able. Ovid, who mentions him twice edition of 1495: and one MS. (not one of (3 Amor. 13. 31 foll., F. 4. 73 foll.), is not Ribbeck's number) has 'quot.'. 'Sole more express than Virg., unless we read novo' would naturally mean either the “ Atrides” with Heins. in the latter pas. early morning (G. 1. 288) or the early sage. Ov. makes him the founder of warm weather (G. 2. 332): but it is diffi. Falerii (for the etymology see on v. 716 cult to see why either of these should be above), which is inconsistent with Virg: represented as baking the ears of corn, as • Troiani nominis ’like “nomen Latinum." we should rather have expected the 724.] ‘Curru iungit Halaesus equos' like “maturi soles” (G. 1. 66) of summer. “Armentarius Afer agit” G. 3. 344, an Perhaps it may mean ‘an Eastern sun, abnormal rhythm adopted for variety's like “sole recenti” Pers. 5. 54, the coun sake (see Munro, Lucr. vol. 1. p. 309, 3rd tries being spoken of relatively to Italy. ed.). Cerda, after Scaliger, fancifully

721.] For the fertility of Lydia comp. supposes that it is intended to express the 10. 141. Heyne doubts that of Lycia: time taken in harnessing a chariot. •Turbut see Dict. G. •Lycia'$ 2.

no' for Turnus.' “Populosque fero722.] ‘Scuta’ is the only hint given us cis,” above v. 384., 1. 263, of Italian of the arms of Clausus' forces. The rest dations.

Mille rapit populos, vertunt felicia Baccho

725
Massica qui rastris, et quos de collibus altis
Aurunci misere patres Sidicinaque iuxta
Aequora, quique Cales linquunt, amnisque vadosi
Accola Volturni, pariterque Saticulus asper
Oscorumque manus. Teretes sunt aclydes illis 730
Tela ; sed haec lento mos est aptare flagello.
Laevas cetra tegit; falcati comminus enses.

Nec tu carminibus nostris indictus abibis,
Oebale, quem generasse Telon Sebethide nympha
Fertur, Teleboum Capreas cum regna teneret, 735

Iam senior; patriis sed non et filius arvis
725.] “Mille rapit densos acie atque may account for the epithet.
horrentibus hastis” 10. 178.

« Bacchi

730.] Serv. says 'aclydez’ are a species Massicus humor” G. 2. 143. 'Massica' of weapon so ancient as not to be menneut. pl. like "Ismara” G. 2. 37. Fe- tioned in military accounts: they are said licia Baccho' more prob. dat. (E. 5. 65) however (he continues) to be clubs a cubit than abl. (6. 784). * Vertere' of breaking and a half long, studded with points, and up the ground G. 1. 2.

furnished with a thong, so that they can 726.] •Rastris :' see G. 2. 355, 400, the be recalled by the thrower. See further “bidens” being a form of the “rastrum Lersch § 40. They are mentioned by Si. (Dict. A. Raster ').

lius and Val. Flaccus, the one making 727.] *Patres' used in its ordinary them a Spanish, the other an Oriental sense : comp. 2. 87. Med. (2nd reading) weapon, but neither describes them in any has 'sencs,' from v. 206 above. 'Aurunci' way. •Teretes,' see on v. 665. is used in its narrow historical sense for 731.] Flagello' i.q. “loro.” the nation inbabiting Aurunca and after 732.] ‘Cetra' is defined by Serv. and wards Suessa (Dict. G. 'Aurunci'). The Isidorus (18. 12. 5) as a shield made Sidicini of Teanum and the people of wholly of leather. It seems to have been Cales were their neighbours. The con used by Africans, Spaniards, Achaeans struction of Sidicinaque iuxta aequora and Britons : see passages in Lersch $ 31. is not clear. Either we may borrow .pa- 4. Yates (Dict. A.) identifies it with the tres' from the preceding clause, so as to target of the Scotch Highlanders. Calimake it “quos misere patres iuxta Sidi. gula (Suet. Calig. 19, quoted by Lersch) cina aequora (habitantes),” or suppose that rode in state on a bridge built over the sea Virg. has written loosely, meaning "qui at Baiae,“ insignis quernea corona et cetra iuxta Sidicina aequora habitant,” or lastly, et gladio aureaque chlamyde.” Falcati with Mr. Long, make · Sidicina aequora comminus enses seems to mean in close nom., 'iuxta' being adv.

quarters their weapons are scimitars :' the 728.] •Vadosi :' Ov. M. 15. 714 has verb being supplied by a strong zeugma “multamque trahens sub gurgite arenain from · laevas cetra tegit.' Falcati enses' Volturnus."

= ápral (Serv.). 729.] · Accola :' Virg. apparently for 733—743.] Debalus leads forces from gets that the different nations he mentions Capreae and places in Campania.' are constructed in app. to 'populos' v. 734.] This Oebalus is not otherwise 725. Wagn. comp. Aesch. Pers. 33 foll., known, Serv. merely repeating Virg.'s where there is a similar change of con account. Sebethide,' froin the river Sestruction. Comp. also v. 741 below, 10. bethus (Dict. G.). 497. 'Saticulus' apparently for “Sati 735.] The Teleboae were the inhabitants culanus," the town being Saticuli. “Asper' of the Taphian isles (Dict. G. - Taphiae '), is explained by Serv."asper moribus ;" by mentioned in Hom. Od. as pirates, and Heyne with reference to the probable posi- also in connexion with their chief Mentes. tion of the town under Mount Tifata. The Tuc. A. 4. 67, speaking of Tiberius' retire. place gave some trouble to the Romans ment to Capreae, says “Capreas Telebois during the Samnite wars (Dict. G.), which habitatas fama tradit.”

Contentus late iam tum dicione premebat
Sarrastis populos et quae rigat aequora Sarnus,
Quique Rufras Batulumque tenent atque arva Celemnae,
Et quos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae, 740
Teutonico ritu soliti torquere cateias ;
Tegmina quis capitum raptus de subere cortex,
Aerataeque micant peltae, micat aereus ensis.

Et te montosae misere in proelia Nersae,
Ufens, insignem fama et felicibus armis;

745
Horrida praecipue cui gens, adsuetaque multo
Venatu nemorum, duris Aequicula glaebis.

а

737.] • Tenebat' Med., Pal., Gud., the N.E. of Nola. It was known for a partilast with a variant‘premebat:' but'tene. cular kind of nut, filbert or hazel, called bat' could not stand with teperet' so “ nux Abellana." Sil. 8. 543 speaks near, and the word obviously came from of it as “pauper sulci Cerealis.” There 1. 622 (comp. ib. 236). “Dicione premat” are remains of the old town on 10. 53.

hill, which accounts for ' despectant. An 738.] The Sarrastes are unknown to inscription was discovered there, one of history: but Serv. refers to a work on the most important remains of Oscan, Italy by Conon for the statement that recording a treaty between Abella and they were Pelasgian and other Greek emi. Nola (Dict. G. ‘Abella'). grants who settled in Campania, and gave 741.] A change of construction like that the river near which they took up their in v. 729 above. The 'cateia, according abode the name of Sarnus from a river in to Serv., was like the 'aclys' (v. 730). their own country. No Greek river is Isidorus 18. 7. 7, quoted by Lersch § 40, mentioned as bearing the name: nor is it describes it similarly, except that he supknown when Conon lived, though there poses that it returned of itself to the were two or three writers so called (Dict. thrower, like an Australian boomerang. B. “Conon'): For Sarnus see Dict. G., Papias ap. Lersch makes it a Persian where it is said that the course of the word: later writers consider it Celtic river is not now what it was, having (Dict. A. •Cateia'), which would agree with doubtless been changed by the eruption of Teutonico ritu,' the Celtae and Teutones Vesuvius which overtbrew Herculaneum being often confounded. Various mediaeval and Pompeii.

writers mention it (see Lersch), but differ 739.] Rufrae seems to have been a Sam as to whether it was a club or a spear. nite town on the borders of Campania. Sil. 3. 277 calls it “panda.” Val. F. 6. 83 Batulum is only mentioned by Silius, and mentions it as the weapon of an Oriental Celemna (sacred to Juno, according to nomad tribe. Serv.) not even by him.

742.] “ Bene‘raptus' [i.e. raptim sub740.) Almost all the MSS. have · Bellae,' latus], quia recens suberis cortex in which Serv. says was written by Virg. quamvis formam tota (nota ?) flectitur instead of ‘Nolae' on account of his quarrel facilitate," Serv. Comp. the use of cork with the people of Nola, mentioned in G. for beehives G. 4. 33. 2. 225. Ribbeck adopted “Bellae,' be 743.] Micant,' co-ordinate with the lieving it to be the reading of all the MSS., verb subst. understood in the preceding but the discovery of 'Abellae’ in one copy line. seems to have led him to alter his mind 744–749.] 'Ufens commands the Aequi.? (Prolegomena p. 353). Serv. says that 744.] · Montosae :' the commoner prose critics in his time read "Abellae,' sup- form seems to be “montuosus.” Nersae posing it to be a case of synaloepha : and is otherwise unknown. the change is one which might safely 745.] Non felicia tela” 11. 196. be inade in the teeth of all external autho. 746.] With the description of the nation rity, the cause of corruption being of the comp. 9. 605 foll. commonest, and proper names especially

• Venatu' may be either dat. or liable to corruption. "Abellae is five miles abl. ‘Aequicula' with 'gens.' The people

66

747.]

750

Armati terram exercent, semperque recentis
Convectare iuvat praedas et vivere rapto.

Quin et Marruvia venit de gente sacerdos,
Fronde super galeam et felici comptus oliva,
Archippi regis missu, fortissimus Umbro,
Vipereo generi et graviter spirantibus hydris
Spargere qui somnos cantuque manuque solebat,
Mulcebatque iras et morsus arte levabat.
Sed non Dardaniae medicari cuspidis ictum
Evaluit, neque eum iuvere in volnera cantus
Somniferi et Marsis quaesitae montibus herbae.
Te nemus Angitiae, vitrea te Fucinus unda,

755

see Dictt.

were called Αequiculi or Aegui, though in οιωνοίσιν έρύσσατο κήρα μέλαιναν, 'Αλλ' later times the former name was restricted εδάμη υπό χερσί ποδώκεος Αιακίδαο, also to the inhabitants of the Apennine val. imitated below 9. 328. 'Medicari' with leys.

acc. is found also in Plautus and Pliny: *748.] Armati' seems to express at

“Volnus cuspidis Ausoniae once the character of the nation and the 11. 41. quality of the soil. Comp. 9. 609, “Omne 757.] “Quae pervincere voces Evaluere aevum ferro teritur, versaque iuvencum sonum ?” Hor. 2 Ep. 1. 201. Med. (1st Terga fatigamus hasta.” Semper-rapto' reading), Rom., and originally one of Riboccurs again 9. 612, with the change of beck's cursives, have · in volnere,' which 'convectare’into “comportare.”.

Gossrau prefers, denying that 'in volnera' 750—760.] Umbro, a noted serpent- can be satisfactorily explained. But it is charmer, leads the Marsians.'

merely arbitrary to say that the words 750.] Marruvium or Marrubium was quoted stand for “ad volnera infligenda,” the capital of the Marsi, though it is not but cannot for “ad volnera sananda.” mentioned previous to their conquest by 'Helped with a view to wounds' is the Rome (Dict. G.).

sense : what kind of help is given depends 751.) So Stat. Theb. 4. 216 describes on the nature of the case. A correction Amphiaraus, "vatem cultu Parnasia mon in Med. gives ad volnera.' strant Vellera, frondenti crinitur cassis 758.] “ Falcibus et messae ad Lunam oliva, Albaque puniceas iuterplicat infula quaeruntur aenis Pubentes berbae 4. cristas.” •Fronde et felici oliva' ev did 513. Med. corrected and one of Ribbeck's δυοϊν. .

cursives have in montibus,' which was 752.] Pliny 3. 12. 17 mentions a story the reading before Heins. Wagn. comp. told by Gellianus of a town Archippa, Tibull. 1. 5. 53, herbasque sepulcris founded by Marsyas, and swallowed up by Quaerat." the waters of lake Fucinus.

759.] · Angitia,' not · Anguitia' is the 753.] Graviter spirantibus' seems to spelling of this name attested by inscripindicate both intolerable smell (see on G. tions and the best MSS. The spelling 3. 415) and a poisonous breath (Hor. 2. 5. 'Anguitia' probably arose from a supposed 8. 95).

connexion of the name with “anguis :" it 754.] ‘Spargere somnos' like “quietem is more probably connected with “ancus.” inrigat” 1.692, where see note. This is The chief seat of the worship of this done here partly by incantation, partly goddess was the shore of the lake Fucinus : by manipulation. For the latter comp. but inscriptions “Angitiis," " Angitiae," Pliny 7. 2. Forb. quotes Sil. 3. 300 (of “Dis . . . Ancitibus," have been found the Marmaridae), “Ad quorum cantum elsewhere. (Preller, Römische Mythologie, serpens oblita veneni, Ad quorum tactum p. 362.) She was said to be a daughter of mites iacuere cerastae." Pliny (1. c.) and Aeetes, sister or niece of Circe and sister Sil. 8. 496 foll. speak of the whole Marsian of Medea, who taught the Marsians the race as serpent chariners.

use of drugs. Comp. the connexion of 756.] From Il. 2. 859 foll., arr oùK Circe with Italy v. 10 above.

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