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Et ferit. Exclamant Troes trepidique Latini,
Arrectaeque amborum acies. At perfidus ensis
Frangitur, in-medioque ardentem deserit ictu,
Ni fuga subsidio subeat. Fugit ocior Euro,
Ut capulum ignotum dextramque aspexit inermem.
Fama est praecipitem, cum prima in proelia iunctos
Conscendebat equos, patrio mucrone relicto,
Dum trepidat, ferrum aurigae rapuisse Metisci ;
Idque diu, dum terga dabant palantia Teucri,
Suffecit; postquam arma dei ad Volcania ventum est,
Mortalis mucro, glacies ceu futilis, ictu
Dissiluit; fulva resplendent fragmina arena.
Ergo amens diversa fuga petit aequora Turnus,

730.] Wagn. comp. the rhythm with that of 5. 643, "Et iacit: arrectae mentes stupefactaque corda Iliadum."

731.] Heyne comp. Il. 3. 361 foll., but the resemblance is not very striking.

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732, 733.] Ictum' Rom. and apparently Med. originally. The apparent ellipse, deserit-ni fuga-subeat,' has a good rhetorical effect: we may perhaps comp. 8. 520 foll., "Defixique ora tenebant... multaque... putabant, Ni signum caelo Cytherea dedisset ab alto." Ribbeck inserts marks of a lacuna after 'ictu.' Wagn. explains the ellipse by making 'deserit' = prodidit:" Heyne by supplying in thought " et inermnis relictus Turnus periisset."

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733.] Subsidio subeat,' an assonance rather in Lucretius' manner: see on 10. 552. 'Subsidio'"in subsidium:" comp. "auxilio subeuntem " 2. 216 note. Heyne proposes a forced explanation: "nisi id, quod subsidium erat, fixa cogitatio subiisset eius animo."

734.] 'Ignotum' = "alienum," strange, as in 7. 167, "ignota in veste." Heyne comp. Il. 16. 114 foll., where Hector strikes off, with his sword, the head of Ajax' spear. Serv. remarks: "Locus hic totus ad gloriam Aeneae pertinet.. Namque id agit, ne videatur Turnus armorum vilitate superatus. Unde ei redditur gladius, quo etiam cum divinis armis ab Aenea possit exstingui."

735.] Primum' Pal., Rom., and Gud. for prima: but see on v. 103 above. 'Ad' for 'in' Pal. The occasion which Virg. means must be the moment after Aeneas had been wounded, v. 324 foll. above: when Turnus "poscit equos atque arma




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736.] Patrius' = "paternus" as in 1. 643., 6. 33. "Ensem, quem Dauno ignipotens deus ipse parenti Fecerat," &c., v. 91 above.

737.] The pres. 'trepidat' follows imp. Dum conscendebat,' as in 9. 417, 418, "Ecce aliud summa telum librabat ab aure. trepidant, iit hasta Tago," &c. 738.]


"Pulverulenta fuga Rutuli dant v. 463 above.


739.] Arma dei Volcania,' a figure not uncommon in Greek poetry: comp. Hom.'s Νεστορέῃ παρὰ νῆι . . . βασιλῆος. Wagn. rightly restores' ventum est' for Burmann's and Heyne's ventum.'


740.]Mortalis' "mortali manu facv. 797 "" 10. 30. Cui' tus:" comp. "mortale volnus " below; "mortalia arma Rom, for 'ceu.'

741.] Resplendent fragmina' Med. a m. p., Pal., and Gud., with two of Ribbeck's cursives: so Heyne and Ribbeck: 'resplendet fragmen' Med. a m. s. and Rom., followed by Wagn., who thinks that fragmina' may be due to the initial a of arena.' Fragmina,' besides having the balance of MSS. authority in its favour, is supported not only (as Heyne says) by Homer's τριχθά τε καὶ τετραχθὰ διατροφὲν

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de xeipós, but by Prudentius' imitation (Psych. 145) quoted by Cerda : "Ira ubi truncati mucronis fragmina vidit, Et procul in partes ensem crepuisse minutas," &c.

742.] Diversa,' widely distant from each other.

Et nunc huc, inde huc incertos inplicat orbis ;
Undique enim Teucri densa inclusere corona,
Atque hinc vasta palus, hinc ardua moenia cingunt.
Nec minus Aeneas, quamquam tardata sagitta
Interdum genua impediunt cursumque recusant,
Insequitur, trepidique pedem pede fervidus urguet :
Inclusum veluti si quando flumine nactus
Cervum aut puniceae saeptum formidine pennae
Venator cursu canis et latratibus instat;

Ille autem, insidiis et ripa territus alta,

Mille fugit refugitque vias: at vividus Umber
Haeret hians, iam iamque tenet, similisque tenenti
Increpuit malis, morsuque elusus inani est.
Tum vero exoritur clamor, ripaeque lacusque
Responsant circa, et caelum tonat omne tumultu.

743.] Inplicat' carries on the notion of 'incertos: the circles are confused and wayward.


744.] Inclusere' perfect: so 8. 599, "Undique colles Inclusere cavi et nigra nemus abiete cingunt." Teucri densa' Med.

745.] Vasta palus,' the Laurentian marsh see on 10. 709.

746-790.] Aeneas, pursuing Turnus, at length lights upon his spear, which was in the stump of a sacred oleaster. Turnus in his agony prays to Faunus and Terra that he may be unable to draw it out. His prayer is heard. Juturna seizes the opportunity to give back his own sword to Turnus, and Venus thereupon releases the spear of Aeneas. Thus the two champions meet once again.'

746.] Tardata' Med. a m. p., Pal., Rom., and Gud., 'tardante' Med. a m. s., perhaps a reminiscence of 5. 395, "gelidus tardante senecta Sanguis hebet." Ribbeck has followed Heyne in reading 'tardata,' which Wagn. unnecessarily displaced, for tardante,' against the balance of authority.

748.] Instat' for 'urguet' Arusianus p. 238 L. "Fervidus instat" 9. 350., 10.788. 749.] Serv. comp. Apollonius R. 2. 278 foll., a passage modelled on II. 10. 360 foll., where the pursuit of Dolon by Diomede and Ulysses is described. Virg. was chiefly thinking of Il. 22. 188 foll., where Achilles is pursuing Hector: ns 8' STE veВpov Ŏpeopι kuwv ¿λápoio díntaι 'Opoas ¿¿ evvîs &c.; but he has varied the situation by representing Turnus as hemmed in




between the marsh and the walls, and adapting the simile accordingly.

750.] "Puniceaeve agitant pavidos formidine pennae " G. 3. 372 note.

751.] Venator canis' like "bellator equus" 11. 89. Wagn. well quotes Silius 3. 294, "Ceu pernix cum densa vagis latratibus inplet Venator dumeta Lacon aut exigit Umber" &c. Heyne punctuated 'venator cursu, canis et latratibus,' as if ' venator' did not go with 'canis.'

752.] Insidiis,' the 'formido;' 'ripa,' the river, 'et' being disjunctive, as que' is in the simile 10. 708 note, "(aper) multos Vesulus quem pinifer annos Defendit, multosque palus Laurentia."

753.Fugit refugitque' like "itque reditque viam totiens" 6. 122. 'Ac' for ' at 'Med. a m. p. The description of the Umbrian dog in Gratius (Cyn. 171) would suit a stag-hound: "At fugit adversos idem quos repperit hostes Umber: quanta fides utinam et sollertia naris, Tanta foret virtus et tantam vellet in armis." Imber' Pal., and originally Gud.

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754.] "Illum ardens infesto volnere Pyrrhus Insequitur, iam iamque manu tenet et premit hasta " 2. 529. Tenens' Rom., with one of Ribbeck's cursives.

755.] Increpuit malis,' makes his teeth sound as they meet. Increpuit-elusus est,' perf., not aorist.

756.] Βράχε δ' αἰπὰ ῥέεθρα, Οχθαι δ ̓ ȧuol epi μeydλ' taxov, 11. 21.9. "Resultant aedesque lacusque" Lucil. Libr. Inc. 140 (Gerlach), quoted by Cerda. 'Lacus,' the pools in the marsh.

757.] "Caelum tonat omne fragore" 9.

Ille simul fugiens Rutulos simul increpat omnis,
Nomine quemque vocans, notumque efflagitat ensem.
Aeneas mortem contra praesensque minatur
Exitium, si quisquam adeat, terretque trementis,
Excisurum urbem minitans, et saucius instat.
Quinque orbis explent cursu, totidemque retexunt
Huc illuc; neque enim levia aut ludicra petuntur
Praemia, sed Turni de vita et sanguine certant.
Forte sacer Fauno foliis oleaster amaris
Hic steterat, nautis olim venerabile lignum,
Servati ex undis ubi figere dona solebant
Laurenti divo et votas suspendere vestes;
Sed stirpem Teucri nullo discrimine sacrum

541, whence Minoraug. has 'fragore' here, with some support from another of Ribbeck's cursives.

758.] Simul fugiens' like "simul hoc dicens" 10. 856: perhaps an imitation of the Greek construction of dua with participle.

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759.] 759-831 is wanting in Rom. "Nomine quemque vocaus 11. 731. 'Ekovoμakλhồŋv dvoμáGwv &vdpa čκασTOV, II. 22. 415. Efflagito,' to demand earnestly (see Forc.).

760.] Varied from Il. 22. 205, Aaotow δ ̓ ἀνένευε καρήατι δῖος ̓Αχιλλεύς, Οὐδ ̓ ἔα ξέμεναι ἐπὶ Εκτορι πικρὰ βέλεμνα.

761.] " Quisquam is used with emphasis in other than negative) propositions to signify any one whatever, any one in general ... in conditional and relative propositions, where it is intended to express the condition or relative definition in the most general and comprehensive manner possible" Madv. § 494. 2. b. Trementis,' trembling already: comp. "ne me terrete timentem " v. 875 below.

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762.] Exscissurum' the MS. known as the Parrhasian: see on "excisa Troia" 2. 637. Se' is omitted, as in v. 654 above (note), summasque minatur Deiecturum arces." Saucius,' 'in spite of his wound.' 763.] "Inde alios ineunt cursus aliosque recursus "5. 583. Retexunt,' weave over again so "revolvere iter" 9. 391 of going back on one's steps. With explent cursu' Gossr. comp. Lucr. 2. 323, "Loca cursu Camporum complent."

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764.] 'Emel oux ¡ephïov ovde Boeiny Αρνύσθην, ἅ τε ποσσὶν ἀέθλια γίγνεται ἀνδρῶν, ̓Αλλὰ περὶ ψυχῆς θέον "Εκτορος inтodáμolo, Il. 22. 159 foll. Ludicra:'




"vilia, digna ludo" Serv. "Quasi vero clarorum virorum . . . . esse oporteat ludicros sermones Cic. Acad. Pr. 2. 2. 6.

766.] The introduction of the 'oleaster,' as Heyne suggests, is very probably due to a reminiscence of Homer's epiveós, 11. 22. 145: Οἱ δὲ παρὰ σκοπιὴν καὶ ἐρινεὸν ἠνεμόεντα.... ἐσσεύοντο. The oleaster was a very tough tree: see the story in Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. 5. 3, about that in Megara, under the bark of which were said to have been found arms that had been hung up on it when it was younger; and comp. Aristoph. Plut. 939, Καὶ ταῦτα πρὸς τὸ μέτωπον αὐτίκα δὴ μάλα Ωσπερ κοτίνῳ, προσπασσαλεύσω τουτῳί, with the scholion: ὅτι ἐπὶ τῶν κοτίνων καὶ ἄλλων δένδρων πανταχοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς προσπατταAevovσi тà àvaluara. Foliis oleaster amaris' G. 2. 314. The tree is dedicated to Faunus, as the oak (10. 423) is to be dedicated to Tiber. The worship of Faunus was, with few exceptions, an openair worship: see Preller, Römische Mythologie, p. 341 (2nd ed.).

767.] Olim,' from long time: comp. "deprensis olim statio tutissima nautis G. 4. 421. Lignum,' suggesting its toughness.

768.] Dona' probably explained by vestes' in the next line. Comp. Horace 1 Od. 5. 13. The sailors would offer to Faunus not as a sea-god, but as the protector of their homes.

769.] Laurenti divo' 7. 47 &c.

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770, 771.] Stirps' masc., as in v. 208 above &c. See on v. 781 below. 'Nullo discrimine with sustulerant : “ though it was sacred (sacrum '), they had taken it up, making no difference." 'Puro:' so

Sustulerant, puro ut possent concurrere campo.
Hic hasta Aeneae stabat; huc impetus illam
Detulerat fixam et lenta radice tenebat.
Incubuit voluitque manu convellere ferrum
Dardanides, teloque sequi, quem prendere cursu
Non poterat. Tum vero amens formidine Turnus,
Faune, precor, miserere, inquit, tuque optuma ferrum
Terra tene, colui vestros si semper honores,
Quos contra Aeneadae bello fecere profanos.
Dixit, opemque dei non cassa in vota vocavit.
Namque diu luctans lentoque in stirpe moratus
Viribus haud ullis valuit discludere morsus
Roboris Aeneas. Dum nititur acer et instat,

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773.] Detulerat fixam et lenta radice tenebat' Med. originally, and so Gud., Minoraug., and another of Ribbeck's cursives. Med. corrected omits 'et,' and inserts ab' before radice:' comp. "alta ab radice revellit" v. 787 below. Lenta ab radice 'Pal. corrected, 'lenta in radice' some inferior copies; and so Heyne and Wagn., who however would prefer fixam lenta radice tenebat,' making 'oleaster' the subject of 'tenebat.' Ribbeck seems right in adopting the original reading of Med., and punctuating 'detulerat fixam et lenta radice tenebat,' taking away Heyne's comma after 'detulerat.' Fixam' goes more naturally with detulerat' than with tenebat the prolepsis of the past participle may be paralleled by 3. 236, "tectosque per herbam Disponunt enses.' Impetus is the most natural nom. for 'tenebat: the swing of the throw was strong enough to bring it there, fix it, and to continue to hold it there in the root. Lentus,' tough, clinging, as in v. 781 below, "lento in stirpe." With the whole passage comp. II. 21. 171 foll, where Achilles' spear, aimed at Asteropaeus, is fixed in a bank : 'O 8' výnλhy Báλev uxony, Μεσσοπαλὲς δ ̓ ἄρ ̓ ἔθηκε κατ ̓ ὄχθης μείλινον ἔγχος· Πηλείδης δ ̓ ἄορ ὀξὺ ἐρυσσάμενος παρὰ μηροῦ ̓Αλτ ̓ ἐπί οἱ μεμαώς· ὁ δ ̓ ἄρα μελίην ̓Αχιλῆος Οὐ δύνατ ̓ ἐκ κρημνοῖο ἐρύσσαι χειρὶ παχείῃ.



774.] Convellere: 3. 24, "viridemque ab humo convellere silvam."

775.] Tergo' Pal. originally for 'telo.' • Telo sequi like " sequi hasta, iaculo 11. 674, v. 354 above. "Pariter cursu teloque secutus" 9. 559. Vv. 775-777 occur twice over in Med., being written again on the margin after v. 777.

778.] Εἴ ποτέ τοι χαρίεντ ̓ ἐπὶ νηὸν ἔρεψα K.T.A., II. 1. 39. Colere honores' like "religiones colere" Livy 3. 57; "caerimonias" Cic. Tusc. 1. 12. 27.

779.] Ferro,' which is given as a variant in Gud., is found in Bottendorph's copies and the Zuylichem MS. Ribbeck likes it for the alliteration. Bello,' because they had done it for the sake of the combatants.

Profanos: "non omne quod sacrum non sit profanum, sed quod sacrum fuerit et desierit" Serv., and so Trebatius ap. Macrob. Sat. 3. 3. 3.

780.] In vota vocavit' 5. 234 note. Vocabit' Pal. corrected.

781.] Luctans lentoque,' an intentional alliteration. 'Lentus V. 773 above. "Stirpem Vergilius et masculino et feminino genere dixit: masculino, cum radices arborum significare vult. . . feminino cum ad progeniem refert." Probus de Nom. p. 218. Comp. Charisius i. 15. 85 (Neue, Formenlehre der Lateinischen Sprache i. p. 696.)

782.] Discludere' Pal., Med. a m. s., Gud. corrected, with another of Ribbeck's cursives: discurrere' Med. a m. p., and as a variant in Gud. 'Convellere' and 'discindere' are found in other copies. "Ferit aures nostras hoc verbum discludere,” says Macrob. Sat. 6. 4. 11. Morsus, grip, as of an anchor 1. 169.

Rursus in aurigae faciem mutata Metisci
Procurrit fratrique ensem dea Daunia reddit.
Quod Venus audaci Nymphae indignata licere,
Accessit, telumque alta ab radice revellit.
Olli sublimes, armis animisque refecti,
Hic gladio fidens, hic acer et arduus hasta,
Adsistunt contra certamine Martis anheli.
Iunonem interea Rex omnipotentis Olympi
Adloquitur, fulva pugnas de nube tuentem ;
Quae iam finis erit, coniunx? quid denique restat ?
Indigetem Aenean scis ipsa, et scire fateris,

784.] So Il. 22. 276 of the spear of
Achilles: 'Avà d' 1⁄2μ¬аσ€ Паλλàƒ'Аovn,*A
δ' ̓Αχιλῆϊ δίδου, λάθε δ' Εκτορα, ποιμένα
Aawy. It is unnecessary to suppose with
Serv. that Juturna had again assumed her
own form : the words in faciem' &c. are a
general description of her, as in v.623 above.
Rursus' therefore should be taken with
"procurrit,' not with mutata.' Con-
versa' (as in v. 623) Pal., Med. a m. s.,
with some inferior copies: mutata' Med.
a m. p., Gud., and two other of Ribbeck's

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787.] De stirpe revellit' Diomedes 369. 788.] 'Sublimis' of a soaring spirit, as in Ov. F. 1. 301, "Non Venus et vinum sublimia pectora fregit." Hor. A. P. 165, "Sublimis cupidusque." Armis animisque refecti,' a conceit of the same kind as "ad caelum palmas cum voce tetendit ” 2. 688 &c. Animum' Pal. originally.

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789.] Arduus' not, as Heyne says, "elatus animo," but in its literal sense, as 8. 299, "Arduus arma tenens" (of Typhoeus): 5.479 (of Entellus), "Libravit dextra media inter cornua caestus Arduus.". Arduus hasta' like "cornibus ingens" 7. 483.

790.] Certamina' Serv., confirmed by Med., Pal., Gud., and another of Ribbeck's cursives and so Heins., followed by Rib. beck. Heyne, Wagn., and Forb. read 'certamine,' which, though as old as Serv., who mentions it as a various reading, is only found in one of Ribbeck's cursives and some inferior copies. The difficulty is to know what adsistunt contra certamina' could mean. The abl. sing. and neut. pl. are again confused in the MSS. in 9. 143 (see on 4. 98), and it is not impossible that 'certamina' was introduced by a scribe who did not understand the adverbial use of 'contra.' 'Adsistunt contra,' they stand



there to meet each other: 'adsisto' as in Cic. Leg. 2. 4. 10, of Horatius Cocles waiting to meet the enemy, “ ut contra omnes hostium copias in ponte unus adsisteret" (Forc.). Contra,' against each other comp. "stant obnixa omnia contra" 10. 359: velkeîv àλλýλoiσiv évavτíov, Il. 20. 252. 'Certamen Martis' like pida Apnos Il. 5. 861. Anheli' nom. pl., not gen. sing.

791-842.] A dialogue takes place between Jupiter and Juno, in which Juno unwillingly consents to leave the battle and let fate take its course, begging only that the victorious Trojans may not be allowed to impose their name upon the Latins. To this Jupiter agrees.'

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791.] 'Omnipotentis Olympi' 10. 1 note. 792.] So Apollo, 9. 639, Desuper Ausonias acies urbemque videbat Nube sedens :" comp."Hpn 8 eloeide Xpvoó@poros ὀφθαλμοῖσιν Στᾶσ ̓ ἐξ Ουλύμποιο ἀπὸ ῥίου, II. 14. 153. Fulva nubes:' Pindar's ¿avoà vepéλa Ol. 7. 49.

793.] Finis' fem. (as always in Lu. cretius) 2. 554., 3. 145., 5. 327, 384. 'Quid restat?'what more is there that you can do?' 'Quid iam misero mihi denique restat ?" 2. 70.

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794.] Indiges,' the title of Aeneas after he had disappeared from the earth: see the Pompeian inscription in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 1, Elog. 20, "Aeneas [dictus] est indigens [et in deorum] numero relatus:" comp. Tibull. 2. 5. 44, "cum te veneranda Numici Unda deum caelo miserit Indigetem :" so Livy 1. 2. 6, "situs est (Aeneas) quemcunque eum dici ius fasque est super Numicium flumen : Iovem indigetem appellant." See Schwegler, Römische Geschichte 1, p. 328. Indiges' is considered by Corssen (Kritische Nachträge zur Lateinischen Formenlehre, p. 254) to be the participle

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