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170

Bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro.
Hinc pater Aeneas, Romanae stirpis origo,
Sidereo flagrans clipeo et caelestibus armis,
Et iuxta Ascanius, magnae spes altera Romae,
Procedunt castris, puraque in veste sacerdos
Saetigeri fetum suis intonsamque bidentem
Attulit, admovitque pecus flagrantibus aris.
Illi ad surgentem conversi lumina solem
Dant fruges manibus salsas, et tempora ferro
Summa notant pecudum, paterisque altaria libant.
Tum pius Aeneas stricto sic ense precatur:
Esto nunc Sol testis et haec mihi Terra vocanti,

175

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165.] Repeated from 1. 313, where see more adhibuit:" see II. 3. 246. note.

171.] · Admoveo' of bringing the victim 166.] • Origo' as in Tac. Germ. 2, to the altar, as in Tac. A. 2.69, “ Admotas “ Tuisconem deum,-et filium Mannum, hostias, sacrificalem apparatum proturbat." originem gentis conditoresque." Comp. Suet. Calig. 32, “Admota altaribus vicIl. 14. 201, 'Okeavby te, Dewy yéveriv, kad tima” (Taubm.). Add Pers. 2. 75. μητέρα Τηθύν. .

172.] Comp. 8. 68, “Surgit, et, aetherii 167.] ‘Sidereum' probably= bright as spectans orientia Solis Lumina, rite cavis a star : see 10. 271 foll. 'Astepoels is the undam de flumine palmis Sustinet," &c. epithet of Achilles' Cúpng, Il. 16. 134, Forb. comp. Ov. F. 4. 777, “His dea where see Heyne, and of Hephaestus's placanda est : haec tu conversus ad ortus house, 18. 370.

Dic,” &c. : Soph. 0. C. 477, Xods xéarbai 168.] · Magna' Gud., a reading men. návra apos apárnu (w (and Schneidewin's tioned with disapproval by Serv. Serv.on note). Some old editions had surgentis, E. 6. 11 has a story, told also by the solis, as was to be expected. Pseudo-Donatus in his Life of Virg., 173, 174.] · Animus' Gud. originally for but refuted by the chronology, that Cicero "manibus.' “ Dant famuli manibus lymused the words 'magnaè spes altera Ro- phas” 1. 701, in a different sense. mae' of Virg. on hearing the Sixth Ec. salsae fruges, et circum tempora vittae" logue recited in the theatre, the first 2. 133. • Tempora-notant pecudum,' of hope' being himself.

the custom of cutting off the hair of the 169.] *Pura’ unspotted: comp. Tibull. victim before sacrifice : see on 6. 245. 1. 10. 27, “ Hanc (porcam) pura cum veste • Pateris altaria libant' is a variety for sequar,” of a rustic offering: so ib. 2. 13 “pateras libant altaribus" or "in altaria,” (Cerda). Phaedrus, 3. 10. 10, has “ toga possibly suggested by the late use of pura,” of a toga without a praetexta. heißeobal of being sprinkled. “Pura vestimenta sacerdotes ad sacrifi. 175.] “Stricto ense, tanquam periurium cium habebant, id est, non obsita, non ulturus,” Heyne. But Virg. is also think fulgurita, non funésta, non maculam ha- ing of Il. 19. 252 foll., ’Arpelons de bentia.” Festus, p. 248 (Müller). έρυσσάμενος χείρεσσι μάχαιραν Κάπρου από

170.] Saetigeri' all Ribbeck's MSS. apixas åpšduevos, Ait xelpas åvao xár, *Saetigerae' was the common reading be. Exeto, &c. fore Pierius, but has not been found in any 176.] The prayer in Il. 3. 276 is, Zell MS. A pig was the ordinary victim in πάτερ, "Ίδηθεν μεδέων, κυδιστε, μέγιστε, the ceremony of making a treaty: see 8. 'Hέλιός θ', δς πάντ' έφοράς και πάντ' επ. 641, Livy 1. 24., 9. 5, Sueton. Claud. 25, akoúers, Kal Totquol kal raia, kal ot ûnév&c. (See Lersch, A. V. 8 54. 3.) • Biden- epde kapórtas 'Av@p@TOUS Tivvolov, 8tis tem’ 4. 57 note. Lersch (1. c.) makes a κ' επίορκον ομόσση, Υμείς μάρτυροι έστε, difficulty about the sheep, for the intro- QuadOoete Spria TiOTÓ, &c.; so nearly duction of which there seems to be no 19. 258 foll., "lotw vũv Zeùs apôta, &c., strict warrant in the Roman usage as whence Virg. takes his rhythm. Vocanti' known to 113: Serv. says, ovem Graeco Pal., Rom., and Gud., which gives 'pre

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180

Quam propter tantos potui perferre labores,
Et Pater omnipotens, et tu Saturnia coniunx,
Iam melior, iam, diva, precor; tuque inclute Mayors,
Cuncta tuo qui bella, pater, sub numine torques;
Fontisque Fluviosque voco, quaeque aetheris alti
Religio, et quae caeruleo sunt numina ponto:
Cesserit Ausonio si fors victoria Turno,
Convenit Euandri victos discedere ad urbem ;
Cedet Iulus agris; nec post arma ulla rebelles 185
Aeneadae referent, ferrove haec regna lacessent.
Sin nostrum adnuerit nobis Victoria Martem,-
Ut potius reor, et potius di numine firment-
Non ego nec Teucris Italos parere iubebo,
Nec mihi regna peto; paribus se legibus ambae 190
Invictae gentes aeterna in foedera mittant.
Sacra deosque dabo; socer arma Latinus habeto,

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canti' as a variant: precanti' Med., like “cedite ferro” 9. 620 : comp. ib. probably from 'precatur' in the last 905. Iulus is mentioned because the sapline.

position involves the death of Aeneas. 177.] Virg. particularizes Agamemnon's · Arma referent' connected closely with appeal to the Earth to suit Aeneas's cir- “rebelles : shall again carry arms against cumstances,

you. Ferroque' Gud. 178.] ‘Iuno' Med. for 'coniunx,' with 187.7 Si’ Rom. for 'sin. The constr. marks of correction, and two of Ribbeck’s is 'sin Victoria adnuerit Martem nostrum cursives, and so Heyne. Wagn. and Jahn esse,' as in 11. 19, “ Ubi primum vellere restored 'coniunx' on the authority of the signa Adnuerint superi.” Nostrum'= other MSS.

propitious : see on 5. 832. 179.] · Melior,' more propitious: “Sis 188.] For 'et' Med. has ‘ut' corrected bonus o felixque tuis” E. 5. 65. Comp. into‘et,' apparently by a later hand. Pro“melioribus fatis" 6. 546. • Diva,' in re- pius' Rom. from 8. 78. Numina' Pal. ('a' cognition of her power. Wagn. would in an erasure), Rom., and Gud. Numine' prefer ‘nostra.' With the repetition of almost in its literal sense, with their

iam' comp. Pers. 2. 60, “Jam dabitur, nod:' see on 2. 123, and comp. Ov. M. iam iam."

10. 430 (of the nurse of Myrrha), "pro180.] “ Caelum et terras qui numine missaque numine firmat.” torquet” 4. 269 note.

Quorum semper

189.] “Non ego nec :' see E. 4. 55., 5. sub numine Troia est” 9. 247. For 'pater' 25. see on G. 2. 4.

190.] “Communem hunc ergo populum 182.] · Religio,' used in a concrete sense paribusque regamus Auspiciis 4. 102 for the object of dread, like oébas. “Uno note. The meaning of 'paribus legibus' eodemque tempore Agrigentini beneficium seems to be that the two nations are to be Africani, religionem domesticam, orna- governed on terms of equality, not one mentum urbis, requirebant” (of a statue as a conquered, one as a conquering people. of Apollo) Cic. 2 Verr. 4. 43. Religio’is The abl. then will be modal. used for a divine warning 3. 363.

191.] •Invictae,' i. e. neither shall suffer 183.] · Cedo' as in 3. 297, 333. "Si the shame of conquest. "Se in foedera fors' in contrast to the certainty of his mittere like "in foedera venire" 4. 339 own hopes, v. 188.

note. Comp. also 4. 618, where, however, 184.] Decedere’Med. originally. 'Con- leges’ is used in a different sense. venit' = OÚrkeltai, ‘it is agreed.'

192.] Sacra ’includes the sacred things 185, 186.] Cedat’ Rom., but the fut. is for worship as well as the rites themselves: confirmed by the context. Cedet agris' comp. 2. 293, “Sacra suosque tibi com

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195

Inperium sollemne socer; mihi moenia Teucri
Constituent, urbique dabit Lavinia nomen.
Sic prior Aeneas; sequitur sic deinde Latinus,
Suspiciens caelum, tenditque ad sidera dextram :
Haec eadem, Aenea, Terram, Mare, Sidera, iuro,
Latonaeque genus duplex, Ianumque bifrontem, ,
Vimque deum infernam et duri sacraria Ditis ;
Audiat haec Genitor, qui foedera fulmine sancit.
Tango aras, medios ignis et numina testor :
Nulla dies pacem hanc Italis nec foedera rumpet,
Quo res cumque cadent; nec me vis ulla volentem
Avertet, non, si tellurem effundat in undas,

200

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mendat Troia Penatis," where the sacra' in Stat. Theb. 3. 246 calls heaven “ Arcem are afterwards explained by the “vittae” hanc aeternam, mentis sacraria nostrae and the “ignis.” So the Greek iepá : see (Forc.), which may serve to fix the mean. Hdt. 4. 33., 7. 153. “ Sacrorum nomine ing here. tam Graeci quam Romani praecipue signa 200.] Sancire foedus,' to enforce a et imagines deorum, omnemque sacram treaty by a penalty: comp. Livy 23. 8, supellectilem dignari solent,” Lobeck 'Sanguine Haninibalis sanciam Romanum (Aglaophamus, 1, p. 51), who there gives foedus” (Taubm.). Cic. (?) post Red. suum further references. Deos' includes the ad Quir. 5, “Cum ... omnia cum omnibus images of the gods : see on 2. 293. foedera . . . sanguine meo sancirentur.”

193.] Lersch, A. V. § 1, p. 5, comp. Livy • Fulmine,' by striking perjurers with his 1. 13 (about the incorporation of the bolt. Sabines with the Romans), “Regnum 201.] · Tango aras 4. 219 note, 6. consociant, inperium omne conferunt Ro- 124. * Is cui, si aram tenens iuraret, mam.” * Sollemne' goes closely with crederet nemo” Cic. pro Flacco, 36. 90.

socer,' that which is his lawful due as “Vendet periuria summa Exigua et Cereris father-in-law: this is more likely than tangens aramque pedemque” Juv. 14. 218: Wagn.'s explanation that sollemne’= comp. Livy 21.1. •Medios ignes et nu"solitum," and that “inperium sollemne mina’ apparently means the fires and the habeat' therefore means “inperium in- gods that are between us. Aeneas and tegrum habeat.”

Latinus probably stand with the altar 196.] So of Agamemnon, Il. 19. 257, between them, and the gods are supposed Ευξάμενος δ' άρα είπεν, ιδών εις ουρανόν to be present at the sacrifce. Heins. ευρύν. .

explained “medios' as = sequestres et 197.] "Maria aspera iuro” 6. 351. The conciliatores pacis." Mediosque' was constr. is like the Greek buvome with acc., the common reading before Pierius and Ouvuut yaiav 'Hilov B ayvdy oébas, Eur. Heins. Med. 752 &c. It is found in prose, Cic. 202.] · Foedere 'Med. a m. p. RumFam. 7. 12, “ Iovem Lapidem iurare." pat’ Pal. (corrected from 'rumpit '), and

198.) •Latonae genus duplex,' the Sun and Moon. “Ianum bifrontem' 7. 180. 203.] 'Quo res cumque cadent 2. 709.

199.] Vim deum infernam'means more CadetRom. for "cadent.' Illa' Gud. than ‘inferos deos' (like "odora canum vis” originally for ‘ulla.' for “ odori canes ”).

“ Caelestum vis mag 204.] 'Avertet,' turn away from my na” 7. 432. Virg. is thinking of Il. 19. engagement. Avertit' Gud. originally. 259, 'Epirbes, all und gaiav 'Avopórovs "Tellure effundat et undas' Med. first τίνυνται, ότις κ' επίορκον ομόσση. Duri,' reading. “Non si terra mari miscebitur comp. G. 4. 470,“ Regemque tremendum, et mare caelo” Lucr. 3. 842, where Nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere see Munro. Serv. thinks tellurem effuncorda." "Sacraria,' the shrine of Dis, dat in undas’ is a hypallage for si undas probably meaning his abode : conversely a effundat in tellurem' doubtless 'effundat' temple is often called “domus.” So Jupiter is chosen purposely, to give the notion of

so Gud.

205

Diluvio miscens, caelumque in Tartara solvat;
Ut sceptrum hoc-dextra sceptrum nam forte gerebat-
Numquam fronde levi fundet virgulta nec umbras,
Cum semel in silvis imo de stirpe recisum
Matre caret, posuitque comas et bracchia ferro;
Olim arbos; nunc artificis manus aere decoro
Inclusit, patribusque dedit gestare Latinis.
Talibus inter se firmabant foedera dictis
Conspectu in medio procerum. Tum rite sacratas
In flammam iugulant pecudes, et viscera vivis
Eripiunt, cumulantque oneratis lancibus aras.

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melting. The nom. to effundat' is 23, “Hic plantas tenero abscindens de vis.'

corpore matrum Deposait sulcis :" and 205.] ‘Diluvio' implies that the water ib. 19. 55. *Posuitque comas,' &c. : so encroaches on the land. • Miscens,' con- nearly Prop. 3. 12. 12, “Et vitem docta founding. 'Solvat,' a rhetorical continua- ponere falce comas" (Cerda). ‘Bracchia” tion of effundat.' In each case it is G. 2. 296, 368. • Ferro,' instr. abl. : the solid part of the universe that is comp. 9. 704 note. supposed to give way. Med. a m. p. has 210.] ‘Arbos,’of a large branch of a tree, solvit.'

as in G. 2. 81. * Aere decoro :' Virg. has 206.] An imitation of the well-known given a new turn to Hom.'s repi gép sáé passage, I1. 1. 234 foll., Nαι μα τόδε χαλκός έλεψεν φύλλα τε και φλοιόν. σκήπτρον, το μεν ούποτε φύλλα και όζους 211.) “Inclusit,' not unlike “inclusum Þúvel, &c. Wagn. remarks, “Mira profecto baxo ebur” 10. 136, “smaragdi Auro comparatio, in qua nihil rebus collatis includuntur” Lucr. 4. 1127. Νύν αυτέ inter se commune, nisi quod neutrum μιν υίες 'Αχαιών 'Εν παλάμης φoρέουσι futurum esse contenditur.” “Dextra scep- δικασπόλοι, ούτε θέμιστας Προς Διός trum nam forte gerebat' seems weak: but cipúatal, Il. l. c. Virg. in translating this Virg. is fond of- forte'in such descriptions: represents the Latin .patres' or primisee 11. 552, “ 'Telum inmane, manu valida tive senate as occasionally carrying the quod forte gerebat” of Metabus: and v. sceptre, though generally it is the symbol 488 below.

of royalty alone (8. 506, &c.). The only 207.] ‘Fundit' Pal., corrected into other exception to this is the case of the 'fundet. Fundere virgulta ' like “fun princess Ilione, who is said to have borne dere flores ” E. 4. 23., 9. 41. •Fronde,' a sceptre, 1. 653. For the construction probably descriptive, taken with “vir. 'patribus dedit gestare' comp. 1.319 note. gulta.' Umbras,' a common point in “Certare' Rom. for 'gestare.' Virg.'s description of trees : see G. 1. 157, 212.] “Foedera firment” 11. 330. 191., 2. 297, 410, &c. •Neque,' one of 213.] •Prospectu' Med. for 'conspecto.' Ribbeck's cursives, and so Heins. and “Rite sacratas,' by the årapxh, v. 173 Heyne : 'nec' was restored by Wagn. above.

208.) Virg. is rendering closely Homer's 214.] ‘In flammam iugulant pecudes' Επειδή πρώτα τομήν εν όρεσσι λέλοιπες 11. 199. •Viscera vivis Eripiunt,' so 11. 1. 235. *Cum' then has virtually the Seneca, Thyestes 4. 755, " Erepta rivis force of “ ex quo,” much as we use sing exta pectoribus tremunt, spirantque venae, in both a temporal and a logical sensed 5. corque adhuc pavidum salit" (Taubm.). 626 and the passage of Cicero there quoted Comp. 4. 64 note, “ Pecudumque reclusis are not parallel, as in them 'cum' is co. Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta." extensive with the whole tir covered by Viscera,' however, may mean the flesh, the principal verb. For the gender of as elsewhere in Virg. (1. 211, &c.), the stirps' see on v. 781 below.

sense being that the victims are flayed 209.] *Cadet' Med. for 'caret.' Matre' before they are quite dead. the parent tree, not the parent earth, as 215.] Cumulantque oneratis lancibus Heyne is inclined to take it: comp. G. 2. aras' 8. 284 note.

At vero Rutulis inpar ea pugna videri
Iamdudum, et vario misceri pectora motu;
Tum magis, ut propius cernunt non viribus aequis.
Adiuvat incessu tacito progressus et aram
Suppliciter venerans demisso lumine Turnus,
Tabentesque genae et iuvenali in corpore pallor.
Quem simul ac Iuturna soror crebescere vidit
Sermonem, et volgi variare labantia corda,
In medias acies, formam adsimulata Camerti, -

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ас

216–310.] •Juturna excites the Rutu- gressus tacitus, dum vis pedem movebat.” lians to break the treaty. The augur The constr. ' adiuvat progressus' (= 'adTolumnius, encouraged by a prodigy which iuvat progressio eius ') is not uncommon : she had sent, throws his javelin among comp. Livy 24. 30, “ Terroris speciem the Trojan ranks, and kills a man: the haud vanam mendacio praebuerant verconflict becomes general: Messapus slays berati ac securi percussi transfugae ad duo the Etruscan prince, Aulestes, and other milia hominum : Tac. Hist. 2. 66, blood is shed.'

“ Angebat Vitellium victarum legionum 217.] Vario misceri,' &c., constructed haudquaquam fractus animus.” like 2. 298, “ Diverso interea miscentur 220.] *Lumen’ in sing. seems rare in moenia luctu.” “Misceri,' are confused: the sense of oculus,'as in 8. 153, “ Totum * vario,' discordant : comp. 11. 454, “ Hic lustrabat lumine corpus." Forc. quotes undique clamor Dissensu vario magnus se Ov. 3 Trist. 2. 19, “Nec nostro parcior tollit ad auras."

imber Lumine, de verna quam nive manat 218.] It is perhaps impossible to get a aqua.” Add Catull. 62 (64). 86, “Hunc satisfactory explanation of this line. “Non simul cupido conspexit lumine

viribus aequis : eos congressuros esse, subau virgo." dis” Serv., and so nearly Heyne, who sup 221.] Tabentes' one of Ribbeck's cur. plies "pugnam ineundam" as acc. to .cersives with the two Menteliani and some innunt.' Wagn. thinks thatóviribus aequis' ferior copies: so Donatus on v.219, “Tabencan be taken as an abl. of quality used as tium genarum a macie repentina." But an adj., quoting Tac. A. 1. 13, “ (Arrun- Med., Pal., Rom., Gud. corrected and two tium) divitem, promptum, artibus egregiis more of Ribbeck's cursives give'pubentes:' et pari fama publice, suspectabat :” but though Pierius says that in Med. `pu. there the constr. is fixed by the preced. bentes' was altered from ‘tabentes.' Serv. ing adj., as it is fixed by the following adj. is silent. Whence pubentes' came it is in 3.618, “ Domus sanie dapibusque hard to say: it gives no rational sense cruentis, Intus opaca, ingens.' Forb. in this context. • Tabentes,' wasted. in his first edition thought that 'cernunt' Iuvenali' Heins. for "juvenili,' which is =. "pugnant” (see his note on v. 709 found in one of Ribbeck's cursives. Wagn. below), but the battle had not yet begun. blames Virg. for inconsistency in repreAll these explanations are strained : per senting Turnus' spirit as broken : but his haps the least strained is Heyne's, for character is throughout vehement and after ‘ea pugna’ v. 216, pugnam' is excitable (see on 10. 151), and it is not the most natural acc. to supply. Schrader unnatural that his courage, like Hector's ingeniously conj. 'viribus aequos.' Rib- in Homer, should be damped in presence of beck argues with much plausibility that a great crisis. the clause was left incomplete by Virg., 222, 223.] From Il. 4. 75 foll., where and puts a mark of omission after .non Athene descends from heaven to incite the viribus aequis.'

breach of the treaty. • Quem ... ser219.] · Adiuvat,' aids the growing ex. monem :' Virg. implies what Hom. says citement: comp. 5. 345. 'Ingressu’Gud. directly, 'nde tis Terkev iddy és with another of Ribbeck's cursives and minolov árnov, &c. Not unlike are “ quo the MS. known as · Oblongus Pierii.' gemitu ” 2. 73, “ quo motu ” G. 1. 329. • Tacito,' quiet, subdued : Schrader conj. * Labentia 'Rom. for • labantia.' “Animum ‘tardo,' perhaps suggested by Donatus' labantem ” 4. 22. explanation of tacito :' “primum est in 224.] Η δ' ανδρί ικέλη Τρώων κατεδύσεθ'

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