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115

Postera vix summos spargebat lumine montis
Orta dies, cum primum alto se gurgite tollunt
Solis equi, lucemque elatis naribus efflant;
Campum ad certamen magnae sub moenibus urbis
Dimensi Rutulique viri Teucrique parabant,
In medioque focos et dis communibus aras
Gramineas. Alii fontemque ignemque ferebant,
Velati limo, et verbena tempora vincti.
Procedit legio Ausonidum, pilataque plenis

120

ap

113–132.] • Preparations are made for ignis adhibentur: unde et quos arcere the single combat between Aeneas and volumus a nostro consortio, eis aqua et Turnus.'

igni interdicimus, i.e. rebus quibus con113.] 'Summo' Med. and one of Rib. sortia copulantur.” beck's cursives : an obvious error. Comp. 120.] Velati lino' Med., Pal., Rom., 2. 801, “ Iamque iugis summae surgebat Gud. But Heyne rightly read ‘limo,' on Lucifer Idae, Ducebatque diem.” “Novo the authority of Serv., who writes“ Caper spargebat lumine terras” of the dawn, 4. tamen et Hyginus hoc loco dicunt lectio584., 9. 459: comp. Lucr. 2. 144.

nem esse corruptam : nam Virgilium ita 114.] Serv. has a quaint note: “Quia reliquisse confirmant, Velati limo. Limas res perturbatae secuturae sunt, diem quo- autem est vestis qua ab umbilico usque ad que cum fervore oriri fecit:" comp. his pedes prope tegebantur. Haec autem vestis note cited on 11. 183.

habet in extremo sui purpuram limam, id 115.] From Enn. A. 588, “ funduntque est flexuosam, unde et nomen accipit.” elatis naribus lucem.” (Serv.) Comp. Pind. Comp. (with Heyne) Gell. 12. 3, “ Licio 01. 7. 70, 'O revédalos åktivwv mathp, núp transverso, quod limum appellabatur, qui TVEOUTWv åpxòs Intwv. (Cerda.) Soph. magistratibus præministrabant cincti Ant. 1146 speaks of the stars as breathing erant.” Wagn. also refers to a Verona fire. Nộp TE TEOplatwy Tv 'Aerlov, Eur. inscription (Orelli 3219, Corpus Inscr. Lat. I. A. 159.

5. 1. 3401) “ Honori M. Gavi . 116.] For the apodosis after 'vix' see paritores et limocincti tribunalis eius,” and on 2. 172. So before the single combat, to Hyginus (in Rei Agrar. auct. a Goes. Il. 3. 314 foll., "EKTWp 8 Mpiduolo náïs kal edit. p. 151), from whom it appears that διος Οδυσσεύς Χώρον μεν πρώτον διεμέτρεoν, the full form “ limus cinctus,” &c.

was

*Limo' is given (according to Pottier) in 118.] “Focos, probably braziers or pans two of the Paris MSS. : but see on 10. to hold the fire for the altars (see Forc. 705. Verbena' seems to have been a and Dict. A. 'Ara'): comp. v. 285 below, name for the grass and herbs plucked

D puere aras ... Craterasque focosque from the ground by the Fetiales and Pater ferunt,” “Caespite vivo Pone focum” Calp. patratus in the ceremony of making a E. 5. 25. • Focus,' from its frequent con- treaty. (Livy, 1. 24.) See on E. 8. 65. nexion with 'ara,' is in Ovid, Tibullus, Pliny, 22. 3, says, “ Non aliunde (i. e. ex and Propertius not seldom used as syno- herbis ignobilibus) sagmina in remediis nymous with it : see Prop. 3. 12, 14, Tib. publicis fuere et in sacris legationibusque 1. 2, 82, Ov. M. 4. 753, A. A. 1. 637, &c. verbenae. Certe utroque nomine idem sig. Dis communibus,' the gods to whom both nificatur, hoc est, gramen ex arce cum appeal : 80 “ Communemque vocate deum" sua terra evolsum : ac semper e legatis 8. 275. Comp. (with Heyne) Prop. 1. 11, cum ad hostes clarigatumque mitterentur, 16, “Ut solet amoto labi custode puella i.e. rės raptas clare repetitum, unus atique Perfida, communes nec meminisse deos." Verbenarius vocatur.” Comp. Livy 30.

119.) “Gramineas :' comp. Horace's 40. (Lersch, Antiqq. Verg. § 54) In Livg "positusque carbo in Caespite vivo”30d. 1. 24 the.pater patratus has' his head 8. 3, and see Ov. M. 4. 753, “Dis tri. and hair touched with the verbena. hus ille focos totidem de caespite ponit.” 121.] Serv. mentions two explanations · Fontem,' spring water. Serv. seems to of 'pilata :' “pilis armata," and "densa, refine unnecessarily on 'fontem ignem. spissa.”. Though he himself inclines to que :'"Ad facienda foedera semper aqua et the first, the passages which he quotes

G

Agmina se fundunt portis. Hinc Troius omnis
Tyrrhenusque ruit variis exercitus armis,
Haud secus instructi ferro, quam si aspera Martis
Pugna vocet. Nec non mediis in milibus ipsi 125
Ductores auro volitant ostroque superbi,
Et genus Assaraci Mnestheus, et fortis Asilas,
Et Messapus equum domitor, Neptunia proles.
Utque dato signo spatia in sua quisque recessit,
Defigunt tellure hastas et scuta reclinant.

130
Tum studio effusae matres et volgus inermum
Invalidique senes turris ac tecta domorum

Obsedere, alii portis sublimibus adstant. from Varro and Asellio seem to show that 128.] From 7. 691., 9. 523. “pilatus” was used technically of a close 129.] Spatia’apparently = the spaces column in march. Agmen pilatum" was of ground marked out for each. So perdistinguished from “agmen quadratum,' haps 5. 584, "adversi spatiis.” and “pilatim ” from “passim iter facere.” 130.] *Tellure' Med., Pal., Gud., con. No word “pilare” (= to crowd or press) firmed by Arusianus p. 225 L. • Telluri' exists, but perhaps • oppilare ” may point Rom. and one of Ribbeck’scursives. Heyne to its having once existed. Enn. Sat. 3 read 'tellure, and so Ribbeck : Wagn., has“ pilatas aetheris oras," quoted here by Forb., and Gossr. ‘telluri:” Virg. uses both Serv., in what sense is not clear. “ Pilata dat. and abl. with defigo' (G. 2. 290 cohors” in Mart. 10. 48. 2 (Forc.) may “terrae," A. 6. 652 “terra”), and the mean "pilis armata,” and so perhaps the balance of external authority should therename “Pilatus.” But there is nothing fore decide the question. The words are unsuitable to the sense here in making adapted from Il. 3. 134 foll., Oi vûv “pilata ”i. q. “ densa," and Virg. would catai oiyn, tróneuos gė métautai, 'Aonio not be sorry to use an old military term. κεκλιμένοι, παρά δ' έγχεα μακρά πέπηγεν.

122.] " Plenis portis effusi hostes” • Reclinant, lean against the ground. Livy 1. 14 (Peerlk.). «Hic'Rom. for ‘hinc.' 131.] •Studio,' in their eagerness : so

123.] “ Variis, quia alius Troicus, alius studiis' 5. 450. •Inermum '2nd decl. as Tyrrhenus,” Sery.

in 10. 425, Lucr. 5. 1292. See on 10. 124.] • Bello' Med. for “ferro :' see on 571. • Effusae' might conceivably be 6. 553. Instructi ferro,' a refinement on taken with 'studio,' like “effusi lacrimis" the more ordinary instructi armis' 3. 471., 2. 651: but it inore naturally means 8. 80. Pugna aspera ” 9. 667., 11. 635. 'pouring from their homes,' as in 7. 812. • Martis pugna’like Homer's uwlos "Apnos. 132.] Turris ac tecta’ Pal., Rom.,

125.] Comp. 5. 132, “ Ipsique in pup- Gud., turris et tecta’ Med., with some pibus auro Ductores longe effulgent ostro- support from two of Ribbeck's cursives. que decori.” Mediis in milibus'1. 491. The variation is not uncommon (see Wagu.

126.] 'Superbi’ Med., and so Cuning- Q. V. 35. 21); and it is better in each ham, and after him Wagn. and Ribbeck, case to follow the balance of external though decori' is given by all the other authority. Ribbeck is therefore probably chief MSS. • Decori' might easily be a right in restoring 'ac.' Wagn. defends reminiscence of 5. I. c. Superbi' how 'et,' thinking that 'ac' may be a reever may have come from 1. 639, “ ostro miniscence of 2. 415 (“turris ac tecta que superbo."

domorum Culmina ”). 127.] •Genus Assaraci Mnestheus' like 133.] The sequence of tenses obse. “Rex, genus egregium Fauni” 7. 213. dere .adstant' is the same as in 2. “ Laevinum Valeri genus " Hor. 1 S. 6. 449, “Alii strictis mucronibus imas Obse12. So Spruù Lucúdov yévos of Ulysses dere fores: has servant agmine denso.” Eur. Cycl. 104, Aavaoio yevéoan Naútilos Comp. ib. 332, “ Portis alii bipatentibus Apoll. R. 1. 133. * Asilas' may be either adsunt ... Obsedere alii telis angusta viathe warrior of 9. 571, or the Etruscan seer

Obsedere' perf., not aor. • In10. 175.

stant' Rom., “non male," says Ribbeck.

rum.

136

At Iuno e summo, qui nunc Albanus habetur,-
Tum neque nomen erat neque honos aut gloria monti-
Prospiciens tumulo campum aspectabat et ambas
Laurentum Troumque acies urbemque Latini.
Extemplo Turni sic est adfata sororem,
Diva deam, stagnis quae fluminibusque sonoris
Praesidet; hunc illi rex aetheris altus honorem
Iuppiter erepta pro virginitate sacravit :
Nympha, decus fluviorum, animo gratissima nostro,
Scis, ut te cunctis unam, quaecumque Latinae
Magnanimi Iovis ingratum ascendere cubile,

140

134—160.] ‘Juno addresses herself to festival, the Juturnalia, was kept by those the nymph Juturna, whom she urges to “qui artificium aqua (aquae ?) exercent." take some means for rescuing Turnus.' The « lacus luturnae” in the foruin was

134.] The Alban mount is for Virg.'s close to the temple of the Dioscuri (Ov. F. battles here what Ida is to Homer's: 1. 708). Preller (Römische Mythologie, comp. Il. 14. 292, 'Hpn xpaiTv@s a poor p. 508) thinks it probable that the cultus βήσετo Γάργαρον άκρον Ίδης υψηλής : see of Juturna on the Numicus was older than also II. 8. 47. For .e' Rom., Pal. ori. that at Rome. Teuffel(Paully's Realencycl. ginally, and two of Ribbeck's cursives 4. p. 686) supposes that Virg. made Juturna have `ex,' which may be right.

sister of Turnus from a false notion of an 135.] 'Neque honos’ Pal., Rom., Gud., etymological connexion between the names. and two other of Ribbeck's cursives, 'nec' The original form of the name seems to Med. External evidence seems decisive have been “ Diuturna :" see Mommsen in for the former : attempts to make a dis- the “Ephemeris Epigraphica," 1. p. 36. tinction between the two, such as that 140, 141.] The story of Jupiter and put forward by Wagn. Q. V. 32. 9, are apt Juturna is told Ov. F. 2.5834616. "Sa. to be fanciful. Neque' was the reading cravit,' appropriate of an inalienable gift before Heins. Ou 'nec' followed by 'aut' conferred by a god. see Madv. § 458. obs. 2.

142.] • Carissima' Pal., Rom., and Gud, 136.] •Tumulo'with summo.' “Tu. but 'gratissima’ is more likely, as Virg. mulo speculatur ab alto” 11.853. • Aspec was probably thinking of Homer's eu tabat,' see on 10. 4. 'Spectabat,' the Kexaplouéve Ovuco (Wagn.), though the reading before Heins., is to a certain extent external evidence makes it difficult to supported by one of Ribbeck's cursives. speak with certainty. There is some reSo in the similar passage 10. 4, Gud. and semblance to Apoll. R. 4. 790 foll., wbere, Pal. corrected reads "spectat' for 'aspec. however, Hera's kindly expressions are tat.

grounded on Thetis' refusal to be the wife 137.] Urbem Latini' 6. 891.

of Zeus. 139.] · Diva deam' like Od. 5. 95 143, 144.] · Latinis' for 'Latinae 'Pal. eipwrậs u dabovta Bed Beov. Virg. appa- (the last two letters in an erasure) and rently makes Juturna a presiding nymph originally Gud. “Magnanimi lovis,' below of lakes and rivers generally. There was v. 878, where, as here, it seems to be used a lake of Juturna about six Roman miles in a bad or half-ironical sense. *Ingratum' from the fountain of Numicas (Cluver. seems to represent Juno's own feeling, Ital. Ant. p. 722) forined by a stream and also that which she supposes Juturna flowing from the Alban mount. Its waters to entertain, as the union with Jove

held peculiarly wholesone, and brought no happiness to those whom he hence Serv. here and Varro (L. L. 5. 71) honoured with his love. Comp. the landerive the name from“ iuvo.” Serv. says guage about lo in the Prometheus of that Lutatius Catulus built a temple to Aesch. Juturna in the Campus Martins (comp. 143.] “Scire ut” Hor. 3 Od. 4. 42 Ov. F. 1. 463, “Te quoque lux eadem, foll. · Regni demens in parte locavi” Turni soror, aede recepit, Hic ubi virginea 4. 374. Juno speaks as if the deification campus obitur aqua"), and that a special of Juturna were owing to her.

were

145

150

Praetulerim, caelique libens in parte locarim:
Disce tuum, ne me incuses, Iuturna, dolorem.
Qua visa est fortuna pati Parcaeque sinebant
Cedere res Latio, Turnum et tua moenia texi :
Nunc iuvenem inparibus video concurrere fatis,
Parcarumque dies et vis inimica propinquat.
Non pugnam aspicere hanc oculis, non foedera possum.
Tu pro germano si quid praesentius audes,
Perge; decet. Forsan miseros meliora sequentur.
Vix ea : cum lacrimas oculis Iuturna profudit,
Terque quaterque manu pectus percussit honestum.
Non lacrimis hoc tempus, ait Saturnia Iuno;
Adcelera, et fratrem, si quis modus, eripe morti;
Aut tu bella cie, conceptumque excute foedus.

155

146.] 'Nec' Rom. for ‘ne.' Ne me 473 (of Jupiter), “Sic ait, atque oculos incuses,' lest you should blame me, 'me' Rutulorum reiicit arvis.” With the spirit being opposed strongly to 'tuum. It is of the lines comp. Il. 16. 433 foll., 22. 168 very doubtful whether ne incuses' could foll. The gods, as Serv. remarks, leave a stand for "ne incusa.

friend when he is doomed : comp. 11. 22. 147.) For 'qua' two MSS. known as 212, péne "Ektopos atoquor huap, "Dixeto the Mentelian, supported to a certain go eis 'Aidao' nitev é Doîßos ’Atóxwv. extent by Pal., give . quam :' comp. 6. 152.] Praestantius' some inferior 96. Quoad' Arusianus, 257 L. “Quidam copies. • Praesentius' more efficacious : putant Virgilium quoad visa est fortuna comp. G. 2. 127., 3. 452, v. 245 below. pati’ reliquisse," Serv., who himself sup 153.] There seems here to be a notion ports 'qua,' quoting “Coeant in foedera of a possible compensation resting on the dextrae, Qua datur," 11. 292. Wagn. mere fact of their misery, the converse of rightly points out that .quoad' must be the idea of a Nemesis bringing evil on the understood from •qua' before · Parcaeque prosperous because of their prosperity. sinebant,' comparing G. 4. 9 foll., “ Quo Comp. the words of Nicias, Thuc. 7. 77, neque sit ventis aditus neque oves Τάχα δ' άν και λωφήσειαν (αι συμφοραί): haedique petulci Floribus insultent :” ικανά γάρ τοις τε πολεμίοις ευτύχηται, και where ubio must be supplied from 'quo.' εί τω θεών επίφθονοι εστρατεύσαμεν, απο148.] 'Cedere ' has the sense of “bene” xpártus non tetiuwphueda. • Perge'as in prospere cedere:" not a common

4. 114 (Wagn.); usage, but supported by the opposite 154, 155.] Vix ea ’like “haec Proteus” “parum cedere,” which is found in Suet. G. 4. 528. • Profundit' Med. a m. p. Claud. 34, Nero 33.

Rom. has “profugit.' "Terque quaterque 149.] Gud. gives 'telis' as a variant manu pectus percussu decorum” 4. 589. for "fatis.' With ‘inparibus concurrere Here the first que couples 'percussit fatis' comp. 5. 809, "congressum Aenean with “profudit.' Honestum' 10. 133 nec dis nec viribus aequis,” and also 7. note. 293. Concurrere,' on his way to fight. 156.] Heins. conj. hic' for ' hoc.'

150.] • Parcarum dies' the mópo imov 157.] •Si quis modus' like “si qua via Ruap, a'oipov guap of Homer, Il. 15. 613., est ” 6. 367. ^ Morte' Pal. and Gud., the 21. 100. “Lux inimica propinquat” 9. more usual constr. “Eripere' with dat. 355, whence the MSS. of Macrobius, below v. 947, “Tune hic spoliis indute 5. 13. 39, have lux' here.

meorum Eripiare mihi ?” 151.] The words are like those of Priam, 158.) Aut tu'as in 6. 367 note. “Ciere 11. 3. 305 foll., ħTot égav elue aporl 'Illov bella, Martem " 1. 541., 9. 766. “Concephvembeogav *Ay, dél ÚTW Tahoon év tum, see on v. 13 above. Serv. wrongly oplanuoiou dpão dai Mapvázevov pinov vidy takes it as = `placitum. It is hard to Apnöplay Mevendo (Cerda). Comp. 10. fix the precise meaning of 'excute. Per

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or

Auctor ego audendi. Sic exhortata reliquit
Incertam et tristi turbatam volnere mentis.

160
Interea reges, ingenti mole Latinus
Quadriiugo vehitur curru, cui tempora circum
Aurati bis sex radii fulgentia cingunt,

Solis avi specimen; bigis it Turnus in albis, haps the notion may be of something in bability, takes it as = 'magno corpore,' the hands which is suddenly struck out of quoting “hic membris et mole valens ” of them, e. g. a goblet for libation. It is Entellus 5. 431. It might be added that just conceivable that there may be a Virg. may have wished to represent Lareference to the physical sense of 'con. tinus, as Hom. represents Priam (Il. 24. ceptum,' and that 'excute' may mean 477), as of great stature. .render abortive,' as, though no instance 162.] 'Quadrigo' Pal. and originally is quoted of the word in that sense, it Gud., not an impossible reading. 'Circum' would be sufficiently appropriate. With adverbial, as in E. 3. 45, “ Et molli circum the sense of the line comp. Juno's words est ansas amplexus acantho." to the Fury 7. 339, “ Disiice conpositam 163, 164.] Virg. seems here to be followpacem, sere crimina belli.” Merpay 8', és ing Hesiod Theog. 1011 foll., Kipkn d'Hení. κε Τρώες υπερκύδαντας Αχαιούς 'Aρξωσι ου θυγάτηρ Υπεριονίδαο Γείνατ’ Οδυσσης πρότεροι υπέρ όρκια δηλώσασθαι, says Zeus ταλασίφρονος έν φιλότητι 'Αγριον ήδέ to Athene, Il. 4. 71-2.

Λατίνον αμύμονά τε κράτερόν τε (Serv.). • 159.] ‘Auctor audendi' like “tradendae Comp. Hyginus fab. 127, who quotes verauctorem urbis” Livy 24. 2.

sions which made Telemachus, not Ulysses, 160.] “Volnus” of a mental wound the father. In 7. 47 foll. Latinus is son 1. 36., 4. 2, &c.

of Faunus and Marica, grandson of Picos 161—215.] · Aeneas and Latinus swear and great-grandson of Saturn: a genealogy to the treaty. If Turnus prove victorious, apparently quite different. Serv. says that Aeneas and his men will give up all claim many identified Marica with Circe, an to Latin territory: if the reverse, the two easy gloss. If the two accounts are to be shall join in one, the supreme authority in harmonized, it must be done, as Heyne war remaining in the hands of Latinus.' suggests, by the story of Circe's love for

161.] Continuo' for 'interea' Donatus Picus (Ov. M. 14. 320 foll., A. 7. 189 foll.). (Ars 3. 5. 2), Charisius 250, Diomedes This would make the Sun the great438 P. Rex ingenti de mole' for 'reges grandfather, not the grandfather, of ingenti mole? Med. a m. p., but Serv. Latinus: but Virg. is sometimes vague confirms the latter. Reges' is properly in these matters : comp. 10. 76, 619., nom. to 'procedunt' v. 169, but Turnus, 9. 4, where Pilumnus is variously called Aeneas, and Ascanius intervene and 'avus,' quartus pater,' and 'parens of break up the regular construction of Turnus. See Heyne's note here and Exc. the sentence. So Hom. Od. 12. 73 foll., 5 on Bk. 7. With‘aurati radii ... Solis Oi dów okonedou, ó mèv oúpavdy eupov avi specimen’ Heyne well comp. the irável followed nearly thirty lines lower description of Circe in Apoll. R. 4.727 foll., by τον δ' έτερον σκόπελον, &c.: comp. Πάσα γαρ 'Ηελίου γενεή αρίδηλος ιδέσθαι Τhuc. 1. 89, όικίαι αι μεν πολλαι επεπ. 'Ηεν, έπει βλεφάρων αποτελοθι μαρμαρυτώκεσαν, ολίγαι δε περιήσαν. Virg. has γησιν ΟΤόν τε χρυσέην αντώπιον ξεσαν a similar constr. 11. 690, “Protinus aryanv. It may be, as Gossr. thinks, that Orsilochum et Buten, duo maxuma Teu. Virg. bad in his mind the rayed crown crum Corpora : sed Buten aversum cus- which, as the symbol of royalty, was given pide fixit” (quoted with the passage in after their death to the deified emperors Hom. by Macrob. Sat. 6. 6), and v. 277 (see Dict. · Corona,' Florus 4. 2. 91, Sueton. below, “At fratres Pars gladios strin. Aug. 94). “Specimen,' a thing that proves gunt,” &c. •Rex' in Virg. includes both or shows : see G. 2. 241 foll., “ Tale dabit kings and subordinate princes. "Ingenti specimen . . . aqua eluctabitur omnis,” &c. mole,' pompa, ambitu,”Serv. and so Heyne: Here the meaning is that the crown of comp., with Gossr., Claudian in Eutrop. 2. rays indicates Latinus's descent from the 101, “ Unde tamen tanta sublimes mole Sun. Bigis in albis :' so 7. 26, “in roseis redibant, Ceu vinctos traherent Medos In- bigis;" Ov. F. 4. 714, “Memponis in dumque bibissent.” Wagn., with less pro- roseis lutea mater equis."

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