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Litus ad Ausonium tot per vada caerula vexit?
Sive errore viae, seu tempestatibus acti,
Qualia multa mari nautae patiuntur in alto,
Fluminis intrastis ripas portuque sedetis,
Ne fugite hospitium, neve ignorate Latinos
Saturni gentem, haud vinclo nec legibus aequam,
Sponte sua veterisque dei se more tenentem.

200

Atque equidem memini-fama est obscurior annis- 205
Auruncos ita ferre senes, his ortus ut agris
Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes

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199. "Pelagine venis erroribus actus 6. 532. 'Errore viae,' mistake of the way, like “errore locorum " 3. 181. Livy 24. 17 has " errore viarum."

200.] Qualia multa' is a translation of the Homeric phrase ofά Te Toλλά. Germ. cites Apoll. R. 4. 1556, which Virg. may have imitated, εἰ δέ τι τῆσδε πόρους μαίεσθ' ἁλός, οἷά τε πολλὰ ̓́Ανθρωποι χατέουσιν ἐπ' ἀλλοδαπῇ περόωντες.

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201.] "Si quando Thybrim intraro" 3. 501. Portus' of a landing place in the mouth of a river. "Nilus.. Per septem portus in maris exit aquas," Ov. 2 Am. 13. 10, quoted by Forc.

202.] Comp. 11. 109, "qui nos fugiatis amicos?" ib. 113, "rex nostra reliquit hospitia," said by Aeneas to the Latins. 'Ignorate' might mean mistake their character: but it is better to understand "ne ignorate Latinos Saturni (esse) gentem," like "scio me Danais e classibus unum "3.602. Med. has 'nec fugite.'

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203.] Saturni gentem' seems to mean descendants of Saturn rather than the nation of Saturn. Haud vinclo nec legibus' is a hendiadys. The ablatives are instrumental or modal. 'Haud-nec' as in 1. 327., 3. 214, Hor. 1 Ep. 8. 4 foll. The picture is that of the golden or Saturnian age, Ov. M. 1. 89 foll.

204.] Virg. is here perhaps thinking of Hesiod, "Epya K. 'H. 188 (of the golden age) οἱ δ ̓ ἐθελημοὶ Ησυχοι ἔργ ̓ ἐνέμοντο. Se tenentem,' that keeps itself from wrong, i. q. "se continentem." There is perhaps an allusion to the common phrase "lege teneri." 'Veteris dei more,' the rule of the golden age when Saturn reigned. Saturn is called veteris' as the god of the olden time. Comp. "Quis neque mos neque cultus erat" 8. 316, of the state of Italy before Saturn. It is not said that the Latins had no laws, which

would be inconsistent with 8. 322, but that they were not virtuous for fear of law. But it may be better to acknowledge some inconsistency in the poet. With the whole passage comp. Livy's description of the time of Numa, 1. 21: “" ut fides ac ius iurandum proximo (pro obnoxio Madv.) legum ac poenarum metu civitatem regerent.”

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205, 206.] " Atque equidem Teucrum memini Sidona venire" 1. 619, where, as here, atque expresses the appositeness of the remark. Annis,' by reason of years. Cerda comp. Ov. F. 6. 103, obscurior aevo Fama." Scaliger thought the sense was "Haud ita multi sunt anni, sed fama pervagata non est." The dimness of the tradition accounts for the appeal to the Auruncan elders. The 'Aurunci' (or Ausones) were regarded as a primitive people, and identified with the Aborigines. The tradition was preserved only by the oldest men of the oldest race. 'Ut' is epexegetical of 'ita.' Corythus or Cortona being in Etruria, 'his agris' must be taken with some latitude.

207.] Penetravit,' the reading before Heins., is restored by Ribbeck from Med., Pal., fragm. Vat. &c. for penetrarit (Rom.). It is difficult to see how the indicative could be constructed, as it clearly does not come under the cases mentioned on E. 4. 52. Heyne, writing before these constructions were understood, thought it savoured of epic gravity. Possibly it might be explained in connexion with

ita:' the old men told the story agreeably with his having made his way' &c.; but this would be harsh enough. The abbreviated form is constantly mistaken by transcribers, as Wagn. remarks. Idaeas Phrygiae ad urbes' substantially like "Bebrycia Amyci de gente 5. 373, "Euboicas Cumarum oras" 6. 2, for " Phrygiae Idae urbes."

AENEID. LIB. VII.

Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samothracia fertur.
Hinc illum Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede profectum
Aurea nunc solio stellantis regia caeli
Accipit et numerum divorum altaribus addit.
Dixerat; et dicta Ilioneus sic voce secutus:
Rex, genus egregium Fauni, nec fluctibus actos

208.]
'Samum' is the reading of Rib-
beck's MSS., except Med., which has 'Sa-
mom.' Others have 'Samon,' which Wagn.
adopts, remarking (Q. V. 4) that Virg.,
though not consistent in his usage with
respect to Greek names, generally prefers
the Greek inflection in the case of islands.
The island is called Σάμος Θρηϊκίη in Il.
13. 12. In Hdt. 2. 51 it is Zaμo@pnten.
We can hardly suppoзe Virg. not to have
known that the two names were the same,
though, if he did know it, the line seems
very pointless. The ordinary legend was
that Iasius settled in Samothracia (note
on 3. 168) but Virg. here may mean to
include him.

209.] Hinc' is explained by Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede;' Latinus means that it was from Italian antecedents that he rose to be a god. 'Hinc' with 'profectum' proFor Corythi' bably, not with 'accipit.' see on 3. 170: for 'Corythi Tyrrhena sede' note on v. 207 just above.

210.] Stellantis,' glittering with stars;
not full of stars, which would be "stel-
latus." Lucr. 4. 212, "caelo stellante."
With solio
Regia caeli' G. 1. 503.
accipit' comp. "toro accipit " 8. 177, pro-
bably a local abl., like “gremio accipiet"
1. 685, though it may be modal.

211.] "Accipies caelo" (deification) 1.
290. On the other hand the deified per-
son is said "deum vitam accipere" E. 4.
15. If the present is to be pressed, we
may say that it expresses here the per-
petuity of the divine life, perhaps also the
'Numerum-addit:' the
daily feasting.
" numerum-
reading before Heins. was
auget.' He introduced 'numero-addit'
from Gud. (originally), the object of
'addit' being understood to be illum,'
Dardanus, who is added to the number of
the gods by altars, i. e. by having altars
raised to him. The editors since his time
have generally preferred 'numerum-
addit,' supposing it to be found in Rom.,
if not in Med., and explaining it adds his
number to (or, as some appear to have
taken it, adds number to,' increases the
number of) the altars of the gods.' It now
appears from Ribbeck that all the uncials
(fragm. Vat., Med., Pal., Rom.) read

210

'altered into auget,' and all 'numerum,' except perhaps Pal., which has 'numerum 'numero.' 'Numerum-addit' is the corrected reading of Gud., and is found in two other of Ribbeck's cursives. 'Auget' is no doubt the easier reading: yet without saying that it is to be distrusted on that account, we may still urge, what was urged when the MS. testimony for it was unknown, that it looks like a correction by some one who did not see that divorum' belonged to 'altaribus,' not to 'numero;' and it may further be questioned whether the addition of 'altaribus,' with altars built to him, when he has not been mentioned in the clause, is in the manner of Virg.

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Novis altaribus,' or any other similar epithet pointing indirectly to the person intended, would have been a different thing. Numerum-addit,' on the other hand, in the sense of adds his number,' or 'adds him as an item' (in prose "numerat illum inter divos qui altaria habent"), seems sufficiently Virgilian, though no one has supported this use of numerus' by anything nearer than "sideris in numerum" G. 4. 227, where see note. Numero-addit' would be a possible reading: but it is not easy to estimate its external authority, especially in our ignorance of the relation which Pal. bears to Gud., and Those who 'altaribus' = "altaribus positis" would perhaps be a little harsh. support auget' may quote Livy 1. 7, "Te (Herculem) mihi mater caelestium numerum cecinit, tibique aram hic dicatum iri."

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212-248.] Ilioneus, as spokesman of the embassy, explains that the Trojans were come to ask leave to settle in their ancient country, and presents the gifts which Aeneas had sent."

212.] Ilioneus ("maxumus Ilioneus") is the chief speaker before Dido 1. 521 foll., and his speech here is in many points With 'dicta an exact counterpart of his speech there. 'Voce secutus' 1. 406. voce secutus' comp. "Teucri clamore sequuntur" 9. 636 note.

213.] "Egregium Veneris genus" below v. 556, where however the words a ironical. Fluctibus acti' 1. 333.

Atra subegit hiemps vestris succedere terris,
Nec sidus regione viae litusve fefellit;

Consilio hanc omnes animisque volentibus urbem
Adferimur, pulsi regnis, quae maxuma quondam
Extremo veniens Sol aspiciebat Olympo.

Ab Iove principium generis; Iove Dardana pubes
Gaudet avo; rex ipse Iovis de gente suprema,
Troius Aeneas, tua nos ad limina misit.
Quanta per Idaeos saevis effusa Mycenis
Tempestas ierit campos, quibus actus uterque
Europae atque Asiae fatis concurrerit orbis,
Audiit, et si quem tellus extrema refuso

214.] Subegit' with inf. 3. 257, G. 4. 85. Vestris' not for "tuis," but referring to the Latin nation. 'Tectis' was read before Heins.: comp. 1. 627.

215.] This is an answer to "errore viae" v. 199, as the line before is to "tempestatibus acti." We have not strayed from our course by mistaking the stars or the landmarks' the two things by which they steered. Comp. 5. 25. 'Sidus' however might conceivably stand for a storm (stormy season): see 11. 259. For 'regione viae' see on 2. 737. Fallere regione viae' (to deceive in or in respect of the course) occurs again 9. 385, where see note. 216.] Contrast 1. 377, "Forte sua Libycis tempestas adpulit oris." Omnes' expresses the national character of the movement. Comp. 3. 129, &c. Urbem adferimur' like "advehitur Teucros " 8. 136.

218.]Extremo veniens Olympo' is well explained by Gossrau: "Sol si vel ab extremo caelo veniebat, non videbat maius regnum itaque maxumum erat in omni terrorum orbe." If there is any special reference in extremo,' it must be to the great kingdoms of the East. Comp. generally Hor. Carm. Saec. 9 foll. For the legendary greatness of the Trojan empire comp. 2. 556. Hom. Il. 24. 543 foll. is more moderate.

219.] Ab Iove principium' was probably suggested to Virg.'s ear by Aratus's 'Ek Aids арxúμεoba (Phaen. 1): comp. ib. 5, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἔσμεν, and see note on E. 3. 60. Δάρδανον ἂρ πρῶτον τέκετο repeλnyepéтa Zeus, says Aeneas to Achilles, Il. 20. 215.

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215

220

225

not i. q. "ultimus" v. 49, but means 'most exalted,' as in 10. 350, "Boreae de gente suprema." Comp. Plaut. Most. 5. 2. 20, "quod faciunt summis nati generibus." 'Supremus' is a title of Jove, like

OTOS, "summus:" see Forc. s. v. 'Supremus.' So probably Enn. A. 184, "Nomine Burrus, uti memorant, a stirpe supremo," which Virg. perhaps imitated. "Genus ab Iove summo" 6. 123. "De gente" 5. 373.

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221.] Ad limina' denotes the humility of supplicants. Comp. 6. 113, with many other instances.

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222.] For the imagery comp. 5. 693 foll. 223. Quibus fatis," what were the fortunes (literally the destinies) of the struggle. "Acti fatis" 1. 32.

224.] Europae atque Asiae' explains uterque orbis,' the two divisions of the world, Europe and Asia. This view of the Trojan war as a struggle between Europe and Asia is quite un-Homeric, and arose in Greece after the Persian war. See Hdt. 1, the earlier chapters. With this image comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 7, "Graecia Barbariae lento collisa duello."

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225.] Tellus extrema refuso Oceano,' the farthest land against which Ocean beats, or, from which Ocean is beaten back:-'refuso Oceano' being taken as an ablative of quality or attributive ablative with tellus.' The Ocean, as in Hom., is supposed to encircle the earth, the extremity of which accordingly repels it. For refuso' see note on G. 2. 163, "Iulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso." Virg. had in his mind Britain or Thule, though of course he could not put those names into the mouth of Ilioneus. 'Submovet' and 'dirimit,' separate from the rest of the world: comp. with Cerda, "penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos" E.

Submovet Oceano, et si quem extenta plagarum
Quattuor in medio dirimit plaga Solis iniqui.
Diluvio ex illo tot vasta per aequora vecti

Dis sedem exiguam patriis litusque rogamus
Innocuum et cunctis undamque auramque patentem. 230
Non erimus regno indecores, nec vestra feretur
Fama levis, tantique abolescet gratia facti,
Nec Troiam Ausonios gremio excepisse pigebit.
Fata per Aeneae iuro dextramque potentem,

1. 67; Prop. 3. 1. 17, "et si qua extremis
tellus se subtrahit oris." Wagn. and
Forb. think that the Ocean is said to be
"refusus,' "quatenus ambiens insulam
(Britain or Thule) in semet refundi vide-
tur;" and so Heyne, after Turnebus, in-
terprets the expression like ἀψόῤῥους
'Oréavos in Hom. (II. 18. 399 &c.), the
only difference being that this last view
supposes the Ocean to encircle the earth.
But these interpretations will not agree
with the clearly parallel passage G. 2. 163.
226.] There is no elision after 'Oceano,'
the word being treated as Greek. Comp.
3. 74, G. 1. 437. For the use of the
torrid zone as a type of remoteness comp.
6. 796 foll. The sentiment is repeated
from 1. 565 foll. For the zones comp.
G. 1. 233 foll. Plagae' of the zones Ov.
M.1.48. Virg. may possibly have thought
of Lucr. 5. 481, "Maxuma qua nunc se
ponti plaga caerula tendit."

228.] Diluvio' carries on the metaphor of tempestas;' but we must take it of a swollen river or torrent, not of rain, which would be unpoetical. Comp. Hor. 4 Od. 14. 25, "Aufidus-saevit horrendamque cultis Diluviem meditatur agris." Campos' renders such a metaphor appropriate. Some in Serv.'s time actually took 'diluvio ex illo' with the preceding sentence, "ex quo mundus est constitutus, hoc est, ex quo Chaos esse desiit." Per aequora vecti' 1. 376.

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230.] Wagn. comp. the phrase aqua et igni interdicere." The sense of the passage apparently requires innocuum' to be taken actively, where we shall hurt no one,' rather than passively, where no one will hurt us,' as Serv. and others prefer (as in 10. 302); but Virg. may have intended both senses. Ilioneus speaks of the shore, as he had already complained 1. 540, "hospitio prohibemur arenae," referring here probably to the campsettlement on the coast, which he may have thought was the destined city. See

generally the passage from Cic. quoted on 1. 540. The lines are almost translated in an excellent couplet in Dean Stanley's Oxford Prize Poem, The Gipsies: "They claim no thrones, they only ask to share The common liberty of earth and air."

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231.] Indecor' or ' indecoris is a rare word; Virg. however uses it in four other places, 11. 423, 845., 12. 25, 679. Regno' is probably dat., on the analogy of the construction of "decorus," which however is once found with an abl., Plaut. Mil. 3. 1. 25. Ilioneus apparently means we shall be no disgrace to your kingdom,' not we shall not be unworthy of being sovereigns.' Comp. 1. 572, "Voltis et his mecum pariter considere regnis?" where as elsewhere what Dido offers is what Ilioneus now asks. Nec vestra feretur Fama levis.' 'Nor light will be the reputation which our praises will gain you among men.' A similar promise is made by Aeneas to their benefactress Dido 1. 607 foll. But the clause, taken in connexion with the preceding one, may refer to the glory accruing to the Latins from their union with the Trojans: in which case we may comp. 4. 47 foll., and read 'tantive' in the next line.

232.] Levis: "neque enim leve nomen Amatae " below V. 581. 'Abolescet,' "apud nos." "Et bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti ?" 4. 539. Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives have 'tantive,' which most editors prefer.

233.] Comp. 1. 68, "Ilium in Italiam portans."

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Sive fide seu quis bello est expertus et armis :
Multi nos populi, multae-ne temne, quod ultro
Praeferimus manibus vittas ac verba precantia-
Et petiere sibi et voluere adiungere gentes;
Sed nos fata deum vestras exquirere terras
Inperiis egere suis. Hinc Dardanus ortus;
Huc repetit iussisque ingentibus urguet Apollo
Tyrrhenum ad Thybrim et fontis vada sacra Numici.
Dat tibi praeterea Fortunae parva prioris
Munera, reliquias Troia ex ardente receptas.

235.] This line is apparently connected closely with potentem,' powerful whether tried in friendship or in war. Fide,' probably constructed like 'bello et armis' with expertus,' though it might go with 'potentem,' the construction being changed in the next clause. Fabricius thinks Virg. has imitated Cic.'s language to Caesar (ad Fam. 7. 5),"manum tuam istam et victoria et fide praestantem." Comp. Ilioneus on Aeneas 1. 544.

236.] Multi: the only offer of the kind actually mentioned in the Aeneid is that of Dido. Populi-gentes' is probably a mere verbal variation. Ultro,' that we become petitioners instead of being petitioned.

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237.] For 'vittas' see note on v. 154 and comp. II. 1. 14, Σtéμμar' Exwv èv χερσί. "Praeferimus manibus vittas ac verba' is a zeugma: we may comp. however Hosea 14. 2, "Take with you words." Rom. and others have 'et verba.' 'Precantia' was restored by Heins. from Med., fragm. Vat., Pal. &c. The metrical anomaly (for which see on 6. 33) has led here as there to various readings, Rom. and others having 'precantum,' the Codex Bigotianus of the 12th century 'precantis,' while a correction in fragm. Vat. gives "vittasque precantia verba." Stat. Silv. 1. 4. 46 has "Dignarique manus humiles et verba precantum."

238.] Petiere' courted our alliance (comp. vv. 54, 55): nearly the same as voluere adiungere' (comp. v. 57). "Multasque viro se adiungere gentis" 8. 13.

239.] Fata deum' may refer specifically to oracles, not generally to decrees of the gods. The difference between the two senses however would not be great to Virg. "Desertas quaerere terras Auguriis agimur divom" 3. 4.

240.] Inperiis egere suis' 6. 463. "Hinc Dardanus ortus" 3. 167.

241.] Huc repetit,' 'recalls us hither.'

235

240

Cic.(?) De Domo 57, "Vos, qui maxume me repetistis atque revocastis:" Cic. Brut. 16. 63, "Lysias est Atticus, quamquana Timaeus eum quasi Licinia et Mucia lego repetit Syracusas." This punctuation was introduced by Wagn. in accordance with the suggestion of Heyne, who however in his text adhered to the old punctuation placing no stop after Dardanus,' and making Dardanus' the nom. to 'repetit.' The MS. known as Menagianus primus ("optimae notae" Heyne) reads Hunc repeti iussis ingentibus urget Apollo," which we might support from 3. 129. With "iussis ingentibus" comp. "praecepta maxuma 3. 546.

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242.] For the Numicius see on v. 150. Vada' here answers to 'stagna' there. 'Sacra' need merely be an ordinary epithet of a fountain; see on v. 83 above: Forb. however thinks it may have an anachronistic reference to the sanctity acquired by the river as the place where Aeneas disappeared. Perhaps it is best to make ad Thybrim' &c. epexegetical of 'huc,' making iussisque ingentibus urguet' a half-parenthetical clause, as if it were "iussis ingentibus urguens.” "Tuscum Tiberim" G. 1. 499.

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243.] Dat.' The sovereign whose ambassadors they are is easily understood, and therefore there is no need actually to go back for a nominative to v. 221 or v. 234. Praeterea' however goes back to 'misit' v. 221: comp. 1. 647. Gossrau and Ribbeck think the passage imperfect. Fortunae prioris munera ' = "munera quae prior Fortuna dedit." Comp. other passages where a thing which had been received as a present from one person is given as a present to another, e. g. 5. 535 foll.

244.] "Munera praeterea Iliacis erepta ruinis" 1. 647, a passage generally parallel. 'Receptas' 5. 80., 6. 111.

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