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all such rights and privileges as by law do or shall appertain unto them, or any of them ?'"

"king And Queen.
"' All this I promise to do.' " *

In the following year was passed an "Act for declaring the rights and liberties of the subject, and settling the succession of the Crown." (1 W. & M., Sess. ii. c. 2.) The preamble sets forth the declaration delivered by the Lords and Commons, to the Prince and Princess of Orange, 13th Feb., 1688, O. S., called the Bill of Rights, f containing a statement of the means by which King James II. had endeavoured to subvert the Protestant religion and the laws and liberties of the kingdom, and an assertion of their ancient rights and liberties. The first declaratory clause declares, that "All and singular the rights and liberties asserted and claimed in the said declaration, are the true, ancient, and indubitable rights and liberties of the people of this kingdom."

The two following clauses acknowledge the right of King William and Queen Mary to the throne, and provide a limitation and succession of the Crown.

The fourth clause provides, "That all and every person and persons that is, are, or shall be reconciled to, or shall hold communion with the See of Rome, or shall profess the Popish religion, or shall marry a Papist, shall be excluded, and be for ever incapable to inherit, possess, or enjoy the Crown and Government of this realm, and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, or any part of the same, or to have, use, or exercise any regal power, authority, or jurisdiction within the same; and in all and every such case or cases the people of these realms shall be, and are hereby absolved of their allegiance; and the said Crown and Government shall from time to time descend to, and be enjoyed by such person or persons, being Protestants, as should have inherited and enjoyed the same, in case the said person or persons, so reconciled, holding communion or professing, or marrying as aforesaid, were naturally dead."

The fifth clause provides, "That every King or Queen of these realms," of the age of twelve years, "shall on the first day of the Meeting of the first Parliament next after his or her coming to the Crown," or attaining the age of twelve years, as the case may be, "sitting on his or her throne in the House of Peers, in the presence of the Lords and Commons, therein assembled, or at his or her coronation, before such person or persons who shall administer the corona

• This provision was re-enacted by the eighth section of the " Act for an Union of the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland," 5th Anne, c. 8, A.d. 1706. By the fourth and fifth sections of that Act, the Sovereign is required at his accession to the crown to swear that he will inviolably maintain and preserve the settlement of the true Protestant religion as professed within the kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Union, with the government, worship, discipline, rights, and privileges of the Scotch Church, as established by the laws of Scotland in prosecution of the claim of right.

f One of its recitals begins thus:—" Whereas the said late King James the Second having abdicated the Government, and thereby the throne being vacant, his Highness the Prince of Orange, whom it hath pleased Almighty God to make the glorious instrument of delivering this kingdom from Popery and arbitrary power," &c.

tion oath to him or her, at the time of his or her taking the said oath, (which shall first happen,) make, subscribe, and audibly repeat the declaration * mentioned in the statute made in the thirtieth year of the reign of King Charles II., intituled, An Act for the more effectual preserving the King's person and Government, by disabling Papists from sitting in either House of Parliament." f

By the sixth clause, the assent of the King and Queen is given to the preceding; and they are enacted accordingly.

In the year 1700, after the deaths of Queen Mary, and of William, Duke of Gloucester, the only surviving issue of the Princess Anne of Denmark, the youngest daughter of James II., in pursuance of a recommendation from the throne that a further provision should be made for the succession of the Crown in the Protestant line, for the happiness of the nation, and for the security of the Protestant religion, the Stat. 12 and 13 Will. III. c. 2, called the Act of Settlement, was passed, "For the further limitation of the Crown, and better securing the rights and liberties of the subject." The first section limited the succession of the Crown to Princess Sophia, Electress and DuchessDowager of Hanover, daughter of the Princess Elizabeth, late Queen of Bohemia, daughter of King James I., and to the heirs of her body, being Protestants.

The second section re-enacted the fourth and fifth clauses of 1 W. & M., Sess. ii. c. 2; and the third section enacted, "That whosoever shall hereafter come to the possession of this Crown, shall join in communion with the Church of England, as by law established."

The conclusion of the matter, flowing from the above recital, may be expressed in the language of the great commentator on our laws, in his chapter " On the King and his title."—" The title to the Crown is at present hereditary, though not quite so absolutely hereditary as

formerly Formerly the descent was absolute, and the Crown

went to the next heir without any restriction; but now, upon the

new settlement," above recited, "the inheritance is conditional

When such an hereditary right, as our laws have created, and vested in the royal stock, is closely interwoven with those liberties, which we have seen are equally the inheritance of the subject; this union will form a Constitution, in theory the most beautiful of any, in practice the most approved, and I trust, in duration the most permanent.

It is the duty of every good Englishman to understand, to

revere, to defend it." J

But that the Legislature should in the forty-sixth year of the nineteenth century, and that too in the face and in defiance of the solemn declaration made by the Sovereign at her coronation against transubstantiation, vote away tens of thousands of the public money, not only for the teaching and propagation of the fearful idolatry of transubstantiation, but various other abominations of the Church of Rome, would not in after generations be believed, were it not for the painful fact of their faithlessness and treachery being too well established.

* This is the declaration against Transubstantiation, which was made, subscribed, and audibly repeated by Members of Parliament, under the 30 Car. II., statute 2, c. 1, until the year 1829.

t It is given at length in a former number of our Magazine, see No. 13.

% 1 Blackst Comm. 217, 218.

reasons which led to my separation from the Church of Rome. I know you are all able to appreciate whatever is given from an honest heart, and that there are noble faculties within you, albeit they sleep in ' durance vile.' Therefore I do not despair. I hope I will have the pleasure of seeing you all casting away the trammels of Popery, for then, and not till then, will you indeed be freemen.

"In the first place, I deny that a Romish priest has the power to change bread and wine into the body and blood of Jesus Christ in the sacrifice of the mass. My friends, the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was ordained for a continual remembrance, and not for a continual repetition of the sacrifice of the death of Christ; and in proof of this we read, 'For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show forth the Lord's death till he come.' (1 Cor. xi. 26.) Now, according to the Creed of Pope Pius IV., there is offered unto God a true, proper propitiation for the sins of the living and the dead; but what does St. Paul say in his Epistle to the Hebrews (chap. x. 11), —that any sacrifice which needed to be offered continually, could never take away sins. He also says that' Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many' (Heb. x. 28); and, 'by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.' (Heb. ix. 14.) In the first Epistle of Peter, iii. 18, we read that' Christ hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God;' and oh! what an insult it must be to him when your priests deny that the one suffering of Christ is sufficient, and endeavour to immolate him every day on their altars. Now, without shedding of blood there is no remission (Heb. ix. 22), and it is clear to all that in the mass there is no shedding of blood, consequently it cannot procure the remission of our sin. I deny the applicability of the word 'sacrifice' prefixed to the mass, except for one reason—that the priest sacrifices his senses and understanding to Mammon, if at the mass he believes that a bit of paste and a goblet of wine, or other mixture, are really and

substantially the body and blood of our Lord.

"I mean to show you, from our Lord's own words, that the wine underwent no change; for, at the Last Supper, when he gave it to his disciples, he said, ' I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom.' (Matt, xxvi. 29.) In like manner about the bread, St. Paul calls it three times by that name, after it was received by the people. 'For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show forth the Lord's death till he come. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup.' (1 Cor. xi. 26, 27, 28.) Thus we have the words of Christ and his apostle to counteract the absurd pretensions of Popish priests. Truly, that saying of the prophet Jeremiah is applicable to them: 'Ye have perverted the words of the living God.' (Jer. xxiii. 36.) I have often, while present at the celebration of mass, burned in my heart within, when called upon to bend my head in suppliant adoration to a piece of bread.

"I now come to image worship. The second commandment forbids the making, much more the homage and adoration paid to images. 'Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image.' (Exod. xx. 4.) I well know that ignorant Romanists pay more respect to the crucifix than they do to the Lord himself; while at their devotions they will hold it in their hands, and direct all their thoughts to it alone. Is not that idolatry? Oh, my friends, read the doom that is in store for you: 'Idolaters shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.' (Rev. xxi. 8.) St. Paul, in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, says, 'My dearly beloved, flee from idolatry.' (x. 14.) 'Little children, keep yourselves from idols.' (1 John v. 21.) 'Confounded be all they that serve graven images.' (Psalm xcvii. 7.) Ought not these few arguments induce you to abandon a Church which allows such glaring absurdities? Is it not worse than Paganism, when it teaches its deluded votaries to offer prayers and supplications to inanimate things ?—

"Our God hath formed the earth, the heavens he spread,

But Papists bow to gods their hands have made;

The kneeling crowd with looks devout behold

Their silver saviours, and their saints of gold.

"As to the intercession of the Virgin Mary, I shall offer a few observations, and before I proceed to do so, I shall mention one fact. Romanists adduce the following argument in favour of their reliance on the Virgin. They say that if any person ■wishes to get a favour from some high personage, he will naturally go to some near friend of his, or hers, to intercede; thus you place your Saviour and a miserable worm in the same light—the being who knows the secrets of your hearts with a person who knows not his own. These are the words of St. Paul, 'There is one Mediator.' (1 Tim. ii. 5.) Ponder on that. 'If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the propitiation for our sins.' (1 John ii. 1, 2.) 'Neither is there salvation in any other, for there is none other name under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved.' (Acts iv. 12.) 'And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.' (Acts ii. 21.) 'I am the way, the truth, and the life; no man cometh unto the Father but by me.' (John xiv. 6.) These are plain truths which your blind leaders cannot refute. 'Every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.' (John iii. 20.)

"The next thing which I now direct your attention to is the confessional; and oh! how my mind shudders at the impious and hellish interrogatories which your priests propound to their infatuated penitents. Were you acquainted with

the questions proposed to married women, I feel confident you would not allow your wives to be tainted with the noxious exhalations which emanate from the confession-box. In the whole of the Bible there is not one text of Scripture which tells us to confess our sins to a priest; and as proof of this, read the following:— When Achan sinned, Joshua said to him, 'My son, give, I pray thee, glory to the Lord God of Israel, and make confession unto him.' (Josh, vii. 19.) 'I prayed unto the Lord my God, and made my confession.' (Dan. ix. 4.) And when the Jews sinned, Ezra told them, ' Make confession unto the Lord God of your fathers.' (Ezra x. 10, 11.) To our Heavenly Father we must confess our sins, and not to frail and wicked mortals, 'for who can forgive sins but God only?' (Mark ii. 7.) "Pardon belongs to God alone; If we to him our sins confess, He'll send forgiving mercy down, And cleanse us from unrighteousness.

"I next proceed to impugn the doctrine of purgatory, which fills the pockets of your priests, who adopt the motto, 'No money—no paternoster;' and who take upon themselves the onerous duty of leading souls to heaven for silver. The rich man, who is well able to pay them, can purchase an entrance ticket for heaven; but the poor must be content with an inglorious escape. The doctrine of purgatory is at variance with the written word of God, for we there read,—' The blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all sin.' (1 John i. 7.) 'Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation.' (John v. 24.) 'There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus.' (Rom. viii. 1.) 'He that believeth in the Son of God hath everlasting life.' (John iii. 36.) 'To die is gain.' (Philip, i. 21.) You perceive, therefore, that the doctrine is a mere fable, invented by cunn:ng men for the sake of extracting your money.

"I hope these few plain, but un

In reference to transubstantiation, an eminent divine,* in a Sermon recently delivered, observes:—

"I know of no system, of either ancient or modern idolatry, in which the idol is made before the eyes of the worshippers; where the priest of any idol takes a thing in common daily use, as an article of food by the people, as a bit of paste of flour and water, and when at one moment every man would see and admit and declare that it was a bit of paste—that the next moment, after the pronunciation of a few words, the thing which, an instant before, they confessed to be a piece of paste—the very next instant they prostrate themselves before it, and declare that it is invested with the full person and attributes of the mighty God, the Creator of the world, the Redeemer of mankind; that it becomes, in their own words, 'the whole body, blood, soul, and divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ.'

"I soberly declare, I know of nothing, in my view, so monstrous, so revolting even to the fallen intellect of fallen man, in the whole history and scope of ancient or modern idolatry.

"There is this aggravating difference:—

"Paganism dishonours a God whom they do not know:

"Popery dishonours the revealed God of the Bible.

"Paganism sets up an idol in the place of an unknown God: , "Popery turns the true, the revealed, the known God into an idol. • "Bead the express Word of God in his description, by the prophet, of idolatry—Isa. xliv. 14, &c."

How long an offended God may think lit to restrain this Protestant nation from believing the awful delusion, that a piece of paste is the Bedeemer of the world, is not for us to predict.

May He, in his infinite mercy, avert such an awful visitation from this highly favoured land!

{Continued from p. 39.)

For some moments after Ernest had breathed his last, Hubert remained in doubt as to the reality of all around. Surely, thought he, it is a vision, a vision of the night!" Speak, Ernest, speak! dispel my fears! but no, he answers not: he is gone!—Father of mercies, ah, whither!" In the struggle of conflicting feelings, his self-command failed him, and he threw himself in an agony of feeling on the body of his friend; from which the next moment he recoiled in horror as he groaned aloud—" I am punished, justly punished, I have loved to idolatry an enemy of our Church, and now he is gone an unbeliever to eternal misery." The words of his friend seemed to resound in his ear, as his dying lips had spoken these words—" Fear not for me, we shall not be parted for eternity." The tears rushed to his eyes as the question again arose, " Was he indeed an enemy of God? his life so holy, his death so tranquil, would they be followed only by an eternity of intolerable torment?" And as memory recalled

* An Appeal to the Protestant Church of Ireland, in behalf of their Roman Catholic countrymen. By the Rev. R. J. M'Ghee.

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