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Ridley, left them an example how to the Imperial Parliament of Great suffer and to die'—the power which Britain.” moved the national mind of this I still quote from the “ Times," country in all crises was religious called the “ Thunderer:"feeling. The Reformation, says the “Was it for this,” the writer asks Right Hon. Gentleman-the great indignantly, “that the Legislature of Rebellion-the union with Scotland our once Protestant country passed -the Act of Settlement—the union the Bill for arming Popery from the with Ireland, are one and all evi- arsenal of the Constitution itself? dences of this main truth. The Scotch Was it that by forsworn and perfidious Covenanters fought for their national traitors the weapons thus generously religion against Charles; those who given might be pointed at the vitals politically were Jacobites sacrificed of the monarchy?”. James II. to their zeal for the national These are hard words—" forsworn religion ; for the sake of the Kirk and and perfidious traitors." The next Presbytery, recognised by Parliament, passage, however, brings us to the the Scotch, justly proud of their na- words of the Right Hon. Gentleman tional independence, consented to an to whom I have alluded, Sir James incorporating union with this coun Graham, quoted in the same speech try; for the sake of securing the Pro from a former speech by Sir Robert testant Establishment in Ireland, the Peel:Protestants of both islands brought “Sir Robert Peel, indeed, as quoted about the union of 1801. It is vain by Sir James Graham, had manifestly and childish, therefore, to preach to in his mind's eye an outline of the the sound sense of Great Britain state of things which was to follow about'voluntary' principles' or 'harm- from the Bill of Emancipation, even less' Popery—about new experiments at the moment when he reluctantly in religious institutions, heretofore introduced that measure. Towards untried by fact, though condemned the close of his remarkable speech, by the clearest à priori reasoning—or the Right Hon. Gentleman,' then about old experiments, which, having Home Secretary under the Duke been tried for ages, are too well of Wellington, used the following known from their disastrous conse- words.” quences to be further hazarded at the I know how tiresome reading is, price of civil and intellectual liberty, but I want you to listen to these very of practical morality, and eternal important words, used with reference
to the Bill of 1829, by Sir Robert O Şir, these are weighty words ; Peel. He said, but the extract contains the words of “If, unhappily, my expectations” another Right Hon. Gentleman:- (of domestic peace) « shall be disap
“ Thus it is,” says the writer in the pointed, if, unhappily, civil strife and “ Times," " that our magnificent Re- contention shall take place-if the form Bill, aided and followed up by a differences existing between us do not general system of Whig • liberality,' arise from artificial distinctions and has ended in destroying Gatton, Old unequal privileges—if, on the conSarum, and some similar nomination trary, there be something in the chaboroughs, of which the patrons were racter of the Roman Catholic religion Englishmen at least, while it has not to be intrusted with a participasupplied their places by the creation tion in equal privileges, or anything of one gigantic boroughmonger-he, short of superiority, still I shall be too, a foreigner—the never-changing content to make the trial. If the foe of our monarchy in Church and battle must be fought, if the contest State, viz., the Rev. George Spencer's cannot be averted, let the worst come spiritual Sovereign, from whose hands to the worst--the battle shall be that Rev. convert will one day receive fought for other objects, the contest the "hat,' or at all events the mitre' shall be on other ground; the struggle -viz., his Holiness Pope Gregory will be not for equality of civil rights, XVI., who is actually patron of no but for the predominancy of an inless than sixty-five or seventy seats in tolerant religion; and I say, we can
fight that battle to greater advantage knew beforehand the various privaif, indeed, these more gloomy predic- tions and disadvantages of that mode tions shall be fulfilled, and our more of life. Your object was to connect me favourable hopes shall not be verified by marriage with a respectable and --we can fight that battle against the affluent family; and your anger at predominance of an intolerant re- the course I had taken, was for some ligion more advantageously after this time exceedingly great. The words measure has passed than we could at of the Psalmist, “ God knoweth the present." ;
thoughts of man that they are vain." According to this showing, after — These words occurred to you, but yielding in the struggle, which was without producing a full effect. At avowedly for equality of civil rights, length you desisted and consented the Right Hon. Bart. was prepared that your wishes should give way to to stand his ground, and maintain what was the will of heaven. My the fight against the predominance of fears, however, were not then termian intolerant religion.
nated, for I well remember that when Sir, this is our ground now; we ask you conversed mildly with me, and the country to stand on this ground heard my declaration that I had now; and it is precisely that we may become a monk not from partiality to be defended against an intolerant re the mode of life, but from the appreligion that we ask this compact for hension of Divine wrath, your obserthe next election.
vation was, “I wish that it may not prove a vain illusion." These words
sounded in my ears as if they had LUTHER ON MONASTIC VOWS.
proceeded from the voice of God.LETTER FROM MARTIN LUTHER TO HIS At no subsequent period have I for
FATHER, JOIN LUTHER, GREETING. gotten them; nor have any words, DEAR FATHER,It has for a con- which I have ever heard, made so siderable time been my intention to lasting an impression on me. Still I dedicate the present publication to heard you only as a man, and persisted you in the most affectionate manner; in adhering to what I regarded in the not from a vain wish to give pub- light of Divine inspiration. Had it licity to your name, but with a view been in your power, you would certo avail myself of the opportunity, tainly have prevented me from bewhich an address to you afforded, of coming a monk; but as to me, hạd I explaining to pious readers the nature even known what I now know, I of my book.
should have pursued the same course You are well aware how deeply I and have suffered death rather than have been impressed with the belief, have been stopped in it. Of the prothat nothing could be more important priety of my conduct at that time, my or more sacred than to yield obedi- opinion has certainly undergone a ence to the impulse of the Divine change; but God, by his infinite wiscommand. - And here you may be dom and mercy, has been pleased to disposed to ask, “ Have you ever had produce great good out of evil. doubts on such a subject, and is it Would you not rather have lost one but lately that you have learned the hundred sons than not have seen true state of the case ?” It is so, I these happy effects arise ? Satan confess. Until lately. I have not seems to have anticipated in me, from only entertained doubts, but have my infancy, some of those qualities beert grossly ignorant of the true which have since appeared ; and to “ state of the case." . Let me add, prevent the progress of the cause in with all due respect, that I believe I which they have been instrumental, could prove, that, like myself, you he affected my mind to such a degree were greatly deficient in this respect. as to make me often wonder whether It is now nearly sixteen years since I was the only human creature whom without your knowledge, I ventured he tormented.* Now, however, I to make myself a monk. With the .. warmest parental affection, you felt * Ut sæpius fuerim admiratus, egone alarmed on my account, because you solus essem inter mortales, quem peteret. perceive that God directed that I fession of a monk, and hath given me should acquire, by personal experi- so much liberty, that although I am ence, a knowledge of the constitu- become the servant of all, I am subtion of universities and monasteries, ject to him alone. He is to me, that my opponents might have no “bishop, abbot, prior, Lord, father, handle to boast that I pretended to and master.”—I know none but him condemn things of which I was igno let me, therefore, hope that he may tant. It was ordained, therefore, that have taken one son from you to make I should pass part of my life in a him instrumental in the salvation of monastery.'
many of his other sons. This, I am Let me proceed to ask what is the fully persuaded, you are prepared to nature of your present opinions and receive not only willingly, but with feelings? You are still my father; I great joy. Nor have you reason to am still your son ; and vows, we are do otherwise-what though the Pope now satisfied, have ceased to be bind. should be the cause of putting me ing. The right of paternal authority to death ? He cannot raise the dead was on your side when you opposed and make them suffer a second time. my change of life-in mine, there The day, I trust, is approaching, when was a wish to obey the command of that kingdom of abomination and perGod had it depended on you, would dition shall be destroyed. Would to you not ere this have taken me from God we were the first who were the monastery? But lest you should reckoned worthy to be burned or put imagine that God has only anticipated to death by the Pope, that our blood you by taking me himself from it might be the means of accelerating let me ask what if I should persist in his condemnation. But if we are wearing the monastic garb and ton- not worthy to show our sincerity by sure ? Are, then, the cowl and ton- our blood, let us at least pray and sure sufficient to constitute a monk ? entreat that God may show us this
My conscience is now freed-I am, mercy, that we be enabled to testify and I am not a monk-a new crea- by our life and conduct that Jesus ture, not of the Pope, but of Christ. Christ alone is our Lord God blessed The monks created by the Pope are for ever. Amen.--Farewell, and the mere fictions of temporal autho- salute my mother, your Margaret, with rity._Of that number I was one, but all those who are in Christ. from that bondage I am now de- Ex Eremo, XXI. Novr. Anno livered by the grace of God. It may MDXXI. be asked why I do not ascribe my re Having seen the manner in which moval to the influence of your autho- Luther thinks fit to address his father, rity. God, who moved me to with we are now to observe his language draw, has a more powerful claim on to other persons. The work is intromy acknowledgment. He who duced by what he calls a protestation, loves his father or mother, more than or opinion concerning monastic vows. me," said our Saviour,“ is not worthy “In the first place,” he says, “I of me.”. By this Christ did not mean wish those who have discovered such to set aside the authority of parents, inveterate hatred to me to be informed but to express, by a familiar illustra- that I do not address the work to tion, that when their orders come in them. They would condemn on my competition with those of our Saviour, account the plainest truths, because the latter ought always to be pre- I am unwilling to "give what is holy ferred. These things I recapitulate to dogs, or to throw pearls before merely to show that I could not obey swine. My object is to serve those you otherwise than at the hazard of persons who are suffering under the my conscience. At that time neither tyranny of conscience and sin.” of us knew from Scripture that the After mentioning the injury which impulse of God was to be accounted Christianity had sustained from mosuperior to any human orders. I nastic vows, Luther proceeds to state now dedicate this book to you that that he does not mean to discuss the you may see how remarkably Christ question whether a vow ought to hath enabled me to relinquish the pro- be performed, but to inquire “ what vows are real vows." He next enters which they have been trained to direct on a long course of argument, of the consciences of the poor people in which it would be difficult to exhibit this country ? and why are you not an analysis within moderate compass. slaves at my feet, coming to me for This, like his other works, seems to pardon for your sins ? Why am I have been composed in great haste, not bowing before an idol, pretendand the collateral illustrations are so ing to transmute a bit of bread into numerous, that to form an adequate “ the whole body, blood, soul, and idea of them, it is necessary to travel Divinity of Christ?”—and why are through the whole work. He lays you not bowing down in idolatry to down, clearly and explicitly, that in worship it? Who maketh us to differ? Scripture there is neither precept nor Is it our own wisdom ? our own exexample for monastic vows. Certain cellence, virtue, choice? No! God's passages brought forward by the gracious mercy: God's sovereign abettors of monastic establishments, compassion; God's tender love, in he subjects to a scrutiny and pro- that he raised up men-faithful men nounces to have no application to --apostolic bishops, holy ministers, their argument. He enters also on glorious confessors, noble martyrs, an examination of the reasons alleged that loved not their lives unto the in support of celibacy, and does not death-that he raised them up, to hesitate to affirm that his opponents testify in the face of danger, diffihave completely failed in making culty, imprisonment, the stake, the good their case. The monastic life sword, against this cursed system of he represents as a tissue of errors, iniquity, and by them established the falsehoods, ignorance, folly, deceit, Gospel of Jesus in this land, for the and confusion. The nature of the salvation of its inhabitants. That vow is inconsistent, he maintains, was the reason--that is the reason with the true faith, and hostile to why you are there, and I am here: Christian liberty.
because God, in his mercy, hath rescued our forefathers from Popery.
- From Gunpowder Treason, a Ser« WHO, MAKETH THEE TO DIF
mon by the Rev. R. J. M Ghee. FER FROM ANOTHER ? " Now, let me speak to you, my friends and brethren, and let me ask you
THANKFULNESS. this question--and let me ask it of Extract from an Essay of the Rev. my own soul, “ Who maketh thee to
James Hamilton. differ from another?"Let me ask EMBODY your gratitude in offerings my own soul, who maketh me to of thankfulness. These are the only differ? Why am I standing here, oblations for which room is left in with this Bible in my hand-to our new economy. Sin offerings and preach the Gospel of Jesus—to pro- trespass offerings have passed away. claim God's eternal. Word? Why There is no place for them now. But am I not, having been instructed in free-will offerings and thank-offerings the dark mystery of Papal supersti- remain. The Gospel has left ample tion from my childhood-why am I scope for these. Its joyful dispensa. not taken and put under a process of tion is essentially eucharistical; its deep and deadly training-why am I glad tidings should awaken glad feelnot drilled in that “ mystery of ini- ings, and these glad feelings spontaquity,” for if ever the devil invented a neously express themselves in sacrisystem to corrupt and degrade the fices of thankfulness. It is in this human heart below the ordinary way that the Great Author of the level of its natural depravity, the Gospel has stamped it with self-diffusystem of training Roman Catholic sive tendency-inspiring with a joy priests is that system-why am I not unspeakable those who receive it in drilled, I say, in this ? Why am I simplicity and love; and then, through not carrying out that infamous book their overflowing hearts and open —that code of awful iniquity, by hands transmitting it over widening
circuits till a regenerate world has Antiscriptural, Antichristian, and antifelt the leaven of its heavenly life.* social, and as such arrayed in hosThe genius of the Gospel is liberality. tility against every denomination of Itself the most amazing instance of Protestants, and even the Throne the Divine munificence, its advent itself, as the following brief particu. into a human soul' is marked by an lars will serve to show : instantaneous expansion of its feel. 1. That the Church of Rome arro, ings and affections. When it comes gates to herself the right of tyranin its fulness and tells in its power, nizing over the consciences of all the churl becomes bountiful, the baptized persons throughout the miser turns out a philanthropist, and world. the sluggard issues forth a sleepless 2. That therefore Protestants, being evangelist. And so invariably does declared to be heretics, can, as she this activity indicate the energy asserts, be compelled, “as the leader within so sure a dynamometer of of an army has a right to punish a spiritual vitality is the amount of deserter," to join her communion what a man can do or give for Jesus' whenever she has the power of doing sake--that, in order to ascertain how so," because by baptism they are made freely any one has received, or how members of the Church, nor are they much any one has been loved, you more delivered from her laws than have only to ascertain how freely he subjects who rebel against their can give, or how long he can labour, princes." — Bailly, a class-book of without fainting. The love which Maynooth, vol. i., page 179. does not lead to labour will soon die 3. That she declares the liberty of out; and the thankfulness which does the press can “ never sufficiently be exnot embody itself in sacrifices is ecrated and detested."-Pope Gregory already changing to ingratitude.
XVI., Encyclical Letter of 15th AuREASONS WHY ROMAN CATHO
4. That she denounces liberty of LICS SHOULD NOT PARTAKE
conscience “ as a most pestilential OF THE GOVERNMENT OR PAR- error.”-From the same letter. LIAMENTARY GRANT FOR EDU
5. That she appeals to the Virgin CATION.
Mary as “our greatest hope, yea, the
entire ground of our hope." -From BECAUSE various doctrines, laws, and
the same letter. See also letter of practices of the Church of Rome are
the present Pope Pius IX. . * In the contributions to the funds of 6. That she denounces all Bible the Missionary Society, we find fre Societies. The present “ benevolent" quent entries like the following :
Pope Pius the Ninth's Encyclical An Anonymous thank-offer
Letter of the 9th November, 1846. ing to God for the mercies
7. That with respect to oaths, she 841 .................. £21 0 0 Anonymous Token of Grati
teaches, that the “ Superior of all the tude, for twenty-three an
orders of the monks (who resides at niversaries of a wedding
Rome) can validly, even without a day ...........::: :
cause, make void the oaths of all his Commemoration of a Friend's birth-day ......
subjects."- Bailly's Moral Theology, Family thank-offering ...... 40
a class-book of Maynooth. Family'at Grimsby, in me- .
8. That “those are not to be called mory of a deceased and
oaths, but rather perjuries, which are affectionate parent........ 15 0 0 taken contrary to ecclesiastical utility Thank-offering from persons
and the institutions of the Fathers.” embarking in business.... 10 0 0 Thank-offering on' New
Sixteenth Canon of the Third Lateran
10 O O Council, taken from Antoine, a stanWhen the author published a sermon dard work of Maynooth College. on this subject, by far the most gratify, 9. That a bishop can take an oath, ing criticism which met his eye, was an
and then he can grant a dispensation acknowledgment of 501., which some one, after perusing it, had presented to
to himself-Dens, vol. ii., page 347. the London Missionary Society.
10. That “ in every promissory Matthew xiii. 33. 13
oath, however absolutely made, certain