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grandeur and secular tyranny, and-crooked court-policy, which is to be seen in the court of ' his Holiness,' as one of the crowned heads and sovereign princes of Europe—(as every almanac bears witness)—it is evident, I say, that this worship, or obedience, however it be glossed over with the name of ecclesiastical 'worship,' or 'obedience only in things spiritual,' is in reality altogether of a civil and temporal character; it is, in fact, civil allegiance to a Lord paramount upon earth, who is an ecclesiastic, and to us, British and Protestants, a foreigner and an enemy. And, as such allegiance or worship as this, which every Roman Catholic, who subscribes to the creed of Pope Pius the Fourth, promises, aud if he be an ecclesiastic or a regular swears, to render to the visible head of their Society, is plainly incompatible with their duty to Him who has said, 'Call no man your father upon earth ; for one is your father even God;' and ' Call no man your master upon earth, for Qne is your Master, even Christ;' so it has been, and will be found to the end of the chapter, and of 'the times, of the Gentiles' (Luke xxi.), to be equally incompatible with the duty which loyal subjects owe to the Government under which they are placed; and that, even when the religion of the State happens to remain 'Catholic;' and, how much more where,, as among us, it has been, or is, Protestant?

And so perfectly, 'after the working of Satan,' (2 Thess. ii. 9,) is this system of corruption of the best things, that it makes of the most conscientious and high-minded individuals the most fiend-like and the most dangerous; who, being slaves in conscience—slaves in the centre of their being, and therefore universal slaves, must, whenever 'the Church' requires it at their hands, disappoint the confidence that their country foolishly places in them, as well as that of their private friends, and those of their own household, 'like a broken tooth, or a. foot out of joint.' For divided allegiance is, after all, an anomaly; and it is therefore not doing Romanists in heart justice to object it to them. No; for 'no man can serve two masters; he will either love the one and hate the other, or hold to the latter and despise the former.' Ye capnot serve Christ, who requires you to 'render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's,' and Antichrist—who requires you to render all unto himself. A man must, therefore, be one thing or the other—in religiop, either of Christ or Belial—a worshipper of God, or a worshipper of idols, (which are many,) and in politics, either undividedly and purely loyal, or undividedly and purely traitorous—either holding a single domestic and constitutional, or a single foreign and unconstitutional supremacy; for a divided supremacy is as perfect an absurdity, both in theory and in practice as is a divided allegiance. 'My officers were not excommunication proof,' was the reply of Preston, the General of the rebel forces in Ireland, in the reign of the misguided Charles the First, to the Duke of Ormond, when taxed by that faithful servant of a master, who was not worthy of him, with his perfidy in violating a solemn treaty."—See a paper in the Protestant Journal for May, 1831, on the Worship of the Image of the Beast, by the Rev. William Digby.

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POINTS OF PRESENT INTEREST.
To the Editor of the Protestant Magazine.

Sir,—It strikes me that there are three points of present interest requiring discussion, and properly belonging to your journal.

1. The assertion so often and so boldly made, that the Irish Protestant Church is enjoying, as in England, the endowments belonging to Popery.

2. The plea in many mouths for endowing Popery in schools and priests—founded on their paying taxes—to be met, as I imagine, in two ways. First, that the same plea would serve the propagators of any system even to Owen or Taylor; and, secondly, that the population of Ireland is not to be computed separate from England and Scotland. It is the United Church of Great Britain and Ireland— therefore the whole population should be thrown en masse—and then no argument could be raised in favour of Popery from the majority being of that persuasion.

3. The speech of Lord Arundel, not only copied but commented upon so as to answer the false comments made upon it by those who wish to counteract its tendency. Mr. J. Abel Smith said here—as the papers give it:—

"Mr. S. denied that Lord A. had ever used language in Parliament implying, directly or indirectly, that persecution on account of religious belief was not contrary to the principles of the Christian religion, and utterly at variance with all principles of Christian charity."

Would not a short paper of the history of Ireland, before Henry the Second, or two or three successive papers, be useful to undeceive the people as to the religion having been originally Popery? Fox's book would supply it.

There is a morbid sensitiveness abroad, as to injuring Papists, by withholding assistance on account of their religion, which wants boldly meeting; and I think it is highly important to press the duty of a nation to inculcate only truth at national cost. The Queen's oath and our Church Articles having declared sufficiently that Popery is full of the worst of error.

I am almost fearful of troubling you with these lines, in the midst of your engagements. I am now contending against the abominations of Popery, which have nearly bewitched a respectable woman; and her parochial clergyman, being a high Tractarian, had rather driven her on than held her back. She has declared that my information has opened her eyes, and that she has declined the overtures of a lady who lately perverted at this place.

It is said that a Popish chapel will soon be opened here. 'It is surprising that we have not had one before; and when the priests come among us, we shall see what other priests will give them welcome.

Might not the article respecting the popular fallacy be useful as a tract?

I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully,

GUNPOWDER TREASON.

[See Advertisement.]

The Committee of the Protestant Association feel it to be their imperative duty, especially at this momentous period, to maintain their protest against the Antichristian and destructive principles and practices of the Church of Rome, by submitting to their friends and the public a third edition of this bold and faithful Sermon (first published by request of the congregation of Harold's Cross Church). This sermon proves, from her own authorized documents, that she has undergone no change in her unmitigated hostility to Protestants, who are all, of every denomination, and without exception, declared to be excommunicated and accursed heretics by the Bulla Coense Domini, as set forth in " The Laws of the Papacy set up by the Romish Bishops in Ireland to subvert the Authority of their Lawful Sovereign, in 1832," (Seeleys) and the "Letter Dedicatory to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty ;" published by the Protestant Association. ■ There seems to be a prevailing opinion that the present Pope Pius IX. is a reformer, a most liberal man, from whom much good may be expected.

The Committee would, however, entreat their Protestant brethren not to suffer themselves to be so misled, but to investigate his Encyclical Letter of November last, (published by the Reformation Society with valuable Notes,) in which the same bitter spirit of hostility against the free use of the Holy Scriptures that characterized his predecessors will be found; and against those, as he observes—

"Who, abusing the privilege of reason dare rashly to explain and

interpret them according to their private judgment, when God himself has constituted a living authority, to teach the true sense of his heavenly revelations, and to judge infallibly in all controversies on matters of faith and morals, ... . . which living and infallible authority exists only in that Church," namely, the Church of Rome.

He then proceeds to anathematize and condemn

"Those most crafty Bible Societies, which, renewing an old device of the Heretics, do not cease to put forth an immense number of copies of the books of the Sacred Scriptures, printed in various vulgar tongues.

And at the close of his letter, he idolatrously appeals to the Virgin Mary thus— ■ •

"Let us ever have recourse to the intercession of the most Holy Mother of God, the Immaculate Virgin Mary, our sweetest mother, our mediatrix, our advocate, our surest hope, and firmest reliance."

Such was the language of Pope Pius IX. on the 9th of November, 1846. Whatever reforms he may make in his dominions as a temporal potentate, his tyrannizing and Antichristian duties as Pope must necessarily remain unchanged, so long as he abides by the Council of Trent and the Creed of Pope Pius rV., which bind him to scourge and enslave all who are unhappily under the domination of the Papal Apostacy.

And, if God in his gracious mercy does not speedily awaken the Protestants of this nation from their deplorable apathy and faithless

Vol. IX.—November, 1847. A A New Series, No. 23.

ness to a just sense of their danger and their duty, it is to be feared, that nothing short of the infliction of judicial blindness is reserved for them,—if, indeed, it has not already commenced,—and " That Gods righteous judgment will overtake the British empire with a blow far worse than that from which our Church this day commemorates her deliverance."

A REVIEW OF MARTIN LUTHER'S VIEWS COMPARED WITH THE ROMANISTS', ON CLOISTER VOWS, CELIBACY, POVERTY, AND OBEDIENCE TO THE RULE OF THEIR ORDER, AND DISPENSATIONS.

ARRANGED BY REV. C. SMYTH, B.A., OXON., FROM HIS "GERMAN TREATI8ES,"

1847. X

( Continued from page 317.,) The next characteristic appears in the raiment and various dresses of the countless fraternities, which drew upon the brotherhood as it were divine respect. Hence such honour to dresses; to the red cardinal's hat; the double-pointed mitre; the scarlet train. The Reformer alludes to their tonsured heads, and high-scented, oily hands. It was usual now to divide Christians into two classes—to speak of one of them as devoted to God, and serving Him in office, and contemplation, and prayer; to speak of them as kings, ruling over themselves and others in holiness amd righteousness; as having a sovereignty emanating from God, which was typified by the tonsured crowns upon their heads. This crown the Romish Church instituted to be worn above the temples, as an emblem of the expected kingdom of the Lord Jesus, in which the clergy would reign triumphant above all with Christ.

When the monks were required to produce their grounds and reasons for adopting the life of cloistered celibacy, they told Luther and the world they could allege two sufficient warrants; the first of which, according to their interpretation of the Gospel, was an opinion that the Gospel is not universally applicable to mankind for a rule of life; and that it is accordingly divisible into counsels and commandments. But Luther addresses them in the following terms:—" You say, that your rule of the Celibate is grounded on the counsels of Christ's Gospel, and not on its commandments; and you add, that the latter only are obligatory upon the general mass of Christians. You know not, it appears to me, what the Gospel is, when you divide it into a system of counsels on the one hand, and of commandments on the other; because I assure you it is nothing but a consoling, gracious promise from the Almighty, mixed with precepts and admonitions. Is the Gospel, I ask, to be completely observed but by a few? Why, then, is it to be published to all the world, if the many are justified in rejecting it by one-half? No; it contains not any announcement from God to tell you to make vows of retiring within a monastery and nunnery. Where is the Scripture's testimony for so doing? Show one letter or tittle for the practice. Observe, here is the ground and foundation of every cloister. But the vow is unbelief! (gelobde ist unglaube). It is despite to the Gospel ! (verachtung des Evangelm). Your division of the Christian life into a state of perfection, and a state of imperfection, is another error. You ascribe the latter to the multitude, and the former to yourselves; although, in fact, the statement requires to be made just the contrary."

These views were controverted by the Romanists, who drew up a protest, which they presented before the Diet of the Empire assembled at Augsburg, 1530. The Romanists expressed their opinions upon the subject of spiritual vows, and defended them by such arguments as these, viz., that religious vows were based upon precedents to be found in the Old and New Testaments; that vows were in existence long before the monasteries; that it had never been heard or asserted that the ecclesiastics were in a state of perfection, but only that the spiritual state is the instrument and means for attaining to perfection; and that it was by no means an impossibility to adhere to vows, particularly if prayer and correction and fasting were pursued; for then every vow might be fulfilled, but principally the cause of falling was to be avoided, and the religions professed must dash the little infant thoughts, as it were, against the rock; in other words, first thoughts must be repressed by a remembrance of Christ. The Romanists quoted the celebrated passage in confirmation of their views, viz., they pointed to the passage where it is written, "Ask, and it shall be given to you." They said it was perfectly well known how many thousands of persons, men and women, had thoroughly preserved their cloister vow, and in consequence were saved; they used several other arguments, which were far less plausible, and some of them approached to the profane. It was on the 6th of August the dispute between the Lutherans and Romanists was brought to the vote and opinion of the members of the Diet. The Bishop of Augsburg, being diocesan of the place, a man of prudence and firmness, rose up, and recommended fair dealing and circumspection to the princes and bishops, and expressed his most decided conviction that the Lutherans had denied no one article of faith, and that the best course to take would be to consult for the tranquillity of the Church. The Bishop of Salzburg immediately told him that he had used different words to himself. The Bishop of Augsburg pleaded guilty to the charge, and said that he was wrong, and meant to change his opinions and practice, and told his accuser he would not persist in the course he recommended to him. Instantly the Elector of Brandenburg raised his voice in a loud tone, and declared it was false to say the Lutherans had not denied any article of the Christian faith. The Bishop of Augsburg persisted that he was right, and asked what Articles were intended which the Lutherans denied? It was replied, they had denied the Article relating to the Catholic Church, and the invocation of the saints. The Bishop of Augsburg answered, " the invocation of the saints is no article of the faith." Thus the Lutherans were considered by him to hold to the true Christian Church, and the Bishop contended that their controversy was only aimed at the abuses of the Romish Church; and he avowed that it was impossible for any one to deny that the Church of Rome was addicted to many abuses.

We will return to the subject of vows, and hear the great Reformer using the following argument against the monastic profession, viz.,

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