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tor or bishop, which permission must joined the Church of Rome, had to be had in writing.
kneel down or stand before the bishop The Bull Unigenitus, issued by and repeat first the Nicene creed, and Clement XI. in 1713, expressly con- then the creed of Pius IV. . demns the reading of the Scriptures Let me just tell you what I disin the vulgar tongue altogether. covered in these “ Developments.” I Pope Gregory XVI., in 1844, quotes read that book through from beginthe Bull Unigenitus, gives it the im- ning to end. I watched the whole primatur and the sanction of his own line of reasoning, if such it may be Pontifical authority, and declares it to called, that pervades it. It is a book be binding on the Church Universal ; full of splendour and of eloquence, and Pope Pius IX., the present indicating deep, profound and laboriliberal Pope, who closes his letter ous research, but full of flaws and with prayer to the Virgin Mary, con- illogical deductions, so gross and palfirms this system of proscription pable that a child might almost detect against the Word of God, and quotes them. The principle of the work is his predecessor, Gregory XVI., and this, that the apostles, in the first previous Bulls and constitutions, as century, did not reveal a complete bearing him out in his proscription system of religion, but planted only and anathema of the perusal of the the seeds or germs of truth: that Bible in the vulgar tongue. Am I these seeds or germs were, if I may not, then, warranted by these re- use the expression, nursed by the peated declarations, declarations that Church from century to century, till no Roman Catholic can protest they grew up and expanded into the against, without, so far at least, be- full blossom of Catholic truth in the coming a Protestant, and so far celebrated Council of Trent in 1564. ceasing to be a Roman Catholic -- Mr. Newman holds then that the am I not warranted in drawing this in New Testament does not contain a ference,-that that Church does in- full system of religion, but only the deed prohibit the Scriptures wholly seeds or germs of a system progressfrom the people, or so fetters ively expanded. But his great defect and hampers them with restrictions, is, that when he comes to relate the that practically and substantially it history of this supposed expansion, amounts to the prohibition of them, you find that he has mistaken expanas to any useful purpose ?
sion by the laws and processes of And to show now, still further, nature for accretion by accidental cirthat the Church of Rome does so cumstances. For instance, if I plant treat the Scriptures, suppose I were an acorn in the ground, that acorn to grant that all the Bulls and con germinates and buds, grows into a stitutions that I have quoted are shoot, then into a sapling, then into utterly null and void, and of no au- a little oak, and, ultimately, into the thority whatever, there will be the lofty and towering monarch of the Creed, to which every convert to the forest, whose roots are entwined Roman Church must subscribe, and I about the rocks and whose top will show you from it that Roman reaches to heaven. This is the exCatholics may not have the Bible un- pansion which Mr. Newman thinks fettered.
the germ of truth had undergone, but Now when any one intends to join I conceive from reading the history the Roman Catholic Church, the first and comparing it with Mr. Newman's thing he does on joining that Church conclusions, that the Council of Trent is to repeat the creed of Pius IV.-a is but the huge snowball which began creed drawn up in 1564, and therefore a little snowball, on the top of Benthe document of a Pope at the head nevis or Ben-lomond, and rolled down of a General Council, and therefore the sides of the mountain, gathering the most authoritative document that in its course, wood, hay, and stubble. can be adduced in the whole compass Now that was the real history, if you of Roman Catholic theology.
will just put away Mr. Newman's Mr. Newman, the author of the fallacy of the germ and the acorn, “Theory of Development," when he and substitute the snowball, starting
at the top of Ben-lomond, and rolling Creed, or man's lie. Infidelity is down until it become a mass of all Satan acting the part of the honest sorts of materials, then you have got devil. Popery is Satan acting like an the history of development as it angel of light. Infidelity is Satan in ought to have been illustrated and his own guise. Popery is Satan in explained in the course of that the guise of a Christian. Infidelity is eloquent and elaborate book.
Cæsar's brass stamped with Cæsar's · I say, when Mr. Newman joined superscription. Popery is the brass the Church of Rome, he professed of Cæsar stamped with the image Pope Pius the Fourth's Creed. This and the superscription of Jesus. Increed, let me explain to you, is com fidelity is honest,-it acts, at least, posed of two parts, — the Nicene the honest part. Popery is dishonest, Creed divided into twelve Articles, and destroys by deceiving under the that is, that beautiful and scriptural pretension and assumption of the creed which is read every morning in Gospel of Jesus. the service of the Anglican Church, Now then, to show you that the and to which any would subscribe. Church of Rome in fact prohibits the After the convert has repeated this reading of the Scriptures, I have supportion of the creed, he then repeats posed all the Bulls and constitutions thirteen Articles, which are called which I have referred to, to go for Pope Pius the Fourth's Creed, the nothing. There are Roman Catholics First and Second Articles of which who say,- And I have the Bible, and are,
I have a right to read it, and no one • I. I most firmly admit and em- has a right to take it away from me. brace apostolical and ecclesiastical Suppose all that to be perfectly true, traditions, and all other constitutions I allege that the Roman Catholic is and observances of the same Church. so hampered and restricted in the
“II. I also admit the sacred Scrip- interpretation of the Bible, that it is tures according to the sense which of no use to him at all. The Second holy mother Church has held and Article of Pius IV.th's Creed runs does hold, to whom it belongs to thus :-“I admit also the sacred judge of the true sense and interpre Scriptures according to the sense tation of the holy Scriptures, nor will which Holy Mother Church has held I ever take or interpret them other and does hold them, to whom it wise than according to the unanimous belongs to judge of the true sense consent of the Fathers."
and interpretation of the Holy ScripThen just permit me to explain to tures; nor will I ever take or interyou the peculiar character of the pret them otherwise than according Church of Rome. There are per- to the unanimous consent of the sons who say, the Church of Fathers." This is the vow of every Rome holds all the truths that you Roman Catholic. Just see what a hold. Not a doubt of it. There course of deception it is. First the is not a truth in the Church of Roman Catholic says, “I admit the England that the Church of Rome Holy Scriptures according to the does not, more or less, hold and avow. sense which Holy Mother Church has She holds the doctrine of the Trinity; held and does hold them.” Now the she holds the doctrine of the atone- person reading or repeating this, says, ment; she holds the doctrine of justi- “ Well, I must not put the meaning fication by faith (with works added to upon a single text, until I have ascerit); she holds the judgment to come, tained the construction put on it by the eternity of future rewards and Holy Mother Church.” Now, if punishments, the Personality and you say you are not to put the meanDeity of the Holy Spirit,--there is ing on one text till you have got at not one of these truths which she the construction, how is the Roman does not hold ; but there is her cha- Catholic to ascertain that the Church racter,--she holds the truth only for of Rome is the Holy Mother Church? the purpose of immediately destroy- He must be perplexed to discover ing it. She unites the Nicene Creed who is the Church. He must take it
God's truth-to Pius the Fourth's for granted at the very commencement, that the Church of Rome is only a fallible priest, and can of the true Church before he can pro- course only give you a fallible expoceed one single step. After the sition. I go to the bishop. The Roman Catholic has found out the bishop says, I am delighted to see Church, and suppose he has found it you; I will give you my views of the to be the Church of Rome, he then chapter with the greatest pleasure, vows that he will take the Scriptures but you cannot be unaware that I am only in the sense which that Church only an individual bishop. I am has held and does hold. Would not fallible just as the priest is; if you every intelligent mind in this assembly don't like the priestly exposition I will instantly suppose that there must be give you an episcopal one. If this some great standard commentary on does not suit me, I will go to the the Bible issued by the authority of Pope-- the very liberal Pope Pius IX., the Roman Catholic Church, and that who is always glad to see Englishmen, to this standard commentary I must and who is going to allow English refer for the sense which Holy Mother clergymen who go over to his Church Church holds and has held? You to retain their wives. I am introwould suppose so: but you will be duced to Pope Pius, who is ever very much surprised when I tell you happy to see the natives of Great that there is no such commentary in Britain and Ireland, and I tell him all existence. There is not a commen- my difficulties. I say, “ Please your tary on a single chapter of the Bible Holiness," (for I will approach him which the Roman Catholic Church, as with all possible courtesy, and confer a Church, will pronounce to be an in upon him all the titles which belong fallible exposition. Is not this, then, to him as a sovereign, “I have gone to give a promise to the ear and to the priest and to the bishop, and break it to the hope ? But many all in quest of the sense which the Roman Catholics will, perhaps, reply, Church of which you are the illustriBut we have the living Church--the ous chief Pontiff holds and has held on living tribunal, from which you may the eighth chapter of the Epistle to the get the “sense which Holy Mother Romans." The Pope says, with all Church holds and has held." Just let the courtesy of which he is capable, “I us look at it. First, then, I open my am delighted to see you in quest of Bible and read that beautiful passage, truth. You look the picture of canlike one of the tunes and harmonies dour itself, and I will treat you as of heaven, breaking upon the ear of your character seems to be. If you earth -- like a fragment of heaven will listen to me I will give you the itself planted in the bosom of this fullest exposition of the sense that I lower world—the eighth chapter of hold upon the eighth chapter of the Romans. I am smitten with its Epistle to the Romans, and, if you beauty-charmed with its hopes— please, you may take it down. And anxious to ascertain its meaning. I now, so long as you keep within the desire to treat this chapter as I should boundaries of Italy, my interpretation treat the whole Bible-namely, to will be regarded as absolutely infalinterpret it according to the sense lible. But the moment you bend which “ Holy Mother Church” has your course homewards, and go into and does hold. I am told to go to France or England, or even into Irethe living Church for that sense. I land, it ceases to be infallible, and is go first of all to the nearest Roman regarded as the fallible exposition of Catholic priest. I say to him, I am a fallible doctor of the Church.” I anxious to get the sense which the turn round startled and amazed, as I Church holds on this most beautiful recollect what I have sworn. I say, and interesting chapter, that I may " Can this be truth ? I thought truth enjoy all its good. The priest says, was like the source from which it I will give you my exposition, that I sprung, the same yesterday, to-day, have no doubt will be a very just one; and for ever. If a comment be inbut if you want any infallible expo- fallible amid the sunny plains of Italy, sition — the exposition which the surely it must still be infallible in the Church holds and has held—I am colder clime of iny own country! Does it get altered in its character ? load of from twelve to fifteen folios Can anything which is infallible in on his back. These are set down on Italy become fallible in England ? I the table. The poor Roman Catholic, cannot believe this. Has your Holi- anxious to get the meaning of God's ness nothing else to give me?" His word, is surprised and amazed; and Holiness will say, of course, there is says within himself, 6 When shall I a General Council. Can I get at it? be able to get through all these? But It is 300 years since it sat, but you nothing that is possible shall be imcan see its canons. I obtain them: possible to me." He opens one of but if it be perplexing to get the them. It is written in a crinkamsense of the Bible, it seems to me ten crankum character. It's not English, times more perplexing to get the and it's not Irish either,--he's sure of sense of the canons of the Council of that. He does not know what it is. Trent. I wish you, Sir, good morning. It is Greek. This Father is Origen. his Holiness will reply, for you seem He opens another, which is written to me a very intractable and unma- in the English character, but it is in nageable subject. What do I infer a language which he cannot make from this? That to talk of the sense out. This is St. Chrysostom. But which Holy Church has held and does suppose he masters Greek and Latin : hold is a gross and flagrant deception after all his researches he will find It is drawing you within her pale there is no such thing as unanimity under a promise which she cannot among the Fathers at all. I have perform.
myself looked through all the Fathers, But this is not all: the Roman and collected the opinions of a great Catholic also says, “ Nor will I ever number of them on the first three or take or interpret them otherwise than four clauses of the Lord's Prayer, according to the unanimous consent “Our Father, which art in heaven." of the Fathers.” Now I have got Three Fathers say, that “in heaven," the Benedictine edition of the Fathers. means, in the Church, in opposition I have dug and bored in the Fathers to the world; five say, that “in for ten years past, and I have found heaven," means, in the souls of the there much that is beautiful, much faithful, in opposition to the souls of that is instructive, mingled with a the unbelievers. The rest of the prodigious amount of error. The Fathers say, that it means literally, Fathers were not inspired—they were “in heaven," just as much as “in not delegated to give the sense of the earth,” means literally, “in earth.” Spirit of God. Many of the Fathers Mr. Sibthorp, when he joined the are lost; and Delahogué, a very cele- Church of Rome, said he would not brated Roman Catholic Divine, makes take any interpretation of the Scripthe remark, that we have not the ture except according to the unaniwritings of the best of the Fathers— mous consent of the Fathers. But that they were more engaged in pre- he does not yet understand his Paterparing their people for martyrdom noster. than in writing for the use of after Now you see that the Church of ages. Suppose a poor Roman Ca- Rome, if she gives the Bible to her tholic being told that he must inter- people at all, gives it them with such pret the eighth of Romans only restrictions that it is absolutely worthaccording to the unanimous consent less. She tells them, I have a founof the Fathers. The very first thing tain that is full of refreshing springe, indicated in that is, that he learns but there is a stone on it that cannot where the Fathers are to be found. be rolled away. I give you a basket He is told that the nearest place where filled with nutritive bread, but it is he can find them is in the British padlocked, and the priest keeps the Museum. He gets an order from Sir key. I give you the Bible that you Henry Ellis. He goes into the read- may tell Protestants they lie, when ing-room, and seats himself at a table, they say you have not the Bible, and asks for the Fathers. Four or but you yourselves know that five able-bodied porters march into though you have the Bible, for the room, each bearing a groaning all practical purposes you must be
altogether without the knowledge of if not so perfectly, it must be parits truths.
doned me.” (2 Mac. xv. 39.) Now, I have thus, then, shown you how could you conceive an inspired apostle · the Roman Catholic is hampered in asking pardon for the mistakes, errors,
the interpretation of that Bible ; let or failures in the execution of his me now go on to point out the errors work? This is evidence, by implicain her translation of that Bible. tion, that the writer was not inspired.
First of all, I may mention to you I might quote from this book, inthat the Church of Rome introduces stances of immorality. But there is into the Bible certain parts which the one text which makes this book parChurch Articles of the Church of ticularly dear to every Roman CaEngland very properly and justly tholic. “ It is a good and wholesome rejects. The Bible—that which we thought to pray for the souls of the call the Bible--is the holy Word of dead.” But there is in it error of a God inspired by his Spirit; but the very deadly description, and that is, books called the Apocrypha are not suicide is commended in it. It is to be quoted to support any doctrine, spoken of one who fell on his sword, --that is, they are not inspired, but “choosing rather to die nobly, than to only the expositions of some of them fall into the hands of the wicked.” good men, some of them bad men, (2 Mac. xiv. 42.) That is not like and all of them fallible men. In the language of inspiration. order to point out to you that the There is another instance in John Apocryphal books are no part of the ii. You recollect that touching inciBible, I will just very briefly submit dent in which our Lord's first miracle, to your consideration the following at Cana, in Galilee, when Mary came points :-First. They are not found and said unto him, “They have no in the Hebrew type like the rest of wine.” The reply of our Lord to the Old Testament Scriptures (with Mary, on this occasion, is, in our the exception of part of the book of translation, “Woman, what have I Daniel, which is in Chaldee). Se- to do with thee? Mine hour is not condly. They were never recognised yet come.” We very easily underor admitted by the Jews, to whom stand the meaning of it; it was this was intrusted the care and guardian as if he had said, “Mary, I was ship of the Old Testament Scriptures, subject to thee as a son to his mother and they have never failed or flinched according to the flesh, but now my in the execution of their sacred trust. mysterious and awful ministry is In the third place, if the Jews had begun. I must now tread the wineacted improperly in not recognising press alone, where not even a mother them, is it not probable that our can be with me. The tears of Mary Lord, who rebuked them for their must not mingle with the blood of omission and neglect of Scripture, Jesus. I must suffer alone-I must and for perverting it by their tradi- accomplish all my resolves-I must tion, never once supposed them to deserve the intended glory, and I have left out so large a portion as alone.” But the Church of Rome was that called the Apocrypha ? And, in fearful lest it should damage the the last place, I may mention that the invocation that she pays to the two books of Maccabees, at least, Virgin Mary; in the Roman Catholic were recognised and expressly de version the words are these, “Woman, clared to be uninspired by Gregory what is to me and to thee;" which is the Great in the seventh century; absolutely unintelligible. That is not while Pius IX., in 1847, says that the meaning of the language. Supthey are inspired. , Such is the unity pose, now, that the Church of Rome is of the Roman Catholic Church! I right in rendering it, however uninthink, also, that the author of the telligible it may be,“ What is to me Book of Maccabees ought to be no and to thee? ” has she been consistent mean evidence as to whether he was in doing so throughout the Bible ? It inspired; for he says, “which if I happens that the Greek words, Ti tuoi have done well, and as it becometh kai coly occur thirteen times in the the history, it is what I desired: but course of the Septuagint version, and