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and an inferior scholar may have to content him. self with something less. On all these points hints and suggestions may be derived from consulting old examination papers, and from observing the kind of points on which stress is laid.

We have anticipated a little. It is well for the student to know in a general way what kind of points to attend to, but he must not expect to be able to find out exactly what points to attend to most just at first. He should, therefore, not think of marking his clean copy till he is about half-way or three-quarters of the way through his readingwhether it is for First Year or for the Final. He ought to do this about in his second vacation in each case.

It is not a bad plan to let careful, detailed, minute reading, and rapid, cursory reading succeed each other alternately. The one will help to particularise -- to obtain a thorough and exact knowledge; the other will help to generalise—to obtain a sense of the broad outline of the narrative.

A hard and fast line cannot be laid down for every one. Different minds will work in different ways, and what is a help to one is galling and tiresome to another. As this applies to methods of reading, so still more does it apply to methods of taking notes. One man can take notes rapidly and easily. Another finds his attempts to jot down what the lecturer says result only in chaos, which he has to reduce to such order as he can when he returns to his study. A third takes few notes, but listens intently, and remembers what he hears. Every person should find out what method is best suited to himself, and prosecute it diligently. The taking of notes is a matter in which one student may render much assistance to another; and a kindly and generous spirit in this respect will not fail to be appreciated.

In reading the Epistles a somewhat similar plan may be pursued. It will be well, before touching the Greek, to read through the section relating to the particular Epistle, and for some little way before it; e.g., in Farrar's Life of St. Paul. By this means a general conception will be obtained of the object of the Apostle in writing, the kind of people to whom he is writing, and the main outline of the argument. It is very desirable to realise as vividly as possible the circumstances of the case, and the drift and tenor of the Epistle. Our very familiarity with the Authorised Version, and at the same time the remoteness of the modes of

expression from our own, tend to obscure the real meaning. A translation into modern phraseology would be highly objectionable for common use, but a good paraphrase helps greatly to bring home the sense to the mind; and it will be excellent practice for the student after he has read the Greek to try to throw it into a condensed paraphrase in his own words. It will be not a bad plan to get some very short and clear analysis of the Epistle, and to learn it by heart.

The number of points to which attention will have to be paid will be somewhat diminished in comparison with the Gospels, though their difficulty will be in some respects increased.

The mere translation and the making out of the sense will be much harder. There will be a greater number of involved constructions and of obscure and rare words. For the Prolegomena the more prominent subjects will be, (1) time, place, and date of writing, (2) position of the apostle at the time of writing, (3) position of the persons addressed, (4) their character, and the errors of doctrine or practice to which they were exposed, with the general relation of such errors to the parties in the Church, (5) the doctrinal teaching of the Epistle, (6) an analysis of its argument, (7) its place and relation to other Epistles ; and, in addition to these, e.g., in the case of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the question of authorship and canonicity.

In the study of the text, attention should be paid to (8) the argument, (9) translation, (10) grammar, (11) meaning and uses of words, distinction of synonyms, (12) significance of important theological terms, (13) doctrinal bearings, (14) personal references, (15) coincidences with the Acts or with other Epistles, (16) various readings, in the proportion of six or eight for the larger Epistles, and five or six for the smaller.

It will be found of use, both in the Gospels and Epistles, to write at the head of each page some single word or phrase, bringing out in a pointed way the subject of that page, whether narrative or argument. This will serve as an analysis, and will impress clearly on the mind the course and grouping of the narrative, or the successive steps in the reasoning. It should, of course, only be done when the book begins to be pretty well known, and the student is in a position to pick out the leading points.

Special directions have not been given for the Acts. Very nearly the same remarks will apply to this book as to the Gospels. The historical and geographical element will become still more prominent and there will be also the relation of the Acts to St. Luke's Gospel, the documents on which it is based, the constitution of the Church, and a good many archæological questions, especially in regard to St. Paul's voyage and shipwreck.

In getting up the English Subjects (Church History, Butler, Paley, Articles), it will be good practice to make an analysis of the text-book used, drawing out the main heads, and subdividing each of these, in as condensed and brief a manner as possible. Here, too, the study of old examination papers will suggest leading ideas and points of view. In the case of the history, it is not a bad plan to begin by reading a short manual (such as the Students' Ecclesiastical History, or English Church History), and then, when a general conception has been obtained from this, to go on to a larger work, such as that of Dr. Schaff. The third reading might be in the shorter book, which would help to gather together the details in the larger. For all these subjects the Synopsis placed in the hands of students by the Professor of Divinity should be carefully used. It will bring out the salient points, which we have seen to be such a great desideratum.

A similar method of study may be applied to the special books, Justin, Eusebius, Tertullian, Augustine, &c. First obtain from the histories some idea of the author, the object and character of the book ; then glance rapidly through a translation, so as to see what the book is about; and when that has been done, put the translation aside, and grapple with the Latin or the Greek, as the case may be.

For Examinations it may be well to set down a few plain hints, which will be indeed superfluous to most, but may be of some use to those who have not as yet had much experience of examinations, and have only the short period of their course here in which to acquire the proper habits. Avoid untidiness, and be careful as to handwriting. Good handwriting attracts, and bad repels an examiner. Be careful as to spelling, especially in proper names. Bad spelling in proper names—which is too common, not only here, but at the older Universities-has a very unscholarly appearance, and is often due simply to inattention. It is, perhaps, best on the whole to go straight through a paper, beginning at the beginning, and going on with the questions in order. This has a straightforward look which an examiner will like. He will think that there is no attempt to hide weak places, and if there is not time to finish the paper he will assume that the latter part of it could be done as well as the first. Stiīl this rule is not without exceptions. If the time for the paper is short, and some few questions can be done

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thoroughly well, it may be safest to make sure of them. In writing the answers go straight to the point. Look steadily at the question to see precisely what is asked for, and answer it, avoiding irrelevant matter. Roundabout phrases and formal introductions are not necessary, and some abruptness of style will be pardoned. Pack as many facts into a sentence as possible, and let them be definite and precise. Eschew vague and wordy generalities, and especially eschew sermonising. An examiner does not care for platitudes which do not help him to gauge the knowledge of the candidates. In most examination papers on the Greek Testament there will be found a number of short passages to “translate, with brief notes.' These brief notes' are frequently a pitfall to those who are being examined. They are apt to resolve themselves into an aimless kind of paraphrase, which merely gives the sense of the Greek in other words, and does not throw any light upon the original. Most commonly such notes are intended to be grammatical on some difficulty of construction or meaning in the sentence. Sometimes they have to do with peculiar senses or uses of words, and sometimes with historical or critical difficulties. In any case they are intended to be something definite and real. There is often a strong temptation to bring into an answer knowledge which is not asked for. The temptation should be resisted, because the knowledge so given will be thrown away. The examiner will simply strike his pencil through it as irrelevant. Do not treat some one or two questions at inordinate length. The style of answering questions should be as terse and pointed as possible. If it can be slightly epigrammatic, so much the better. But avoid straining after effect and declamation of all kinds. Do not use the first person ('I think,' &c.). Say rather, ‘it may be thought,'or, ‘it may be said. This is more modest. Also be careful not to quote living persons or authorities for what is stated.

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