Page images
[ocr errors]

Chrysostom on the Priesthood, or his Homilies on St. Matthew. The portions of Latin writers are generally Tertullian's Apology, Minucius Felix ; Augustin de Doctrina Christiana, or some of the De Civitate Dei; Bede's History; Anselm's Cur Deus Homo. The examination in the above is directed to ascertain whether the students can really translate and explain the author, and have mastered the contents in themselves and in their historical and doctrinal perspective.

It is hardly necessary to add that several other branches of Theology (e.g., Pastoral) have not been mentioned here; because they do not enter into the examinations, though not omitted in the course of study pursued by our students.

The following is a summary list of the books which the student should, if possible, possess :

For Advanced Students. Alford's Greek Testament

Rivington's. Vol. I.The Four Gospels

28s. II.-Acts to II. Corinthians

24s. III.-Galatians to Philemon

18s. IV.-Hebrews to Revelation

32s. The Speaker's Commentary

New Testament.
Vol. II.-St. John and Acts

20s. Lightfoot. —Galatians

Macmillan. 12s.

Colossians and Philemon

12s. Ellicott. Ephesians

Longmans. 8s. 6d. Philippians, Colossians,

10s. 6d. and Philemon Vaughan.-Romans

Macmillan. 7s. 6d. or *Moule. Romans

Cambridge Press. 2s. 6d. Scrivener.-Novum Testamentur ... Deighton, Bell, & Co. 4s. 6d. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible Murray. Large Edition

£5 5s. or *Concise Edition



*Maclear's Classbook of Old Testament. History

Macmillan. 4s. 6d. ... {

W. and A. K. / * Scripture Atlas

28. 6d. Johnstone

or Is. *Smith's Student's Manual of Ecclesiastical History

} Murray.

7s.6d. *Perry's English Church History

78. 6d. and Robertson's History of the Christian Church

Murray. 8 vols., 6s. each..



Schaff's History of the Christian Church. T. and T. Clark.
Harold . Browne.—Exposition of the

Longmans. 16s.
Thirty-nine Articles
Procter.--History of the Book of

Common Prayer

10s. 6d. Hammond.Outlines of Textual

Clarendon Press. 3s. 6d.
Winer's Grammar of New Testament

T. and T. Clark. 158.

For Backward Students.

Those books marked (*) above, and, in addition :White's Grammar School Tests

The Pour Gospels

The Acts

ls. 6d. Boultbee. - Commentary on the Thirty-nine Articles. Procter. --Elementary History of the Book of Common Prayer.

Macmillan. 28. 6d.
In Hebrew the Text-books are :-
Davidson.Hebrew Grammar. T. and T. Clark.
Baer and Delitzsch.Hebrew Text of Genesis.
Jennings and Lowe. - Psalms.

IV. ADVICE AS TO READING AND EXAMINATIONS. We will take the New Testament first, as the more important and most difficult subject. A somewhat different method will be found advisable in reading the Gospels and the Epistles.

In reading the Gospels, it will be a good plan before taking up the Greek to read through somewhat cursorily a book such as Bishop Ellicott's

Hulsean Lectures, glancing - but as yet only

glancing—at the notes as well as the text. This will give some conception of the history taken as a whole, and will also shew the kind of points to which special attention should be paid. The process need not, of course, be repeated with each Gospel, but should be taken as a kind of preliminary to the study of the Gospels generally. The part relating to the characteristics of the particular Gospel to be studied should be noted especially. It will constantly receive illustration from the study of the text.

The Greek text itself should then be carefully and thoroughly read. This will usually be done in preparation for lecture. The student should endeavour to make it out for himself as well as he can without using a translation. Where difficulties arise it is better to have recourse to a commentary than a translation. In dealing with difficulties two things should be observed. (1) Apply the rules of grammar rigidly. Break up the sentence into its parts. Determine precisely which is subject, which object; which primary object and which secondary object; how much protasis and how much apodosis, and so on. Isolate these several portions, and go through them systematically, assigning to words—and especially to particlestheir fixed meanings. (2) When this has been done, hold the passage, as it were, at arm's length, to see how it looks when taken with the context. If it still does not seem to yield an intelligible sense, the commentary should be consulted. For this systematic combination of minute verbal exactness with broad general exegesis, a quite ideal book is Canon Westcott's St. John.

Much may be done in getting up a book by judicious marking. Marking is a means of economising study. It brings out the salient points which need special attention. The advantage of it will be seen especially at the end of the student's

career, when the examination approaches and his time is short. It is impossible for him to go over the whole of his books, but he can run through these salient points in a month or a fortnight's time, and so have the threads of his subjects well in hand. It is a good plan to have two marked copies in use-one for common use in lectures and in preparations, and another clean copy, to contain only the most select and deliberate markings. A backward scholar had better not mark at all the first time of reading. He will have to mark so much as to be really of no value to him, and the marking is sure to bear no relation to the real difficulties. Few men can be trusted to find out these for themselves. In what has been called "deliberate marking" assistance should be sought. Attention should be paid to the points most insisted on by the lecturer, and to those which are dealt with most, elaborately in the commentaries. Old examination papers may also be consulted with advantage, and not only papers set in Durham, but those set elsewhere. The passages thus set should be carefully read up in the commentary, and care should be taken to find out the exact point in which the difficulty consists. It is well to use different colours in marking--whether with a pencil or ink; e.g., black for difficulties of translation or meaning, red for difficulties of grammar and parsing, blue for critical difficulties-difficulties, that is, as to the reading of the text, or difficulties in connection with the historical questions raised by it. These last points may be noted by a cross or line in the margin. The kind of points to be noticed in studying the Gospel will be -(1) evidence, internal and external, as to authorship, (2) the life of the author, (3) object of the Gospel, (4) readers for whom it was intended, (5) place and date of composition, (6) special circumstances, e.g., in regard to St. Matthew's Gospel, the language in which it was written, in regard to St. Luke's, its


[ocr errors]

relation to the Acts, in regard to all the first three Gospels, their relation to each other. These points will all belong to the Prolegomena, or Introduction, but facts bearing upon some of these may be noted, from time to time, in reading the text. Passing on to the study of this, there will be—(7) difficulties of translation, (8) meaning and peculiar use of words, (9) peculiarities of grammar, peculiar constructions and forms, (10) historical difficulties, (11) political state of Palestine under the Romans, dynasty of the Herods, &c., (12) ecclesiastical condition, and parties — Pharisees, Sadducees, Herodians, (13) mode of conducting the services in the Synagogues, Temple, constitution of the Sanhedrin, &c., (14) religious archæology, e.g., phylacteries, corban, &c., (15) outlines of chronology, and principal passages bearing on the chronology, e.g., Luke ii. 2, iii. 1, 2, and the mention of the different feasts in St. John, (16) geography and topography, the divisions of Palestine, and the places mentioned, (17) comparison of the Gospeīs with each other, and their general harmony, (18) parables, classification and meaning, (19) miracles, their classification and significance, (20) questions of text.

The great majority of these points there can be no hope of studying at all thoroughly during the short period of reading for the Licence. Here again it is best to try to seize just the few salient points in each. The student must learn to economise and to condense. He cannot think of getting up the whole Chronology, but he may work up a few main points ; he cannot think of getting up

the whole Harmony of the Gospels, but he may learn the outline of the relations between the first four chapters of St. John and the Synoptics, and the few main points about the date of the Crucifixion; he cannot be expected to work up even a tithe of the various readings in the text, but he may get up some six or eight of the most important in each Gospel. A good scholar may do more in this way,

« PreviousContinue »